ALTTC/BB Faculty 1

ALTTC/BB Faculty 2
Contents
• Circuit Switching v/s Packet switching
• Logical Channel v/s Physical channel
• Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
• Connectionless and Connection Oriented
Data Communications
ALTTC/BB Faculty 3
Switching Methods
Switching
Circuit Switching
Message Switching
Packet Switching
Datagram Approach
Virtual Circuit Approach
SVC PVC
ALTTC/BB Faculty 4
Circuit Switching
A
B
C
D
S A S
Direction of transmission
Physical Channels (Time Slots)
B C D A B C D A
B C D C A B D
ALTTC/BB Faculty 5
- - - - -
Circuit Switching
A
B
C
D
S A S
Direction of transmission
Inefficient Utilization of media
- - - A - - - A
A -
ALTTC/BB Faculty 6
All Communications are bursty
Time
D
A
T
A
Request for some
website home page
Data transfer
from the web site
ALTTC/BB Faculty 7
Message Switching
• Store and Forward technique
• Send the message to next node
• Next node stores it in memory
• It takes a decision about the next hop closer to
destination
• Forwards it to next hop when link to the next hop
is available and next node is ready to receive it
• Next hop repeats the same process
• Message finally reaches its destination node






ALTTC/BB Faculty 8
Message Switching
A
B
D
E
Store & Forward
Store & Forward
Store & Forward
Store & Forward
M1
M1
M1
M
1

M2
M2
ALTTC/BB Faculty 9
Message Switching
• Messages are bigger in size
• Storage and processing requires more resources
• Sometimes nodes may not have sufficient
resources
• Messages remain stored in memory of a node for
longer period
• Entire process becomes slow
• Error will require full message to be retransmitted
• Suitable for services like Telegraphs etc
• Not suitable for fast modern networks
ALTTC/BB Faculty 10
Evolution of Packet switching
• Break the message into smaller packets
• Transmit the packets hop by hop to destination
• Destination reassembles packets into original
message
• Requires less resources at nodes
• Process becomes faster compared to message
switching
• Error requires only retransmission of errored
packet not the full message
ALTTC/BB Faculty 11
Packet Switching: Statistical
Multiplexing
A
B
C
D
A
Direction of transmission
Virtual Channels
No Physical channel like a Time Slot
B D
A B D
ALTTC/BB Faculty 12
Packet Switching
• Allot Bandwidth on Demand
• Buffer Data and allow bandwidth to only
those hosts which have data to transmit.
• To the data, add some delimiters to indicate
end of data transmitted by a particular host.
• Add some tags (addresses or channel
identifiers) to indicate the sender.
ALTTC/BB Faculty 13
Packet Switching
A
B
C
D
A B D
Direction of transmission
FFFFFF101010CF001010101110BF101111011AF
F: A flag to delimit the data transmitted by one host
F F F FFFFFF
A, B, C: Identifier for the transmitting host
(Address or Virtual channel no.)
C B A
ALTTC/BB Faculty 14
Packet Switching
A
B
C
D
A C
Direction of transmission
FFFFFF101010CF00101010111010101111011AF
C is denied the opportunity to transmit
ALTTC/BB Faculty 15
FFFFFF101010CF00101010111010101111011AF
Packet Switching
A
B
C
D
A C
Direction of transmission
The whole data for A is retransmitted
1
1
1
1
1
ALTTC/BB Faculty 16
FFFFFF101010CF00101010111010101111011AF
Packet Switching
A
B
C
D
A C
Direction of transmission
Solution is break data into small blocks
PACKETS
ALTTC/BB Faculty 17
Packet Switching Techniques
• Connection Oriented
– End to end path is setup before any data communication
happens
– Every packet need not carry the destination address
– Destination address is send to the network only once
during the call setup process
• Connectionless
– Path setup is not required. Drop the packet in network
and network takes it to destination
– Every packet should must carry the source and
destination address
– Every packet is examined independently by the nodes
for its routing
ALTTC/BB Faculty 18
Connection Oriented Data
Communications
• A path is established before actual data transfer.
• All packets take the same path.
• Routing decision is taken before actual data transfer.
• Actual data packets contains the routing labels.
• All packets follow the same path
• Packets reach its destination in sequence
• Disruption in communication if link fails during data
transfer.
• Quality of service can be guaranteed.
• Example X.25, Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer
Mode(ATM).
ALTTC/BB Faculty 19
Connection Oriented Data
Communications
.



I/C O/G
P CHL P CHL
1 5 3 7
.



I/C O/G
P CHL P CHL
2 7 5 20
.



I/C O/G
P CHL P CHL
1 20 2 49
.



I/C O/G
P CHL P CHL
1 49 3 35
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
1
2
3
ALTTC/BB Faculty 20
1001010110F010101001F
Virtual Channel
Connect B Chl No.1
Connect C Chl No.2
Routing Table
I/c O/g
P Chl P Chl




A
C
B
A
B
C
A 1 B x
y C 2 A
F F 01 10
ALTTC/BB Faculty 21
Permanent Virtual Circuit-PVC
4 3 2 1
2 1
2 1
1 2 3 4
ALTTC/BB Faculty 22
Switched Virtual Circuit-SVC
4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4
2 1
2 1
ALTTC/BB Faculty 23
Connectionless Data Communications
• A path is not established before actual data transfer.
• All packets do not take the same path
• Routing decision is taken on the arrival of every packet at
every node.
• Every packet contains the full destination address.
• No disruption in communication if link fails during data
transfer and an alternate path exists.
• Quality of service is not guaranteed.
• Packet can follow different path
• Packet can arrive out of sequence at destination
• Example Internet
ALTTC/BB Faculty 24
Connectionless Data Communications
Packet 1
Packet 2
Routing Table
Dest. Next Hop



ALTTC/BB Faculty 25
Datagram Approach
1
2
4
3
2
2
4
1
3
4
1
1
1
3
1
4
4 3 2 1
2 1
1 4 3 2
3
1
1 2
2
4
2
ALTTC/BB Faculty 26