NUR SAKINAH BINTI ZULKARNAIAN

NORAIN BINTI CHE ALI @ BAHARI
HAJAR SAKINAH BINTI YAHYA
NORHAFIZAH BINTI ABD RASHID
QURRATU AINI BINTI CHE MANSOR
ARIEL LIBAU ANAK EKOM
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

BASIC RESEARCH APPLIED RESEARCH ACTION RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
EVALUATION
RESEARCH
PURPOSE OF THE
APPROACH
STRENGTH OF THE
APPROACH
WEAKNESS OF THE
APPROACH
Research carried out to
increase understanding of
fundamental principles.




It is not intended to yield
immediate commercial
benefits.




Can be thought of as arising
out of curiosity.

Advances fundamental
knowledge about the human
world.
Not intended to yield
immediate commercial
benefits.
Generates new ideas,
principles and theories
May not be immediately
utilized
Usually carried on in a
laboratory situation instead
of in real life situation.
Example:
Humanistic approach
Example:
Language board game
BASIC RESEARCH
PURPOSES STRENGHT WEAKNESESS
• solve practical
problems of the
modern world, rather
than to acquire
knowledge for
knowledge's sake.
• Develop
generalisation on T&L
process and
instructional materials.
• Answer real-world
problems
• Directly useful to
practitioners

• Impossible to use
random sample
• Need basic research
as a foundation
• Need market
research and public
opinion

APPLIED RESEARCH
Action research is a process of systematic inquiry
that seeks to improve social issues affecting the
lives of everyday people (Bogdan & Bilken, 1992;
Lewin, 1938; 1946; Stringer, 2008).
Purposes of Action Research
1. To solve an educational problem;
2. To help educators reflect on their own
practices
3. To address school-wide problems
4. When teachers want to improve their
practices

Strengths of Action Research
• Building the reflective practitioner
• Making progress on educational priorities
• Building Professional Cultures
• Facilitates teacher authorization and
motivation
• Provides practitioners with new knowledge
and understanding about how to improve
educational practices or resolve significant
problems in classrooms and schools


Limitations of Action Research
• Lack of time
• Validity as research
• Unfamiliarity with research methods
• Action research produces results which are
not generalizable
• Representations of the process of action
research may confuse, rather than enlighten

Quantitative research
Purpose Strength Weaknesses

• To qualify data and
generalise results from
a sample to the
population of interest
• To measure the
incidence of various
views and opinions in a
chosen sample
• Sometimes followed by
qualitative research
which is used to
explore some finding
further
• Provide precise,
quantitative, numerical
data
• Data analysis is
relatively less time
consuming
• It is useful for studying
large number of
people.
• The researcher’s
categories / theories
that are used might not
reflect local
constituencies’
understanding
• Researcher might miss
out on phenomena
occurring (too focus on
theory / hypothesis
generation)
• Knowledge produced
might be too abstract
EXPERIMENTAL
QUASI-
EXPERIMENTAL
SURVEY CORRELATION
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Research type Purposes Strengths Weaknesses
EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
1) To predict and
control the
phenomena.
2) To examine
probability and
causality among
selected
variables.

1) Objective,
systematic and
controlled
investigation.
1) Can impose
artificiality on
the situation.
2) May be able to
tell that one
method of
instruction is
better than
conventional
practice.

QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
• The prefix “quasi” means, in essence, “sort
of.”
• So a quasi-experiment is a “sort of”
experiment. Specifically, a quasi-experiment is
a study that includes a manipulated
independent variable but lacks important
controls (e.g., random assignment), or a study
that lacks a manipulated independent variable
but includes important controls.
Purposes of QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN
1. frequently used when it is not logistically
possible or ethical to conduct a randomized
controlled trial
2. offer the most clear-cut route to testing
hypotheses about causes and effects.


Strengths of
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
• is more reasonable, given the typical time and
logistical constraint
• tend to present the situation under
investigation in real-world conditions,
increasing the external validity

Limitations of
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
• Lack of random assignment (without random
assignment, internal validity is reduced, and
causal claims become quite difficult to make)
• Increased potential for bias associated with
sampling

• https://otl.curtin.edu.au/professional_develo
pment/conferences/tlf/tlf2013/refereed/hine.
html
• http://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resined/acti
onresearch/arhome.htm#LIMITATIONS AND
CRITICISMS OF ACTION RESEARCH
Survey research
Purpose Strength Weaknesses
1. Observe with close
analysis the population
bounded by the
research parameters;
2. Make a careful record of
what they observe so
that when the aggregate
record is made, the
researchers can then
return to the record to
study the observations
that have been
described there.
1. Simple in design.
-a common approach,
used with more or less
sophistication in many
areas of human
activity.
2. Because of its frequent
use the survey is any less
demanding in its design
requirements.

3. Easier for the researcher
to conduct.

4. Capable of collecting data
from a large number
of respondents.

1. Respondents may not
feel encouraged to
provide accurate, honest
answers.
2. Surveys with closed-
ended questions may
have a lower validity
rate than other question
types.
3. Answer options could
lead to unclear data
because certain answer
options may be
interpreted differently
by respondents.

Correlation research
Purpose Strength Weaknesses
1. Explain important
human behaviour or
predict likely outcomes
(identify relationship
among variables)
2. Investigates a range of
factors, including the
nature of the
relationship between
two or more variables
and the theoretical
model that might be
developed and tested to
explain these resultant
correlations.
3. Can only enable the
researcher to make
weak causal inferences
at best.
1. Quick and easy way to
see the relationship of
two variables are worth
exploring further.
2. Simple and objective
way to describe the
strength of relationship
between two variables.
Expressing it as a precise
number makes it clear
and easy to understand.

1. Correlation do not equal
causation. It is
impossible to claim that
one co variable actually
causes the other co
variable, as it could be
that a third unknown
variable (a mediating
variable).
2. correlation can be
misused. other than that
a relationship exists, it is
very difficult to make
accurate conclusions
about the causes of the
relationship.
Qualitative research
Purpose Strength Weaknesses
1. Gain a deep
understanding of a
specific organization or
event, rather a than
surface description of a
large sample of a
population.
2. Investigation that :
-seeks answers to a
question.
-collect evidences
-produced findings that
were not determined in
advance.


1. Can conduct cross-case
comparisons and
analysis.
2. Can describe a rich-
detail information as
they are situated in
local contexts.
3. Responsive to local
situations, conditions
and subject’s needs.
4. Instruments are more
flexible.
1. Knowledge produced
might not generalize to
other people or other
settings.
2. Difficult to make
quantitative
predictions.
3. Takes more time to
collect the data when
compared to
quantitative research.
4. Data analysis is often
time consuming.
PURPOSES STRENGHT WEAKNESESS
Aware what has
happened in the past
-Learn from
mistakes/successes
-Apply to present-day
problems
-Make predictions
•Permits investigation
of topics

•Well suited for trend
analysis

•No possibility of
researcher-subject
interaction
•Bias in interpreting
historical sources

•Time consuming

•Sources may be
problematic

•Lack of control over
external variables
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
PURPOSES STRENGHT WEAKNESESS
1. to attempt to
understand what is
happening naturally
in the setting and to
interpret the data
gathered to see what
implications could be
formed from the
data.
2. To describe, analyze,
and interpret the
culture of a group
over time to
understand the
group’s shared
beliefs, behaviors,
and language
1. Make sense of hidden
meaning – uncover
‘true’ behaviour or
attitudes
2. Provide an in-depth
descriptive account
3. Participant observation
– intensive & extensive
exposure to peoples’
life experiences
4. Interpret and explain
using existing theories
1. Time consuming
2. Difficulties
negotiating access to
research sites
3. Does not provide
straightforward
answers or
quantifiable answers
4. Difficult to generalise
findings from specific
contexts
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
PURPOSES STRENGHT WEAKNESESS
1. To provide a more thorough
analysis of a situation or "case"
(often the story of an
individual) which will reveal
interesting information to the
reader.
2. used in social development to
describe a person’s life. Case
studies often accompany
reports, to give ‘flesh’ to
written reports.
1. Comparatively flexible –
emphasize exploration
rather than prescription
and prediction
2. Inclusive – allows
researchers to begin with
broad questions and try
diff. methods to narrow it
down.
3. Emphasis in context –
specialise in deep data
4. Vividness and concreteness
– carry a powerful
intellectual and emotional
impact on the reader.
1. Inherent subjectivity - can
be stereotyped as the weak
sibling among social
science methods
2. Time consuming — take
time to include different
research methods in order
to get an inclusive case
study
3. High investment
4. Ethical consideration — the
personal integrity,
sensitivity, and possible
prejudices and biases of
the investigators

CASE STUDY
EVALUATION RESEARCH
Research
type
Purposes Strengths Weaknesses
EVALUATION
RESEARCH
1) Evaluating an
event and to
make judgment
about its
usefulness.
2) Providing
legitimacy for
decisions.
3) Testing new
ideas.

1) Can be used to
influence
system design,
development,
and
implementation.
1) Inconsistent
data collection
techniques, bias
of the observer,
the data
collection setting,
behaviour of
human subjects
can affect the
validity and
reliability of
measures.

Research type Purposes Strengths Weaknesses
EVALUATION
RESEARCH
4) Choosing the
best alternatives.
5) Providing
feedback.
6) Highlighting
goals.
2) Incorporate
people, social,
organizational,
ethical, legal, and
economic
considerations into
all phases of a
project.
3) Evaluator can
reach conclusions
with a known degree
of confidence.

2) Evaluators
conducting
quantitative data
analyses will need
to be familiar with
techniques for
summarizing and
describing the
data.