An Introduction to Decision

Support Systems
MIS 533
Information Requirements by
Management Level

Strategic
Management

Tactical
Managemen
t
Operational
Managemen
t
Structured vs. Semi-Structured
For each decision you make, the
decision will fall into one of the
following categories:
– Structured Decisions
– Unstructured
– Semi-Structured

Structured Decisions
Often called “programmed decisions”
because they are routine and there are
usually specific policies, procedures, or
actions that can be identified to help make
the decision
– “This is how we usually solve this type of
problem”
Unstructured Decisions
Decision scenarios that often involve new
or unique problems and the individual has
little or no programmatic or routine
procedure for addressing the problem or
making a decision
Semi-structured Decisions
Decision scenarios that have some
structured components and some
unstructured components.
The Role of the Decision Maker
Decision makers can be
– Individuals
– Teams
– Groups
– Organizations
All of these types of decision makers will
differ in their knowledge and experience;
therefore, there will be differences in how
they will react to a given problem scenario
The Decision Making Process
Regardless of the type of decision
maker, all decisions involve the
following steps
– Intelligence
– Design
– Choice
– Decision
– Implementation
Strategies for Making Decisions
Optimization
Satisficing
Elimination by Aspects
Incrementalism
Mixed Scanning
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Types of Models
Deterministic: linear programming and
production planning
Stochastic: queuing theory and
regression analysis
Simulation: transportation analysis and
production modeling
Domain-specific: meteorological
models, geologic models, economic
models
Conceptual Models
Formal approaches are not always
feasible
Most all problem is always completely new
Decision makers can therefore recall and
combine a variety of past experiences to
create a model of the current situation
The Garbage can approach to decision
making
How can IT be used to
support decision makers?
By supporting various individual and
team activities and roles:
– Communication and team interaction
– The assimilation and filtering of data
– Assist with problem recognition
– Assist with problem solving
– Putting together the results into a cohesive
package
Data is turned into information, but
the decision maker also needs
Knowledge to make decisions
Types of knowledge:
– Descriptive Knowledge
– Procedural Knowledge
– Reasoning Knowledge
Knowledge Management Tools
Text and Forms management
Database and Reporting management
Spreadsheet, Solvers and Charts
management
Programming management.
Rules management
The IS Toolbox
Types of organizational systems
– Transaction Processing Systems
– Management Support Systems
– Decision Support Systems
– Executive Information Systems
A model of a DSS
Knowledge
Management
Decision
Maker
Other
Information
Systems
External and
Internal Data
Data Management
Attribute Data
Model Management
Aspatial Models
Dialog Management
Attribute-Based Queries and Reports
Attribute
Data
Object
Data
A model of a Spatial DSS
Knowledge
Management
Decision
Maker
Other
Information
Systems
External and
Internal Data
Data Management
Attribute Data
Spatial Data
Model Management
Aspatial Models
Spatial Models
Dialog Management
Attribute-Based Queries and Reports
Spatial-Based Queries and Reports
Attribute
Data
Object
Data
Spatial
Data
So, how does a DSS benefit
decision makers
Supplements the decision maker
Allows improved intelligence, decision,
and choice activities
Facilitates problem solving
Provides assistance with non-structures
decisions
Assists with knowledge management
Specific DSS Technologies
Expert Systems
Executive Information Systems
Management Support Systems
Communication Support Systems
– Group DSS
Personal Support System