1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
OFDMA
LTE Air Interface Course
3 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

4 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Air Interface Main Issues

UE 1
UE 2
UE 3
Air Interface
UE
eNodeB
1. Duplex
Transmission
2. Multiple
Access
eNodeB
eNodeB
5 © Nokia Siemens Networks
LTE FDD and TDD Modes
Uplink Downlink
Bandwidth
up to 20MHz
Duplex Frequency
f
t
Bandwidth
up to 20MHz
Guard
Period
f
t
Uplink
Downlink
Bandwidth
up to 20MHz
6 © Nokia Siemens Networks
In FDD, DL & UL use different bands with the same bandwidth
• => DL throughput = UL throughput
• What happens if throughput requirements are different for DL and UL?

• Potential solution: Use different bandwidth for DL & UL?

• Hard to manage frequency bands in this case

• Simpler solution
• DL & UL are duplexed in time rather than in frequency => TDD (Time Division
Duplexing)
• DL & UL share the same bandwidth
• DL and UL are active in different subframes

TDD vs. FDD (1/2)
7 © Nokia Siemens Networks
TDD vs. FDD (2/2)

Downlink Downlink
Uplink
Uplink
FDD
TDD
Time
Frequency
Throughput
DL
DL
UL
UL
Only this is
needed
Wasted
We get what we need
Downlink
throughput is also
affected
8 © Nokia Siemens Networks
RF FDD architecture









Duplex filters for each Tx and Rx path
Circulator has the role of separating DL & UL waves
• It must exhibit great isolation properties, so that Tx signal does not leak
into Rx path

Power
amplifier
Low-Noise
amplifier
TX
RX
TX Duplex Filter
RX Duplex Filter
9 © Nokia Siemens Networks
RF TDD architecture









Duplexer must switch between Tx and Rx paths
• Switching driving signal must be accurate
• Good timing control of the signal

Power
amplifier
Low-Noise
amplifier
TX
RX
Channel Filter
Channel Filter
TX
RX
Duplexer
10 © Nokia Siemens Networks
FDD and TDD Modes Comparison

FDD and TDD mode included
together in the same
specification

Same radio interface schemes
for both uplink and downlink
(OFDM and SC-FDMA)

Same subframe formats

Same network architecture

Same air interface protocols

Same physical channels
procedures


FDD and TDD modes Harmonisation
(commonalities)
In LTE there is a high degree
of harmonisation between
FDD and TDD modes
1. Spectrum Allocation:
TDD is using the same frequency bands for
both UL and DL
→ FDD requires a paired spectrum with
duplex separation in frequency
→TDD requires an unpaired spectrum with
some guard bands in time to separate
UL and DL


2. UE complexity:
In FDD the UE is requiring an duplex filter
(for UL – DL separation)
In TDD the filter is not needed
→ Lower complexity for TDD terminals



FDD and TDD modes differences
regarding the air interface
11 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Multiple Access

1 2 3 4 5
2
1
2
3
4
5
4 2
1
2
3
4
5
3
1
1
5
5
3
3
2
4
1
P
o
w
e
r

Frequency
TDMA
Time Division
Multiple Access,
2G e.g. GSM,
PDC
FDMA
Frequency Division
Multiple Access
1G e.g. AMPS,
NMT, TACS
CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access
3G e.g. UMTS,
CDMA2000
1 2 3
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3 4 UE 4 UE 5 5
OFDMA
Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiple Access
e.g. LTE
12 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Multiple Access
• In LTE OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access it is
used in the Downlink

• In the UL SC-FDMA = Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
Access it is used

• OFDMA and SC-FDMA will be used for both FDD and TDD Modes!

• Approach for the explanation:
• First OFDM as technology will be explained (for single user case)
• Second it is shown how OFDM could be used to separate users

• UL SC-FDMA will be explained in the next chapter
13 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

14 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Challenges for the Air Interface Design
For the LTE Air Interface design it should be considered a trade-off
between the following factors (based on the LTE requirements):

1. What should be the required radio spectrum ?

2. Speed of data transmission (bit rate as high as possible)

3. Complexity of implementation (as small as possible)

→ How could it be realised ?

Solution: use the rectangular pulse shape
(see next slide)
15 © Nokia Siemens Networks
The Rectangular Pulse
Advantages:
+ Simple to implement: there is no complex filter
system required to detect such pulses and to
generate them.
+ The pulse has a clearly defined duration. This is
a major advantage in case of multi-path
propagation environments as it simplifies handling
of inter-symbol interference.
Disadvantage:
- it allocates a quite huge spectrum. However the
spectral power density has null points exactly at
multiples of the frequency fs = 1/Ts. This will be
important in OFDM.
time
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

T
s


f
s

1
T
s
Time Domain
frequency f/f
s

s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

p
o
w
e
r

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

Frequency Domain
f
s

Fourier
Transform
Inverse
Fourier
Transform
16 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Fourier Transform
Inverse
Fourier Transform
Time Domain
Frequency Domain

W 
1
T
c
T
c
F
c
1.3 * W
Pulse Form and Spectrum in WCDMA
As a counter example look at the root
raised cosine roll off pulse that is used in
WCDMA. As one can see this pulse is not
clearly located in the time domain.
So if we put two such pulses one after
another, there will be always some
interference from the first to the second.
On the other hand the spectrum of these
pulses is concentrated in a clearly defined
frequency band.
17 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Basics
• Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated radio signals
using orthogonal subcarriers spread across a wideband channel
Orthogonality:
The peak ( centre
frequency) of one
subcarrier …
…intercepts the
‘nulls’ of the
neighbouring
subcarriers
15 kHz in LTE: fixed
Total transmission bandwidth
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Basics
• Data is sent in parallel across the set of subcarriers, each subcarrier only transports a
part of the whole transmission
• The throughput is the sum of the data rates of each individual (or used) subcarriers while
the power is distributed to all used subcarriers
• FFT ( Fast Fourier Transform) is used to create the orthogonal subcarriers. The number
of subcarriers is determined by the FFT size ( by the bandwidth)
Power
frequency
bandwidth
19 © Nokia Siemens Networks
The OFDM Signal
20 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will be
used

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects like e.g.
Doppler

→ What should be the solutions to these challenges?
(see next slides)

21 © Nokia Siemens Networks
1. Multi-Path Propagation and Inter-Symbol
Interference
1. Inter Symbol Interference
BTS
Time 0 Ts
+
Time 0 Tt Ts+Tt
Tt
22 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Multi-Path Propagation and the Guard Period
2
time
T
SYMBOL

Time Domain
1
3
time
T
SYMBOL

time
T
SYMBOL

T
g

1
2
3
Guard Period (GP)
Guard Period (GP)
Guard Period (GP)
23 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Obviously when
the delay spread
of the multi-path
environment is
greater than the
guard period
duration (Tg), then
we encounter
inter-symbol
interference (ISI)
Propagation Delay Exceeding the Guard Period
1
2
3
4
time
T
SYMBOL

Time Domain
time
time
T
g

1
2
3
time
4
24 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Cyclic Prefix

symbol CP
time
T
symb

1
2
3
1
2
3
T
cp

symbol CP symbol CP
symbol CP symbol CP symbol CP
symbol CP symbol CP symbol CP
25 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Cyclic Prefix
T [T
S
] 160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048
T [µs] 5,2 66,7 4,7 66,7 4,7 66,7 4,7 66,7 4,7 66,7 4,7 66,7 4,7 66,7
max. delay [km] 1,6 1,4 1,4 1,4 1,4 1,4 1,4
T [T
S
] 512 2048 512 2048 512 2048 512 2048 512 2048 512 2048
T [µs] 16,7 66,7 16,7 66,7 16,7 66,7 16,7 66,7 16,7 66,7 16,7 66,7
max. delay [km] 5,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 5,0 5,0
In LTE the slot of 500 µs is subdivided in the (useful part of the) symbol
(grey) and CPs as follows:
For the extended CP slot structure the overall 500 µs is kept but the number
of symbols is reduced in order to extent the cyclic prefix durations:
26 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation → solution: use cyclic prefix

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will be
used

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects like
e.g. Doppler

→ What should be the solutions to these challenges?
(see next slides)

27 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Multi-Carrier Modulation
The center frequencies must be spaced so that interference between
different carriers, known as Adjacent Carrier Interference ACI, is
minimized; but not too much spaced as the total bandwidth will be
wasted.
Each carrier uses an upper and lower guard band to protect itself from its
adjacent carriers. Nevertheless, there will always be some interference
between the adjacent carriers.
frequency
∆f
subcarrier

f
0

f
1
f
2
f
N-1
f
N-2

∆f
sub-used

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
28 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi-Carrier
OFDM allows a tight packing of small carrier - called the subcarriers - into
a given frequency band.
No ACI (Adjacent Carrier Interference) in OFDM
due to the orthogonal subcarriers !
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Frequency (f/fs) Frequency (f/fs)
Saved
Bandwidth
29 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation → solution: use cyclic prefix

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will be
used
→ solution: orthogonal subcarriers
3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects like
e.g. Doppler

→ What should be the solutions to these challenges?
(see next slides)

30 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) in OFDM
•The price for the optimum subcarrier spacing is the sensitivity of OFDM to
frequency errors.
•If the receiver’s frequency slips some fractions from the subcarriers center
frequencies, then we encounter not only interference between adjacent carriers,
but in principle between all carriers.
•This is known as Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) and sometimes also referred to
as Leakage Effect in the theory of discrete Fourier transform.
• One possible cause that introduces frequency errors is a fast moving Transmitter
or Receiver (Doppler effect).
31 © Nokia Siemens Networks
f
0
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4

∆P
I
3

I
1

I
4

I
0

3
.

I
C
I

=

I
n
t
e
r
-
C
a
r
r
i
e
r

I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

Leakage Effect due to Frequency Drift: ICI

Two effects begin to work:
1.-Subcarrier 2 has no longer its
power density maximum here - so
we loose some signal energy.

2.-The rest of subcarriers (0, 1, 3
and 4) have no longer a null point
here. So we get some noise from
the other subcarrier.
32 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Challenges for the Air Interface Design

The usage of the pulse leads to other challenges to be solved:

1. ISI = Intersymbol Interference
Due to multipath propagation → solution: use cyclic prefix

2. ACI = Adjacent Carrier Interference
Due to the fact that FDM = frequency division multiplexing will be
used
→ solution: orthogonal subcarriers

3. ICI = Intercarrier Interference
Losing orthogonality between subcarriers because of effects like
e.g. Doppler
→ solution: use reference signals – will be explained in chapter 7



33 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

34 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Low
Pass
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
I
Q
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


Binary
Coded
Data
.
.
.
D

A
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
freq.
f
1
f
2
f
0
f
N-1


s
0

s
1

s
N-1

s
2

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

time
t
1
t
2
t
0
t
N-1


x
0
x
1

x
N-1

x
2

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
OFDM Transmitter
Time Domain Signal
Frequency Domain Signal:
(Collection of Sinusoids)
•Each entry to the IFFT module
corresponds to a different sub-
carrier
•Each sub-carrier is modulated
independently
•Modulation Schemes:
•BPSK,QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
35 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

36 © Nokia Siemens Networks
reference
(pilot)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

C
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
e
m
o
d
u
l
a
t
o
r

Bit Mapping
j
I
Q
A

D
Channel
Estimation
RF
L
o
w

N
o
i
s
e

A
m
p
.

+

B
a
n
d
p
a
s
s

A

D
AGC
Automatic
Gain Control
De-
rotator
s
i
g
n
a
l

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

LNA gain
Frequency And Timing Sync
s
i
g
n
a
l

a
u
t
o
c
o
r
r
e
a
t
i
o
n

p
h
a
s
e

c
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

t
i
m
e
e

a
d
j
u
s
t

.
.
.
s’
0

s’
1

s’
N-1

c
h
a
n
n
e
l

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

s
0

Bit Mapping
s
1

Bit Mapping
s
N-1

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
B
10 ,
B
11
,…

B
20 ,
B
21
,…

B
N-1 0


B
i
t

D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

Soft Bit
Coded
Data
freq.
f
1
f
2
f
0
f
N-1


s
0

s
1

s
N-1

s
2

Frequency Domain
Time Domain
time
t
1
t
2
t
0
t
N-1


y
0
y
1

y
N-1

x
2

QPSK
Im
Re
10
11
00
01
s
k

d11
d10
OFDM Receiver
W
i
n
d
o
w
i
n
g

+

F
F
T

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

37 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

38 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Key Parameters
2. Subcarrier Spacing (Δf = 15 KHz)
→ The Symbol time is
Tsymbol = 1/ Δf = 66,7μs
Δf
A compromise needed between:
→ Δf as small as possibile so that the
symbol time Tsymbol is as large as
possibile.
This is beneficial to solve Intersymbol
Interference in time domain
→ A too small subcarrier spacing it is
increasing the ICI = Intercarrier
Interference due to Doppler effect
T
SYMBOL

T
CP
SYMBOL
T
CP

T
S
Frequency
Time
Power
density
Amplitude
1. Variable Bandwidth (BW)
Bandwidth options: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz
Frequency
A higher Bandwidth is better because
a higher peak data rate could be
achived and also bigger capacity.
Also the physical layer overhead is
lower for higher bandwidth
39 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Key Parameters

3. The number of Subcarriers Nc
→ Nc x Δf = BW
In LTE not all the available channel bandwidth (e.g. 20 MHz) will be used. For the transmission
bandwidth typically 10% guard band is considered (to avoid the out band emissions).
If BW = 20MHz → Transmission BW = 20MHz – 2MHz = 18 MHz
→ the number of subcarriers Nc = 18MHz/15KHz = 1200 subcarriers

Transmission
Bandwidth [RB]
Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB]
Channel Bandwidth [MHz]
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e

b
l
o
c
k

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

e
d
g
e

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

e
d
g
e

DC carrier (downlink only)
Active Resource Blocks
40 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Key Parameters

4. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) size Nfft
Nfft should be chosen so that:
1. Nfft > Nc number of subcarriers (sampling theorem)
2. Should be a power of 2 (to speed-up the FFT operation)
Therefore for a bandwidth BW = 20 MHz → Nc = 1200 subcarriers not a power of 2
→ The next power of 2 is 2048 → the rest 2048 -1200 = 848 padded with zeros
5. Sampling rate fs
This parameter indicates what is the sampling frequency:
→ fs = Nfft x Δf
Example: for a bandwidth BW = 5 MHz (with 10% guard band)
The number of subcarriers Nc = 4.5 MHz/ 15 KHz = 300
300 is not a power of 2 → next power of 2 is 512 → Nfft = 512
Fs = 512 x 15 KHz = 7,68 MHz → fs = 2 x 3,84 MHz which is the chip rate in UMTS!!

The sampling rate is a multiple of the chip rate
from UMTS/ HSPA. This was acomplished because the
subcarriers spacing is 15 KHz. This means UMTS and LTE
have the same clock timing!
41 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Resource Block and Resource Element

– 12 subcarriers in frequency domain x 1 slot period in time domain.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Subcarrier 1
Subcarrier 12
1
8
0

K
H
z

1 slot 1 slot
1 ms subframe
• Capacity allocation is based on
Resource Blocks
• Resource Element ( RE):
– 1 subcarrier x 1 symbol period
– Theoretical minimum capacity
allocation unit.
– 1 RE is the equivalent of 1
modulation symbol on a
subcarrier, i.e. 2 bits for QPSK,
4 bits for 16QAM and 6 bits for
64QAM.
Resource
Element
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Physical Resource Block or Resource Block (PRB or RB)
42 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Bandwidth
(N
C
×Δf)
1.4 MH 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
Subcarrier Fixed to 15 kHz (7.5kHz defined for MBMS)
Spacing (Δf)
Symbol T
symbol
= 1/Δf = 1/15kHz = 66.67μs
duration
Sampling rate,
f
S
(MHz)
1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72
Data
Subcarriers (N
C
)
72 180 300 600 900 1200
N
IFFT

(IFFT Length)
128 320 512 1024 1536 2048
Number of
Resource Blocks
6 15 25 50 75 100
Symbols/slot Normal CP=7; extended CP=6
CP length Normal CP=4.69/5.12μsec., Extended CP= 16.67μsec
43 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

44 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Data Rate Calculation

1. Maximum channel data rate
The maximum channel data rate is calculated taking into account the total number of the
available resource blocks in 1 TTI = 1ms
Max Data Rate = Number of Resource Blocks x 12 subcarriers x (14 symbols/ 1ms)
= Number of Resouce Blocks x (168 symbols/1ms)
2. Impact of the Channel Bandwith: 5, 10, 20 MHz
For BW = 5MHz -> there are 25 Resource Blocks
-> Max Data Rate = 25 x (168 symbols/1ms) = 4,2 * Msymbols/s
BW = 10MHz -> 50 Resource Blocks -> Max Data Rate = 8,4 Msymbols/s
BW = 20MHz -> 100 Resource Blocks -> Max Data Rate =16,8 Msymbols/s
3. Impact of the Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
For QPSK – 2bits/symbol; 16QAM – 4bits/symbol; 64QAM – 6 bits/symbol
QPSK: Max Data Rate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 2bits/symbol = 32,8 Mbits/s (bandwith of 20 MHz)
16QAM: Max Data Rate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 4 bits/symbols = 65,6 Mbits/s
64QAM: Max Data Rate = 16,4 Msymbols/s * 6 bits/symbols = 98,4 Mbits/s
45 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Data Rate Calculation

4. Impact of the Channel Coding
Channel Coding will be discussed in chapter 6. In LTE Turbo coding of rate 1/3 will be used.
The effective coding rate is dependent on the Modulation and Coding Scheme selected by the
scheduler in the eNodeB. In practice several coding rates can be obtained. Here it is considered
1/2 and 3/4
1/2 coding rate: Max Data rate = 98,4 Mbits/s * 0,5 = 49,2 Mbits/s
3/4 coding rate: Max Data rate = 98,4 Mbits/s * 0,75 = 73,8 Mbits/s
5. Impact of MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output
MIMO is discussed in chapter 9. If spatial diversity it is used (2x2 MIMO) then the data rate will
be doubled since the data is sent in parallel in 2 different streams using 2 different antennas
2x2 MIMO: Max Data Rate = 73,8 Mbit/s * 2 = 147,6 Mbits/s
6. Impact of physical layer overhead and higher layers overhead
The real data rate of the user will be further reduced if the physical layer overhead is
considered. Also the higher layers may introduce overhead as shown in chapter number 2. For
example IP , PDCP , RLC and MAC are introducing their own headers.
This type of overheads are not discussed here
46 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

47 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Multiple Access
Up to here we have only discussed simple point-to-point or broadcast
OFDM.
Now we have to analyze how to handle access of multiple users
simultaneously to the system, each one using OFDM.
OFDM can be combined with several different methods to handle multi-user
systems:
1.-Plain OFDM
3.-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access OFDMA®
2.-Time Division Multiple Access via OFDM
48 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM
•OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multicarrier
•OFDM: Plain or Normal OFDM has no built-in
multiple-access mechanism.
• This is suitable for broadcast systems like DVB-T/H
which transmit only broadcast and multicast signals
and do not really need an uplink feedback channel
(although such systems exist too).

•Now we have to analyze how to handle access of
multiple users simultaneously to the system, each one
using OFDM.
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Plain OFDM
time
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1 2 3
common info
(may be addressed via
Higher Layers)
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3
49 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA®
•OFDMA® stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiple Access
•It is a registered trademark by Runcom Ltd.
•The basic idea is to assign subcarriers to users based on
their bit rate services. With this approach it is quite easy to
handle high and low bit rate users simultaneously in a
single system.
•But still it is difficult to run highly variable traffic efficiently.
•The solution to this problem is to assign to a single users
so called resource blocks or scheduling blocks.
•Such block is simply a set of some subcarriers over some
time.
•A single user can then use one or more Resource blocks.
1
1
1
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2
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3
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Orthogonal Frequency
Multiple Access
OFDMA®
time
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1
1
1 1
2
2 2
2 2
3 3 3 3 3
1
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r

1
1 1 1
1 1 1
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
3
Resource Block (RB)
1 2 3
common info
(may be addressed via
Higher Layers)
UE 1 UE 2 UE 3
50 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDMA
FDD and TDD Modes
Basics of OFDM
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
OFDM Key Parameters for FDD and TDD Modes
Data Rate Calculation
OFDMA
OFDM Transmitter Simulation

51 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter Simulation – Assumptions
• All 1200 subcarriers subcarriers are transmitted (assuming that the system
bandwidth is 20 MHz)

• Transmit only one OFDM symbol (66.7 us)

• No difference between the subcarriers used for physical layer overhead and the
subcarriers used for transmission of user data
– No difference between different physical channels like e.g. PBCH (Physical Broadcast
Channel). The difference could be seen in parameters like e.g. modulation

• The serial to parallel convertor is not considered (because it assumed to transmit
only one OFDM symbol)

• Cyclic prefix insertion neglected (less relevant for simulation – impact on symbol
duration only)
52 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
Binary
Coded
Data
b
10
b
20
b
N-1
 A random string is generated with N=1200 integers numbers from 0 to 3 that needs to be transmitted;
 For simplicity only first 40 integers are plotted (the same is true for the rest of the simulation)
 One can look at this sequence vertically, as being the output of the serial to parallel block (only one
OFDM symbol is transmitted )
Data Generation
53 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter
Low
Pass
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
I
Q
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


.
.
.
D

A
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
Binary
Coded
Data
• QPSK modulation assumed
(16QAM or 64QAM also
possibile)
54 © Nokia Siemens Networks
QPSK Modulation
Our Tx Bit 1 Bit 0 I Q
0 0 0 +1 +1
1 0 1 -1 +1
2 1 0 -1 -1
3 1 1 +1 -1
Step 1 of QPSK modulation:
map the input bits to the symbols
using the constelation diagram
I + jQ (complex = inphase +
quadrature)
Step 2 of the QPSK modulation :
in LTE the complex symbols are input
for the IFFT !
55 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Modulation
Mapper
Modulation
Mapper
Modulation
Mapper
s
0

s
1

s
N-1

.
.
.
 Note that the sequence … is a complex sequence = I + jQ (Inphase and Quadrature)
s
0
s
N-1

56 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter
Low
Pass
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
I
Q
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


.
.
.
D

A
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
Binary
Coded
Data
• IFFT = Inverse Fast Fourier
Transformation
57 © Nokia Siemens Networks
IFFT
Time
Domain
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IFFT Result –> Time Domain
Result interpretation:
1. The signal is complex =
I+jQ
2. The signal is almost white
noise (1200 subcarriers
each with equal magnitude)
58 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Zero padded subcarriers
2048-1200 = 848
First 600 subcarriers
BW=600*15kHz=9MHz
Last 600 subcarriers
BW=600*15kHz=9MHz Total BW=18MHz
IFFT Result -> Frequency Domain
The spectrum is splitted in 2 parts
because of the zero padding in
the middle of the sequence
Low pass filtering required
to achieve a compact spectrum
59 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


.
.
.
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
I
Q
D

A
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
Binary
Coded
Data
•Digital to Analog
Conversion and
Low Pass
Filtering
60 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Low
Pass
I
Q
D

A
Low
Pass
D

A
 Note the delay produced by the filtering process (low pass filtering)
61 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter
Low
Pass
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
I
Q
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


.
.
.
D

A
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
Binary
Coded
Data
•Up - Conversion
62 © Nokia Siemens Networks
 This is the signal transmitted over the air interface
 It can be observed the large value of the PAR (peak to average ratio) in
the time response
Up-conversion -> Time Domain Result
63 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Up-conversion -> Frequency Domain Result
64 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Transmitter Overview
Low
Pass
cos(2πf
c
t)
-sin(2πf
c
t)
I
Q
Modulation
Mapper
IFFT
s
0

Modulation
Mapper
s
1

Modulation
Mapper
s
N-1

b
10 ,
b
11
,…

Serial to
Parallel
Converter
(Bit
Distrib.)
b
20 ,
b
21
,…

b
N-1 0


.
.
.
D

A
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N-1

IQ
Split
Low
Pass
D

A
RF
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

D
o
m
a
i
n

Time
Domain
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d

G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
Q
Binary
Coded
Data