Redox Reactions

RED-OX reactions
 In a redox reactions, oxidation reaction is
always accompanied by reduction reaction
 Some general guidelines:
 Decomposition of compounds to form elements
are redox reactions
 A single replacement reaction is always a redox
reaction because it involves an element that
becomes incorporated into a compound and an
element in the compound being released as a
free element.
 A double replacement reaction usually is not a
redox reaction

Oxidation
 Is a process when a substance is oxidised
 When it gains oxygen
 C + O
2
 CO
2
 When it loses hydrogen
 H
2
S + Cl
2
 2HCl + S
 When it loses electrons
 Mg + Cl
2
 MgCl
2
/ Mg  Mg
2+
+ 2e



 When it increases in the oxidation state
Reduction
 Is a process when a substance is reduced
 When it loses oxygen
 Zn + CuO  ZnO + Cu
 When it gains hydrogen
 H
2
+ Cl
2
 2HCl
 When it gains electrons
 Fe
3+
+ e

 Fe
2+
 When it decreases in the oxidation state
Oxidizing/Reducing Agent
 Oxidizing agent oxidizes the other reactant
and is itself reduced by accepting
electrons from the other reactant
 Reducing agent reduces the other reactant
and is itself oxidized by transferring its
electrons to the other reactant
Rules for assigning oxidation state

 Rule 1: Oxidation state of a free element
is zero
 Rule 2: Oxidation state of a simple ion =
its charge
 Rule 3: Sum of oxidation state of all atoms
in an electrically neutral compound = 0
 Rule 4: Sum of oxidation state of a
polyatomic ion = its charge
Formation of Zinc Oxide
 2Zn + O
2
 ZnO
 Oxidation state of zinc in zinc metal = 0
 Because of Rule 1
 Oxidation state of oxygen in oxygen gas = 0
 Because of Rule 1
 Oxidation state of zinc in zinc oxide = +2
 Because of Rule 2
 Oxidation state of oxygen in zinc oxide = –2
 Because of Rule 2

Formation of Zinc Oxide
 Oxidation state of zinc increases from 0 in
zinc metal to +2 in zinc oxide
 Zinc is oxidized, loses electrons
 Half equation: Zn  Zn
2+
+ 2e


 Oxidation state of oxygen decreases from
0 in oxygen gas to –2 in zinc oxide
 Oxygen is reduced
 Half equation: O
2
+ 4e
-
 2O
2-
NOT a redox reaction
 Neutralization reaction
 Acid – base reaction
 Acid – carbonate reaction
 Precipitation
Types of redox reactions
 Displacement reaction
 Metals react with acid or water or oxygen
 Chemical cell reactions
 Reactions at electrolytic cell during
electrolysis
Test for Reducing agent
 Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in
acidified potassium manganate(VII)
solution
 Observations: If a reducing agent is
present, the colour of the paper changes
from purple to colourless
 Reaction:
 MnO
4

+ 8H
+
+ 5e

 Mn
2+
+ H
2
O
 Purple Colourless
Test for Reducing agent
 Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in
acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
solution
 Observations: If a reducing agent is
present, the colour of the paper changes
from orange to green
 Reaction:
 Cr
2
O
7
2–
+ 14H
+
+ 6e

 2Cr
3+
+ 7H
2
O
 Orange Green

Test for Oxidizing agent
 Method: Use a filter paper strip, soak it in
a mixture of potassium iodide solution and
starch solution
 Observations: If a oxidizing agent is
present, the colour of the paper changes
from colourless to blue
 Reaction:
 2I

 I
2
+ 2e


 I
2
can turn starch dark blue in colour

Examples of Redox reactions
 Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen to make
water.
 Potassium chlorate is heated in a test
tube. Oxygen gas is made and potassium
chloride is left in the bottom of the tube.
 Hydrochloric acid is poured onto zinc
metal to make zinc chloride and hydrogen
gas.
 A copper wire is put into silver nitrate. Silver
metal appears and the solution turns blue from
copper (II) nitrate.
 Magnetite, an ore of iron, is smelted in large hot
furnaces by blowing carbon monoxide gas
through the ore. The result is liquid (molten)
iron and carbon dioxide bubbles.
 Lead metal and lead (IV) oxide in sulfuric acid
produce lead (II) sulfate and water. This is the
reaction in a common lead-acid car battery.

 Methane gas burns in oxygen to make water vapor and
carbon dioxide.
 Octane burns with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and
water.
 Concentrated nitric acid is put on copper wire. Water
and copper (II) nitrate in the water solution is produced,
along with a brownish gas, nitrogen monoxide or nitric
oxide
 Potassium dichromate(VI) and hydrochloric acid in
solution will make chlorine gas, water, chromium (III)
chloride and potassium chloride. (The soluble salts, of
course, remain in the water solution.)

 Potassium permanganate solution when added
to potassium cyanide in water solution will make
manganese (IV) oxide and potassium hydroxide
and water and potassium cyanate (KOCN).
 In a sulfuric acid solution potassium
permanganate will titrate with oxalic acid to
produce manganese (II) sulfate, carbon dioxide,
water, and potassium sulfate in solution.