Arthropods and diseases

:
1. Scabies
2. Demodiciosis
3. Pediculosis & Phthiriasis
4. Myiasis

Scabies (kudis, gudig,
budug)
• diseases that can spread easily in
overcrowded places
• Most common environments are:
–Orphanage
–Pondok pesantren
–elderly people in nursing homes
–prisoners

Prevalence
• In Indonesia 6 -27 % in general, but
higher in children & teenager (Sungkar,
1997).
• Ma’ruf I et al (2003) found 48.81 %
santri in Lamongan , Jawa Timur

• In Jakarta 78,70% and Kabupaten
Pasuruan : 66,70% (Kuspriyanto,2002).
Etiology :
• Mites: Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis
• Family Sarcoptidae , ordo Acari, Class
Arachnida
• Rounded body with 4 pair of legs, 2
in the front 2 in the posterior.
• Size : F: 300X 350 ; M: 150-200 
Life cycle
• F: hair at the 3
rd
and 4
th
leg ;
• Male : hair at 3 rd legs
• Anterior legs terminate in stalked
disc (Ambulacra )
• Incomplete metamorphosis
• Life cycle: 1 month, the male died
after copulation

• Female lays 1-3 eggs daily ( not
treated: lay eggs for about 5 weeks).
• The eggs hatch: larvae will travel to
the skin surface and will produce
secretions and making a new
burrow

• Live in stratum corneum burrows
• Predilection : skin with thin stratum
corneum stratum : between fingers ,
wrist, armpit, umbilicus, gluteus

Pathogenesis and symptoms
• Burrows in stratum corneum with
variation of length

Symptom
• Itching and rash (papules) : caused
by toxic secretions and excretions
directly associated with burrowing
process
• Itching especially in the night
(pruritus nocturne)
• Secondary infection: feel pain ,
pustule

Secondary infection
Diagnosis
• Detection of Sarcoptes scabiei : skin
scraping or biopsy
• Easy to diagnose without secondary
infection


Treatment
• Sulfur preparation : 5 – 10 %
– Not effective for eggs
• Gama benzene hexachloride
– Effective for all stages
– Neurotoxic : not save for < 5 years
• Benzil benzoat emulsion
• Crotamiton topical cream
• Permethrin
– Is safe for use on the head and neck of
children less than two years old
Epidemiology
• Very contagious , transmission:
person to person, clothing and
bedding, towel
• Environment factors:
• bedroom sanitation, personal
hygiene, room ventilation, unhealthy
behavior, limited water supply,
population density of dormitory
• Prevention : clothing and bedding
should be washed in hot for 10
minutes and dry : kill the scabies
mite and eggs.

Demodicosis
Prevalence:
• Demodicosis most often associated
with facial skin disease: acne
vulgaris and rosacea
• Irina (2010): 12% positive (as in the
group with healthy skin) and patients
with rosacea (64 out of 79) positive
Demodex ( 81% )





In eye lashes follicle:
• Post DF, Juhlin E (1963) observed :
– 84% of the sample with a
mean age of 61 years and
–100% of those older than 70
years

• Cause by Demodex folliculorum,
Demodex brevis
• Family Demodicidae, ordo Acari ,
Class Arachnida
• Body : long, with striated abdomen
• Size : 0.1 – 0.3 mm
• 4 pairs of legs


Estimated 14.5 days & female live 5 days after oviposition
Pathogenesis and Symptoms
• Live in hair follicle
• Preferred sites are facial skin,
forehead, cheeks, nose wings,
eyelashes and external ear
channels. sometime on the scalp
• slowly move on the skin especially
during the night (locomotion at a rate
of 8-16 mm/h).

Symptom:
• Generally asymptomatic
• heavy infestations :
– Itching
–lost of lashes /hair loss
– skin complaints as acne rosacea‘.
- Recurrent blepharitis : could
disturb eye vision
- Eye lid thickening

Diagnosis
• Detection of D. folliculorum



Epidemiology
• No racial predilect
• Infestation is equal in males and
females.
• Infestation is correlated to the
number of sebaceous glands