Overview of GSM Cellular Network and Operations

Ganesh Srinivasan NTLGSPTN

Network and switching subsystem
• NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM – switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control • Components – Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC – Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) • Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) • Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR

Operation subsystem
• The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems • Components – Authentication Center (AUC) • generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR • authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system – Equipment Identity Register (EIR) • registers GSM mobile stations and user rights • stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized – Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) • different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem

Mobile Handset
TEMPORARY DATA
- Temporary Subscriber Identity - Current Location - Ciphering Data

PERMANENT DATA
Permanent Subscriber Identity Key/Algorithm for Authentication.

Provides access to the GSM n/w Consists of Mobile equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

The GSM Radio Interface
AIR INTERFACE
BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

MOBILE

DO

35 K 9 LIN WN

MH 960

z

L UP

K IN

0 89

15 -9

Hz M

The GSM Network Architecture
• • • • • Time division multiple access-TDMA 124 radio carriers, inter carrier spacing 200khz. 890 to 915mhz mobile to base - UPLINK 935 to 960mhz base to mobile - DOWNLINK 8 channels/carrier

GSM uses paired radio channels
NK PLI U

W DO
890MHz

K LIN N

915MHz

935MHz

960MHz

0

124

0

124

Access Mechanism

– FDMA, TDMA, CDMA

Frequency multiplex
• • Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time k1 k2 k3 k4 • Advantages: c – no dynamic coordination necessary – works also for analog signals • Disadvantages: – waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly t – inflexible – guard spaces

k5

k6

f

• A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time • Advantages:
– only one carrier in the medium at any time – throughput high even for many users

Time multiplex

k1 c

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

• Disadvantages:
– precise synchronization necessary

f

t

Time and Frequency Multiplex
• Combination of both methods • A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time k k k k
1 2 3 4

k5

k6

c f

t

• Example: GSM • Advantages:

Time and Frequency Multiplex

– Better protection against tapping – Protection against frequency selective interference – Higher data rates compared to code multiplex

k1 c

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

• But: precise coordination required
t

f

• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand.

GSM uses paired radio channels
NK PLI U

W DO
890MHz

K LIN N

915MHz

935MHz

960MHz

0

124

0

124

Code Multiplex
k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

• • •

Each channel has a unique code All channels use the same spectrum at the same time Advantages: – Bandwidth efficient – No coordination and synchronization necessary – Good protection against interference and tapping Disadvantages: – Lower user data rates – More complex signal regeneration t Implemented using spread spectrum technology

c

f

Various Access Method

Cells

The need: • Optimum spectrum usage • More capacity • High quality of service • Low cost

Capacity & Spectrum Utilization Solution
Network capacity at required QoS with conventional frequency plan Out of Capacity!!! Subscriber growth Time

I wish I could

increase capacity without adding NEW BTS!
What can I do?

Representation of Cells

Ideal cells

Fictitious cells

Cell size and capacity
• Cell size determines number of cells available to cover geographic area and (with frequency reuse) the total capacity available to all users • Capacity within cell limited by available bandwidth and operational requirements • Each network operator has to size cells to handle expected traffic demand

Cell structure
• Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) • Mobile stations communicate only via the base station • Advantages of cell structures: – higher capacity, higher number of users – less transmission power needed – more robust, decentralized – base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally • Problems: – fixed network needed for the base stations – handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary – interference with other cells • Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) even less for higher frequencies

Capacity of a Cellular System
• Frequency Re-Use Distance • The K factor or the cluster size • Cellular coverage or Signal to interference ratio • Sectoring

The K factor and Frequency Re-Use Distance
7 1 5 7 6 5 4 D = √ 3K*R Frequency re-use distance is based on the cluster size K
D=4 8 .5 R

6 K = i + ij + j
2 2

2 3 R i

K = 22 + 2*1 + 12 K=4+2+1 K=7

j 2

1 3

D

The cluster size is specified in terms of the offset of the center of a cluster from the center of the adjacent cluster

The Frequency Re-Use for K = 4

K = i2 + ij + j2 K = 22 + 2*0 + 02 D D = √ 3K*R
D=3 6 .4 R

K=4+0+0 K=4

R i

The Cell Structure for K = 7
7 6 1 5 7 6 1 5 4 7 6 1 5 4 3 5 4 2 6 1 3 7 2 5 4 3 2 4 2 6 1 3 3 1 7 2 2

Cell Structure for K = 4
1 4 1 4 3 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 1 2

Cell Structure for K = 12

9 8 2 7 1 6 9 8 2 7 1 6 5 4 3 12 6 5 10 11 7 1 5 8 2 3 4 9 10 3 12 6 10 11 7 8

9 10 2 3 1 4 5 11 12 4 12 11

Increasing cellular system capacity
• Cell sectoring
– Directional antennas subdivide cell into 3 or 6 sectors – Might also increase cell capacity by factor of 3 or 6

Increasing cellular system capacity
• Cell splitting
– Decrease transmission power in base and mobile – Results in more and smaller cells – Reuse frequencies in non-contiguous cell groups – Example: ½ cell radius leads 4 fold capacity increase

Tri-Sector antenna for a cell

Cell Distribution in a Network

Rural Highway Suburb Town

Optimum use of frequency spectrum
• Operator bandwidth of 7.2MHz (36 freq of 200 kHz) • TDMA 8 traffic channels per carrier • K factor = 12 • What are the number of traffic channels available within its area for these three cases
– Without cell splitting – With 72 cells – With 246 cells

Re-use of the frequency

One Cell = 288 traffic channels 8 X 36 = 288

72 Cell = 1728 traffic channels 8 X (72/12 X 36) = 1728 246 Cell = 5904 traffic channels

Concept of TDMA Frames and Channels
c f

t

• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand.

GSM uses paired radio channels
NK PLI U

W DO
890MHz

K LIN N

915MHz

935MHz

960MHz

0

124

0

124

GSM delays uplink TDMA frames
The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time slots Downlink TDMA F1MHz TDMA frame (4.615 ms)

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Uplink TDMA Frame F1 + 45MHz

R

T

R

T

Fixed transmit Delay of three time-slots

GSM - TDMA/FDMA
935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink

qu en c

y

890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink

fre

higher GSM frame structures
time

GSM TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.615 ms GSM time-slot (normal burst)
guard space tail user data S Training S user data guard tail space

3 bits

57 bits

1 26 bits 1

57 bits

3

546.5 µs 577 µs

LOGICAL CHANNELS

TRAFFIC

SIGNALLING

FULL RATE Bm 22.8 Kb/S

HALF RATE Lm 11.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL

FCCH

SCH

BCCH PCH RACH AGCH

FCCH -- FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -- SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -- BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -- PAGING CHANNEL RACH -- RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -- ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -- STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -- SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -- FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY

BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS

Broadcast Channel BCH is a base to • Broadcast control channel (BCCH)

mobile channel which provides general information about the network, the cell in which the mobile is currently located and the adjacent cells • Frequency correction channel (FCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides information for carrier synchronization • Synchronization channel (SCH) is a base to mobile channel which carries information for frame synchronization and identification of the base station transceiver

Common Control Channel - CCH
• Paging channel (PCH) is a base to mobile channel used to alert a mobile to a call originating from the network • Random access channel (RACH) is a mobile to base channel used to request for dedicated resources • Access grant channel (AGCH) is a base to mobile which is used to assign dedicated resources (SDCCH or TCH)

Dedicated Control Channel - DCCH
• Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is a bi-directional channel allocated to a specific mobile for exchange of location update information and call set up information

Dedicated Control Channel - DCCH
• Slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a bi-directional channel used for exchanging control information between base and a mobile during the progress of a call set up procedure. The SACCH is associated with a particular traffic channel or stand alone dedicated control channel • Fast associated control channel (FACCH) is a bi-directional channel which is used for exchange of time critical information between mobile and base station during the progress of a call. The FACCH transmits control information by stealing capacity from the associated TCH

DEFINITION OF TIME SLOT - 156.25 BITS 15/26ms = 0.577ms
NORMAL BURST - NB

3

57

1

26

1

57

3

8.25

FREQUENCY CORRECTION BURST - FB

3

142

3

8.25

SYNCHRONISATION BURST - SB

3

39

64

39

3

8.25

ACCESS BURST - AB

6

41
GUARD PERIOD

36
FIXED BITS

3

68.25
SYNCHRONISATION BITS

TAIL BIT

ENCRYPTION BIT

TRAINING BITS

FLAG BITS

MIXED BITS

HIERARCHY OF FRAMES
1 HYPER FRAME = 2048 SUPERFRAMES = 2 715 648 TDMA FRAMES ( 3 H 28 MIN 53 S 760 MS ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047

1 SUPER FRAME = 1326 TDMA FRAMES ( 6.12 S ) LEFT (OR) RIGHT 1 SUPER FRAME = 51 MULTI FRAMES TRAFFIC CHANNELS 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 SIGNALLING CHANNELS 1 SUPER FRAME = 26 MULTI FRAMES 0 1 MULTIFRAME = 26 TDMA FRAMES ( 120 ms ) 0 1 2 3 24 25 1 MULTI FRAME = 51 TDMA FRAMES (235 .4 ms ) 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 7 2 0 3 4 48 49 50 1 2 24 25

(4.615ms) 0

TDMA FRAME NO. 1 0 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0

1 TIME SLOT = 156.25 BITS ( 0.577 ms) 1 2 3 4 155 156 1 bit =36.9 micro sec

(4.615 ms) 1

GSM Frame
0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2
SACCH is transmitted in frame 12

Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms

12

24

25

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Frame duration = 60/13ms

3

57

1

26

1

57

3

8.25

Frame duration = 15/26ms

• 114 bits are available for data transmission. • The training sequence of 26 bits in the middle of the burst is used by the receiver to synchronize and compensate for time dispersion produced by multipath propagation. • 1 stealing bit for each information block (used for FACCH)

LOGICAL CHANNELS

TRAFFIC

SIGNALLING

FULL RATE Bm 22.8 Kb/S

HALF RATE Lm 11.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL

FCCH

SCH

BCCH PCH RACH AGCH

FCCH -- FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -- SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -- BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -- PAGING CHANNEL RACH -- RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -- ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -- STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -- SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -- FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY

BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS

Location update from the mobile
Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH request for location updating SDCCH authenticate SDCCH authenticate response SDCCH switch to cipher mode SDCCH cipher mode acknowledge SDCCH allocate TMSI SDCCH acknowledge new TMSI SDCCH switch idle update mode

Call establishment from a mobile
Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH send call establishment request SDCCH do the authentication and TMSI allocation SDCCH send the setup message and desired number SDCCH require traffic channel assignment FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) FACCH receive alert signal ringing sound FACCH receive connect message FACCH acknowledge connect message and use TCH TCH conversation continues

Call establishment to a mobile
Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on Mobile receives paging message on PCH Generate Channel Request on RACH Receive signaling channel SDCCH on AGCH Answer paging message on SDCCH Receive authentication request on SDCCH Authenticate on SDCCH Receive setup message on SDCCH Receive traffic channel assignment on SDCCH FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) Receive alert signal and generate ringing on FACCH Receive connect message on FACCH FACCH acknowledge connect message and switch to TCH

GSM speech coding
AIR INTERFACE
BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

MOBILE

DO

35 K 9 LIN WN

MH 960

z

L UP

K IN

0 89

15 -9

Hz M

Transmit Path
BS Side 8 bit A-Law to 13 bit Uniform 8 K sps RPE/LTP speech Encoder

To Channel Coder 13Kbps

MS Side 8 K sps, RPE/LTP speech Encoder

LPF

A/D

To Channel Coder 13Kbps

Sampling Rate - 8K Encoding - 13 bit Encoding (104 Kbps) RPE/LTP - Regular Pulse Excitation/Long Term Prediction RPE/LTP converts the 104 Kbps stream to 13 Kbps

GSM Speech Coding

• GSM is a digital system, so speech which is inherently analog, has to be digitized. • The method employed by current telephone systems for multiplexing voice lines over high speed trunks and is pulse coded modulation (PCM). The output stream from PCM is 64 kbps, too high a rate to be feasible over a radio link.

GSM Frame
0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2
SACCH is transmitted in frame 12

Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms

12

24

25

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Frame duration = 60/13ms

3

57

1

26

1

57

3

8.25

Frame duration = 15/26ms

GSM Speech Coding
• Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples, each of which is encoded as 260 bits, giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps. • Regular pulse excited -- linear predictive coder (RPE--LPC) with a long term predictor loop is the speech coding algorithm.

• The 260 bits are divided into three classes: – Class Ia 50 bits - most sensitive to bit errors. – Class Ib 132 bits - moderately sensitive to bit errors. – Class II 78 bits - least sensitive to bit errors. • Class Ia bits have a 3 bit cyclic redundancy code added for error detection = 50+3 bits. • 132 class Ib bits with 4 bit tail sequence = 132 + 4 = 136. • Class Ia + class Ib = 53+136=189, input into a 1/2 rate convolution encoder of constraint length 4. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits, based on a combination of the previous 4 input bits. The convolution encoder thus outputs 378 bits, to which are added the 78 remaining class II bits. • Thus every 20 ms speech sample is encoded as 456 bits, giving a bit rate of 22.8 kbps.

• To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface, each sample is interleaved. The 456 bits output by the convolution encoder are divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits, and these blocks are transmitted in eight consecutive time-slot bursts. Since each time-slot burst can carry two 57 bit blocks, each burst carries traffic from two different speech samples.
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
57 bits

1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

57 bits

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

GSM Protocol Suite

SS HLR

MM + CM

MSC VLR

RR BSC

BTS Radio interface

Link Layer
• LAPDm is used between MS and BTS • LAPD is used between BTS-BSC • MTP2 is used between BSCMSC/VLR/HLR

Network Layer
• To distinguish between CC, SS, MM and RR protocol discriminator (PD) is used as network address.
– CC call control management MS-MSC. – SS supplementary services management MS-MSC/HLR. – MM mobility management(location management, security management) MS-MSC/VLR. – RR radio resource management MS-BSC.

• Messages pertaining to different transaction are distinguished by a transaction identifier (TI).

Application Layer protocols
• BSSMAP between BSC and MSC • DTAP messages between MS and MSC. • All messages on the A interface bear a discrimination flag, indicating whether the message is a BSSMAP or a DTAP. • DTAP messages carry DLCI(information on type of link on the radio interface) to distinguish what is related to CC or SMS. • MAP protocol is the one between neighbor MSCs. MAP is also used between MSC and HLR.

GSM Functional Architecture and Principal Interfaces
Mobile Application Part MAP TCAP CCS7 SCCP CCS7 MTP A Interface Q931 BSSAP SCCP CCS7 MTP Um

Base Station System

Q.921 Radio Interface

Q.931 Q.921

A-Bis Interface

GSM protocol layers for signaling
Um Abis A MS
CM MM RR LAPDm radio RR’ LAPDm radio BTSM LAPD PCM
BSSAP

BTS

BSC

MSC
CM

MM BSSAP SS7
PCM RR’ BTSM LAPD PCM

SS7
PCM

16/64 kbit/s

64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s

Protocols involved in the radio interface
• Level 1-Physical – TDMA frame – Logical channels multiplexing • Level 2-LAPDm(modified from LAPD) – No flag – No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints • Level 3-Radio Interface Layer (RIL3) involves three sub layers – RR: paging, power control, ciphering execution, handover – MM: security, location IMSI attach/detach – CM: Call Control(CC), Supplementary Services(SS), Short Message Services(SMS),

LAPDm on radio interface
• In LAPDm the use of flags is avoided. • LAPDm maximum length is 21 octets of information. It makes use of “more” bit to distinguish last frame of a message. • No frame check sequence for LAPDm, it uses the error detecting performance of the transmission coding scheme offered by the physical layer

LAPDm Message structure
ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0-21 OCTETS

SAPI N(S) N(R)

LAPDm on radio interface
• The acknowledgement for the next expected frame in the indicator N(R ). • On radio interface two independent flows(one for signaling, and one for SMS) can exist simultaneously. • These two flows are distinguished by a link identifier called the SAPI(service access point identifier). • LAPDm SAPI=0 for signaling and SAPI=3 for SMS. • SAP1=0 for radio signaling, SAPI=62 for OAM and SAPI=63 for layer 2 management on the Abis interface. • There is no need of a TEI, because there is no need to distinguish the different mobile stations, which is done by distinguishing the different radio channels.

Protocols involved in the A-bis interface
• Level 1-PCM transmission (E1 or T1)
– Speech encoded at 16kbit/s and sub multiplexed in 64kbit/s time slots. – Data which rate is adapted and synchronized.

• Level 2-LAPD protocol, standard HDLC
– Radio Signaling Link (RSL) – Operation and Maintenance Link (OML).

• Level 3-Application Protocol
– Radio Subsystem Management (RSM) – Operation and Maintenance procedure (OAM)

Presentation of A-bis Interface
• Messages exchanges between the BTS and BSC.
– Traffic exchanges – Signaling exchanges

• Physical access between BTS and BSC is PCM digital links of E1(32) or T1(24) TS at 64kbit/s. • Speech:
– Conveyed in timeslots at 4X16 kbit/s

• Data:
– Conveyed in timeslots of 4X16 kbit/s. The initial user rate, which may be 300, 1200, … is adjusted to 16 kbit/s

LAPD message structure
FLAG ADRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0 – 260 OCT FCS FLAG

SAPI

TEI

N(S)

N(R)

LAPD
• The length is limited to 260 octets of information. • LAPD has the address of the destination terminal, to identify the TRX, since this is a point to multipoint interface. • Each TRX in a BTS corresponds to one or several signaling links. These links are distinguished by TEI (Terminal Equipment Identities). • SAPI=0, SAPI=3, SAPI=62 for OAM.

Presentation of the A-ter interface

TRAU BSC LAPD TS1

OAM

Speech TS Transcoding CCS7 TS Speech TS CCS7 TS MSC

X.25 TS2

X.25 TS2

OMC

PCM LINK

PCM LINK

Presentation on the A-ter interface
• Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS) – LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU – SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC, dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation. – X25 TS2 is reserved for OAM. • Speech and data channels (16kbit/s) • Ater interface links carry up to: – 120 communications(E1), 4*30 – 92 communications(T1). • The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation are performed at the TCU.

Presentation of the A interface

Signaling Protocol Model

Presentation on the A-Interface
BSSMAP - deals with procedures that take place logically between the BSS and MSC, examples: Trunk Maintenance, Ciphering, Handover, Voice/Data Trunk Assignment DTAP - deals with procedures that take place logically between the MS and MSC. The BSS does not interpret the DTAP information, it simply repackages it and sends it to the MS over the Um Interface. examples: Location Update, MS originated and terminated Calls, Short Message Service, User Supplementary Service registration, activation, deactivation and erasure

Inter MSC presentation

MS CM MM R R BTS O A M L A P D O A M L A P D BSC BSSAP R R
D T A P
B S S M A P

NSS CM MM BSSAP DTAP/ BSSMAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2

M A P T C A P
SCCP

SCCP MTP3 MTP2

MTP3 MTP2 MTP1

Um Interface

A bis Interface

A Interface

MS

BSC

MSC

PD=RR PD=MM TI=a TI=b Link: SAPI=0 PD=CC DLCI: SAPI=0 TI=A DLCI: SAPI=3 DTAP SCCP Ref=R1
PD: protocol discriminator TI: Transaction Identifier for RIL3-CC protocol DLCI: Data Link connection Identifier SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier on the radio Interface TEI: Terminal Equipment Identifier on the Abis I/F

Link: SAPI=3 Channel=C1

Channel ID = N1

Channel=C2

Channel ID = N1 TRX:TEI=T1

SCCP Ref=R2 A Interface

Radio Interface

Abis Interface

Bearer Services
• Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points • Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) • Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) – Data service
• Synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s • Asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s

Tele Services
• Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones. • All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measurements etc. • Offered services. – Mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz. – Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112); Mandatory for all service providers; Free of charge; Connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible). – Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible.

Performance characteristics of GSM
• Communication – mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services • Total mobility – international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers • Worldwide connectivity – one number, the network handles localization • High capacity – better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell • High transmission quality – high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) • Security functions – access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN

Disadvantages of GSM
• • • • • • No full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user Reduced concentration while driving Electromagnetic radiation Abuse of private data possible High complexity of the system Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards

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