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# Introduction to Computer Vision

Roger S. Gaborski 1
Lecture 4
Dr. Roger S. Gaborski

HW#2 Due 02/13
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In Class Exercise Review
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1. Given the following MATLAB code:
>> image1 = rand([3])
image1 =
0.9500 0.6555 0.0318
0.7431 0.1712 0.2769
0.3922 0.7060 0.0462

>> image2 = imadjust(image1, [ .1,.75],[.2, .6])

Carefully draw the transformation map specified by the imadjust statement.
Label the x and y axis.

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Chapter 3
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Brighter Output (gamma<1) Darker Output (gamma>1)
Gamma specifies the shape of the curve
Characteristics:
gamma >1

: all pixels become darker
gamma <1

:

all pixels become brighter
gamma =1

: linear transform
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image1 =

0.9500 0.6555 0.0318
0.7431 0.1712 0.2769
0.3922 0.7060 0.0462

>> image2 = imadjust(image1, [ .1,.75],[.2, .6])

image2 =

0.6000 0.5418 0.2000
0.5958 0.2438 0.3089
0.3798 0.5729 0.2000
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Example
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INPUT
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image2 = imadjust(image1, [ .1,.75],[.2, .6],1)
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INPUT
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image2 = imadjust(image1, [ .1,.75],[.2, .6],1)
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INPUT
Gray Scale Ramp Image
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Minimum gray value = .01
Maximum gray value = 1.0
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Ramp Image
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image_ramp = zeros(100);

for i = 1:100
image_ramp(:,i) = i*.01;
end

fprintf('minimum gray value = %d, \n', min(image_ramp(:)));
fprintf('maximun gray value = %d, \n', max(image_ramp(:)));
figure, plot(image_ramp(50,:)), xlabel('pixel position'), ylabel('pixel value')
title('values')
pause

figure, imshow(image_ramp),title('ramp intensity image')
pause

Map .01 to .5 and 1.0 to .75
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disp('Use imadjust to map to .50 to .75');

image1 = imadjust(image_ramp,[.01, 1.0],[.5, 0.75]); %map to .5 to .75

fprintf('minimum gray value = %d, \n', min(image1(:)));
fprintf('maximun gray value = %d, \n', max(image1(:)));

figure, plot(image1(50,:)), xlabel('pixel position'), ylabel('pixel value')
title('values')
axis([0,100,0,1])
Grid

pause

figure, imshow(image1, [0,1]);

pause

Map .01 to .5 and 1.0 to .75
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Map values in range <=.25 to .35
and >=.50 to .65');
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Map values in range <=.25 to .35
and >=.50 to .65');
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disp('Use imadjust to map values in range <=.25 to .35 and >=.50 to .65');
fprintf('minimum gray value = %d, \n', min(image2(:)));
fprintf('maximun gray value = %d, \n', max(image2(:)));
figure, plot(image2(50,:)), xlabel('pixel position'), ylabel('pixel value')
title('values')
axis([0,100,0,1])
grid

pause

figure, imshow(image2, [0,1]);

Map values in range <=.25 to .35
and >=.50 to .65');
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Contrast Stretching Transformation
Creates an image with higher contrast than the input
image:

r: intensities of input;
s: intensities of output;
m: threshold point (see graph) ;
E: controls slope.
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1
( )
1 ( )
E
s T r
m
r

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Chapter 3
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E controls the slope of the function
1
( )
1 ( )
E
s T r
m
r

Input(r)
Output(s)
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Introduction to Computer Vision

Lecture 4
Dr. Roger S. Gaborski
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117 83 59 59 68 77 84
94 82 67 62 70 83 86
85 81 71 65 77 89 86
82 76 67 72 90 97 86
66 54 68 104 121 107 85
46 58 89 138 165 137 91
38 80 147 200 211 187 138
40 80 149 197 202 187 146
56 76 114 159 181 160 113
An image shows the spatial
distribution of gray level values
We can summary this information
by only retaining the distribution
if gray level values:

value count
1 0
40 8

104 32
181 45
255 0
PARTIAL IMAGE INFO:
Intensity image is simply
a matrix of numbers
Image Histogram
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Plot of Pixel Count as a Function of Gray Level Value
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Gray Level Value
Pixel
Count
Histogram
Histogram consists of
Peaks: high concentration of gray level values
Valleys: low concentration
Flat regions
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Formally, Image Histograms
Histogram:
Digital image
L possible intensity levels in range [0,G]
Defined: h(r
k
) = n
k
Where r
k
is the kth intensity level in the interval [0,G] and n
k

is the number of pixels in the image whose level is r
k
.
G: uint8 255
uint16 65535
double 1.0
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Notation
L levels in range [0, G]
For example:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, in this case G = 4, L = 5
Since we cannot have an index of zero,
In this example, index of:
Index 1 maps to gray level 0
2 maps to 1
3 maps to 2
4 maps to 3
5 maps to 4
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Normalized Histogram
Normalized histogram is obtained by dividing
elements of h(r
k
) by the total number of pixels in the
image (n):

for k = 1, 2,, L

p(r
k
) is an estimate of the probability of occurrence of
intensity level r
k

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( )
( ) ,
k k
k
h r n
p r
n n

MATLAB Histogram
h = imhist( f, b )
h is the histogram, h(r
k
)
f is the input image
b is the number of bins (default is 256)

Normalized histogram

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( , )
( )
imhist f b
p
numel f

## Color and Gray Scale Images

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Background: Gray Image
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>> figure, imshow(I) % uint8

>> Im = im2double(I); % convert to double
>> Igray = (Im(:,:,1)+Im(:,:,2)+Im(:,:,3))/3;
>> figure, imshow(Igray)

There is also the rgb2gray function that results
in a slightly different image
Gray Scale Histogram
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Plots
bar(horz, v, width)
v is row vector
points to be plotted
horz is a vector same dimension as v
increments of horizontal scale
omitted axis divided in units 0 to length(v)
width number in [0 1]
1 bars touch
0 vertical lines
0.8 default
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p= imhist(Igray)/numel(Igray);
>> h1 = p(1:10:256);
>> horz = (1:10:256);
>> figure, bar(horz,h1)
Review other examples
in text and in MATLAB
documentation
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Chapter 3
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Color and Gray Scale Images
Recall from Previous Slide
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Gray Scale Histogram
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Normalized Gray Scale Histogram
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>> p= imhist(Igray)/numel(Igray);
>> figure, plot(p)
Normalized Gray Scale Histogram
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imhist(Igray)/numel(Igray); imhist(Igray,32)/numel(Igray)
256 bins 32 bins
Normalized Gray Scale Histogram
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>> p= imhist(Igray)/numel(Igray);
>> figure, plot(p)
Gray level values
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

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0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
Original Dark Light
Contract enhancement
How could we transform the pixel values of an image
so that they occupy the whole range of values
between 0 and 255?
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Gray Scale Transformation
How could we transform the pixel values of an image
so that they occupy the whole range of values
between 0 and 255?
If they were uniformly distributed between 0 and x
we could multiply all the gray level values by 255/x
BUT what if they are not uniformly distributed??
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Cumulative Distribution Function
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Histogram CDF
Histogram Equalization(HE)
HE generates an image with equally likely intensity
values
Transformation function: Cumulative Distribution
Function (CDF)
The intensity values in the output image cover the full
range, [0 1]
The resulting image has higher dynamic range
The values in the normalized histogram are
approximately the probability of occurrence of those
values
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Histogram Equalization
Let p
r
(r
j
), j = 1, 2, , L denote the histogram associated with
intensity levels of a given image

Values in normalized histogram are approximately equal to
the probability of occurrence of each intensity level in image

Equalization transformation is:

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k = 1,2,,L
s
k
is intensity value
of output
r
k
is input value
Sum of probability up to k value
1 1
( ) ( )
k k
j
k k r j
j j
n
s T r p r
n

Histogram Equalization Example
g = histeq(f, nlev) where f is the original image and
nlev number of intensity levels in output image
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Original Image
INPUT
Transformation
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Input Gray Level Value
x255
O
u
t
p
u
t

G
r
a
y

L
e
v
e
l

V
a
l
u
e

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OUTPUT
Equalization of Original Image
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histogram Equalization of Light Image
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histogram Equalization of Dark Image
Simple Histogram Equalization
Example

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Histogram Equalization
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Input Image Output Image
Process small regions of the image (tiles) individually
Can limit contrast in uniform areas to avoid noise
amplification
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adapthisteq enhances the contrast of images by transforming the
values in the intensity image I. Unlike HISTEQ, it operates on small
data regions (tiles), rather than the entire image. Each tile's
contrast is enhanced, so that the histogram of the output region
approximately matches the specified histogram. The neighboring tiles
are then combined using bilinear interpolation in order to eliminate
artificially induced boundaries. The contrast, especially
in homogeneous areas, can be limited in order to avoid amplifying the
noise which might be present in the image.

J = adapthisteq(I) Performs CLAHE on the intensity image I.

J = adapthisteq(I,PARAM1,VAL1,PARAM2,VAL2...) sets various parameters.
Parameter names can be abbreviated, and case does not matter. Each
string parameter is followed by a value as indicated below:

'NumTiles' Two-element vector of positive integers: [M N].
[M N] specifies the number of tile rows and
columns. Both M and N must be at least 2.
The total number of image tiles is equal to M*N.

Default: [8 8].
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Grayscale Adaptive Histogram Equalized Grayscale Histogram Equalized
Default, 8x8 tiles
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Number of Tiles: 24x24
Number of Tiles: 24x24, ClipLimit = .05
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Chapter 3
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Chapter 3
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Create a color image
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>> red = rand(5)

red =

0.0294 0.0193 0.3662 0.7202 0.0302
0.7845 0.3955 0.2206 0.4711 0.2949
0.7529 0.1159 0.6078 0.9778 0.5959
0.1586 0.1674 0.5524 0.9295 0.1066
0.7643 0.6908 0.3261 0.5889 0.1359

>> green = rand(5)

green =

0.2269 0.5605 0.6191 0.0493 0.1666
0.0706 0.4051 0.3297 0.7513 0.6484
0.9421 0.0034 0.8243 0.7023 0.8097
0.8079 0.5757 0.6696 0.9658 0.8976
0.0143 0.3176 0.6564 0.1361 0.0754
>> blue = rand(5)

blue =

0.6518 0.0803 0.8697 0.6260 0.9642
0.5554 0.2037 0.8774 0.5705 0.6043
0.8113 0.8481 0.5199 0.0962 0.8689
0.5952 0.2817 0.6278 0.7716 0.8588
0.5810 0.9290 0.2000 0.1248 0.7606
First create three color planes of data
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>> colorIm(:,:,1)=red;
>> colorIm(:,:,2)=green;
>> colorIm(:,:,3)=blue;
>> colorIm

figure
imshow(colorIm, 'InitialMagnification', 'fit')

colorIm(:,:,1) =

0.0294 0.0193 0.3662 0.7202 0.0302
0.7845 0.3955 0.2206 0.4711 0.2949
0.7529 0.1159 0.6078 0.9778 0.5959
0.1586 0.1674 0.5524 0.9295 0.1066
0.7643 0.6908 0.3261 0.5889 0.1359

colorIm(:,:,2) =

0.2269 0.5605 0.6191 0.0493 0.1666
0.0706 0.4051 0.3297 0.7513 0.6484
0.9421 0.0034 0.8243 0.7023 0.8097
0.8079 0.5757 0.6696 0.9658 0.8976
0.0143 0.3176 0.6564 0.1361 0.0754

colorIm(:,:,3) =

0.6518 0.0803 0.8697 0.6260 0.9642
0.5554 0.2037 0.8774 0.5705 0.6043
0.8113 0.8481 0.5199 0.0962 0.8689
0.5952 0.2817 0.6278 0.7716 0.8588
0.5810 0.9290 0.2000 0.1248 0.7606

colorIm
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colorIm(1,1,: )
colorIm(4,4,: )
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colorIm(:,:,1) =

0.0294 0.0193 0.3662 0.7202 0.0302
0.7845 0.3955 0.2206 0.4711 0.2949
0.7529 0.1159 0.6078 0.9778 0.5959
0.1586 0.1674 0.5524 0.9295 0.1066
0.7643 0.6908 0.3261 0.5889 0.1359

colorIm(:,:,2) =

0.2269 0.5605 0.6191 0.0493 0.1666
0.0706 0.4051 0.3297 0.7513 0.6484
0.9421 0.0034 0.8243 0.7023 0.8097
0.8079 0.5757 0.6696 0.9658 0.8976
0.0143 0.3176 0.6564 0.1361 0.0754

colorIm(:,:,3) =

0.6518 0.0803 0.8697 0.6260 0.9642
0.5554 0.2037 0.8774 0.5705 0.6043
0.8113 0.8481 0.5199 0.0962 0.8689
0.5952 0.2817 0.6278 0.7716 0.8588
0.5810 0.9290 0.2000 0.1248 0.7606
What are two methods to convert from a color
image to a gray scale image?
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RECALL
What are two methods to convert from a color
image to a gray scale image?
Average red, green and blue pixels
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Average
For example:
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>> colorImAverage = ( colorIm(:,:,1) + colorIm(:,:,2) + colorIm(:,:,3) )/3

colorImAverage =

0.3027 0.2200 0.6183 0.4651 0.3870
0.4701 0.3348 0.4759 0.5976 0.5159
0.8354 0.3224 0.6507 0.5921 0.7582
0.5206 0.3416 0.6166 0.8890 0.6210
0.4532 0.6458 0.3942 0.2833 0.3240

>> figure, imshow(colorImAverage, 'InitialMagnification', 'fit')
Gray scale version of color image
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.5976
.5921
Color and Gray scale Images
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Color and Gray scale Images
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Conversion to gray scale results in a loss of information
What are two methods to convert from a color
image to a gray scale image?
Average red, green and blue pixels
Matlabs rgb2gray function
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MATLABs rgb2gray Function
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>> colorIm_rgb2gray = rgb2gray(colorIm)

colorIm_rgb2gray =

0.2163 0.3439 0.5721 0.3156 0.2168
0.3393 0.3792 0.3596 0.6469 0.5377
0.8706 0.1333 0.7249 0.7155 0.7525
0.5895 0.4202 0.6298 0.9328 0.6567
0.3031 0.4989 0.5056 0.2702 0.1716
colorIm and rgb2gray(colorIm)
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How does rgb2gray work?
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rgb2gray converts RGB values to grayscale values by forming
a weighted sum of the R, G, and B components:

Gray = 0.2989 * R + 0.5870 * G + 0.1140 * B
Color and Gray Scale Images

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