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Introduction to

Computer Administration
Operating System
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A program that controls the execution of
application programs.

An interface between applications and hardware.
Operating System Objectives
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Convenience
Makes the computer more convenient to use.

Efficiency
Allows computer system resources to be used in an
efficient manner.

Ability to evolve
Permit effective development, testing, and
introduction of new system functions without
interfering with service.
Layers of Computer System
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Services Provided by the Operating
System
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Program development
Editors and debuggers

Program execution

Access to I/O devices

Controlled access to files

System access

Services Provided by the Operating
System
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Error detection and response
internal and external hardware errors
memory error
device failure

software errors
arithmetic overflow
access forbidden memory locations

operating system cannot grant request of
application

Services Provided by the Operating
System
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Accounting
collect statistics
monitor performance
used to anticipate future enhancements
used for billing users
Operating System
Basics
Ref Book: Chapter # 7:
Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton
McGraw-Hill.

www.mhhe.com/peternorton
Functions of Operating Systems
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Provide a user interface

Run programs

Manage hardware devices

Organized file storage
Providing a User Interface
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User interface
How a user interacts with a computer
Require different skill sets
Providing a User Interface
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Graphical user interface (GUI)
Most common interface
Windows, OS X, Gnome, KDE
Uses a mouse to control objects
Uses a desktop metaphor
Shortcuts open programs or documents
Open documents have additional objects
Task switching
Dialog boxes allow directed input
Graphical User Interface
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Providing a User Interface
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Command line interfaces
Older interface
DOS, Linux, UNIX
User types commands at a prompt
User must remember all commands
Included in all GUIs
Command Line Interface
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Running Programs
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Many different applications supported
System call
Provides consistent access to OS features
Share information between programs
Copy and paste
Object Linking and Embedding

Managing Hardware
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Programs need to access hardware
Interrupts
CPU is stopped
Hardware device is accessed
Device drivers control the hardware
Organizing Files and Folders
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Organized storage
Long file names
Folders can be created and nested
All storage devices work consistently
Types of Operating Systems
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Real-time operating system
Very fast small OS
Built into a device
Respond quickly to user input
MP3 players, Medical devices
Types of Operating Systems
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Single user/Single tasking OS
One user works on the system
Performs one task at a time
MS-DOS and Palm OS
Take up little space on disk
Run on inexpensive computers
Single Tasking
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Operating System cannot be able to take
control back from the running
process/task/application
In case if a process call an I/O Instruction then
Processor must wait for I/O instruction to
complete before preceding
Types of Operating Systems
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Single user/Multitasking OS
User performs many tasks at once
Most common form of OS
Windows XP and OS X
Require expensive computers
Tend to be complex
Multitasking
Operating System can take control back from
the running process and can give it to other.
When one job needs to wait for I/O, the
processor can switch to the other job
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Types of Operating Systems
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Multi user/Multitasking OS
Many users connect to one computer
Each user has a unique session
UNIX, Linux, and VMS
Maintenance can be easy
Requires a powerful computer
Multi user/Multi tasking OS
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Enhancing an OS
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Utilities
Provide services not included with OS
Goes beyond the four functions
Firewall, anti-virus and compression
Prices vary
Enhancing an OS
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Backup software
Archives files onto removable media
Ensures data integrity
Most OS include a backup package
Many third party packages exist
Backup Software
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Enhancing an OS
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Anti-virus software
Crucial utility
Finds, blocks and removes viruses
Must be updated regularly
McAfee and Norton Anti-Virus
Enhancing an OS
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Firewall
Crucial utility
Protects your computer from intruders
Makes computer invisible to hackers
Zone Labs is a home firewall
Cisco sells hardware firewalls
Enhancing an OS
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Intrusion detection
Often part of a firewall package
Announces attempts to breach security
Snort is a Linux based package
Enhancing an OS
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Screen savers
Crucial utility for command line systems
Prevents burn in
Merely fun for GUI systems
Screen saver decorates idle screens