History and Evolution of

PHOTOGRAPHY
A Lecture by
Amit Chawla
http://photo.net/learn/history/timeline

The Stone Age of Photography

 The decade of 1830 – 1840 is most often believed
to be the birth period of Photography as this was
the period when photographic process became
public.

 But its roots can be traced back to 950 -1050 A.D.
when the first camera obscura & Pin hole cameras
were invented. It is said to be a brainchild of
Alhazen.


The Stone Age of Photography

 1100 - 1600 – Silver Halides discovered.
 1568 - Daniel Barbaro describes a diaphragm
(aperture).
 1660’s – Composition of white light was discovered.
 1694 - Wilhelm Homberg explained how light
darkened some chemicals [photo-chemical effect].
 1720s - Johann Heinrich Schulze discovered that
silver nitrate darkened upon exposure to light.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 A strong confusion over invention of
Photography remains among the scholars.
 This was because Photography wasn’t a
brainchild of any single person.
 Different People were working on different
lines, in order to Capture a real life image.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce is most often
considered as the father of photography.
 This was because he achieved first
photographic image with camera obscura in
1814.
 But the image required eight hours of light
exposure and later faded.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce partnered with Louis
Daguerre of France in 1829.
 Daguerre, after death of Niépce in 1834
continued with his experiments & finally
discovered process of making image on silver-
plated copper which could be made permanent
by fixing the exposed plate with some salts.
 He patented this process in 1837 under the
name daguerreotype.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 Meanwhile, by 1834, Henry Fox Talbot also
created a permanent (negative) image
using paper soaked in silver chloride &
fixed with a salt solution.
 Talbot created positive images by contact
printing onto another sheet of paper.
 In 1841, Talbot patented his process under
the name "calotype".
 Biggest advantage – Possibility of making
multiple copies of an image.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in
London, developed a process to improve
photographic resolution, by spreading a
mixture of collodion (nitrated cotton dissolved
in ether & alcohol) & chemicals on sheets of
glass. Wet plate collodion photography was
much cheaper than daguerreotypes.
Moreover, images required just 2-3 seconds
of light exposure.
 Archer coined it as Collodion process.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 While most of the world was welcoming this
new invention, not all people were excited
by the invent of photography.
 Some artists saw in photography a threat to
their livelihood, and some even prophesied
that painting would cease to exist.
 But photography had its own aesthetics and
advantages, which came into light when it
started to be commonly used.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 1850s and 1860s marked the birth and
growth of stereoscopic era.
 In this process Direct positive images on
glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or
ferrotypes) came to be popular in the US.
 By end of 50s Oliver Wendell Holmes
invented the stereoscope viewer.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 In1871 Richard Leach Maddox an English
doctor, proposed use of an emulsion of
gelatin and silver bromide on glass plate.
This was termed as "dry plate" process.
Now negatives no longer had to be
developed immediately.
 By 1878, Dry plates started to be
manufactured commercially and by 1880,
George Eastman, set up Eastman Dry Plate
Company in Rochester, New York.
1800-1900
The Stone Age of Photography
 In 1884 Eastman invents flexible, paper-
based photographic film and by 1888, he
patents Kodak roll-film camera. This camera,
contained a 20-foot roll of paper.
 1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film
instead of paper was introduced.
 1898: Reverend Hannibal Goodwin patents
celluloid photographic film.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 The First three decades of the Twentieth
century saw the Second Generation of
Photography.
 This period saw the evolution of the first
ever compact cameras as well as the
Film Cameras.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 1900: First mass-marketed camera - Kodak
Brownie roll-film camera introduced.

1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 In 1906, Screen aspect ratio of 1.33 : 1
i.e. 4:3 was established as an
international viewing standard.
 In the same year panchromatic black and
white films became widely available &
therefore high quality color separation in
photography was seen.
 These were widely marketed by Wratten
and Wainright of England.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 1907 saw the first commercial color film.
It was made of Autochrome plates,
manufactured by Lumiere brothers in
France.
 The Multiple-reel films were being called
feature.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 In 1908, Hollywood was founded in the Los
Angeles area.
 Vitagraph produced the five-reel Film
The Life of Moses in 1909.
 By 1912, the first Vest Pocket Camera is
introduced.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 In 1917, Nippon Kogaku K.K., a company
which will eventually become Nikon, was
established in Tokyo.
 By 1921, photograms ("rayographs")
were being made by amateur
photographers by placing objects on
photographic paper & exposing the
shadow cast by a distant light bulb.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 Few Examples of Photograms:
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 1924: Leitz introduces "Leica", the first
high quality 35mm camera.
 G.E. invented first modern flash bulb in
1927 opening gateways to indoor
photography.
 1928: Rollei introduces Rolleiflex twin-
lens reflex producing a 6x6 cm image on
rollfilm.
 Following this first light meter with
photoelectric cells introduced in 1932.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 1932 is remembered as a very
important year in the history of
photography. In this year,
Technicolor, a three-color system, is
introduced in which, three black and
white negatives were made in the
same camera under different filters
 In the same year, George Eastman,
aged 77, writes suicide note-"My work
is done. Why wait?"--and shoots
himself.
1900-1935
Second Generation of Photography
 1934: Fuji Photo Film founded. And By
1938, Fuji is making cameras and lenses
in addition to film.
1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 In 1936, Kodachrome, the first color
multi-layered color film; was developed
by Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens
reflex (SLR) camera.
 Then in 1938, Chester Carlson invents
Xerography (electric photography). Also,
the Super Kodak Six an Autoexposure
film is developed in this year.
1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 By 1941, Eastman Kodak introduced
Kodacolor negative film.

 Then for almost 5-7 years no substantial
development in the field of photography
took place. This was because more
concentration was being focused upon
the motion picture rather than Still
Photography.
1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 Then in the year 1948, Pentax a
Japanese company introduced the first
automatic diaphragm (apperture).

 In the same year, Nikon also introduced
its first 35mm camera.

1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 By 1950; Kodak introduced a new
multilayered film stock in which
emulsions sensitive to red, green, and
blue are bonded together on a single roll.
It was patented as Eastmancolor. What
we use today is an upgraded form of this.
 Eastman Kodak also introduced high
speed black-and-white Tri-X film in 1954,
in the field of professional black and
white Photography.
1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 By late 1950s photography exhibitions
started taking place at a very large level.

 The Family of Man (1955) was one of the
most popular exhibitions of photographs
ever presented.
1935-1960
Third Generation of Photography
 1954 - Asahiflex II, world's first SLR with
an instant return mirror.
 1957 - Asahi Pentax, world's SLR with a
penta prism thus allowing eye-level
viewing with correct perspective
 By end of the third generation, Nikon now
one of the leading names in photography
industry introduced the F-Series.
1960-1980
Fourth Generation of Photography
 1960s saw the extensive household use
of photographic cameras despite its high
prices. Also the precision and the quality
of the captured image was drastically
improved during this period, by using
light meters and apperture with shutter.
 The German Mec 16 SB subminiature
became the first camera to place the light
meter behind the lens for more accurate
metering.
1960-1980
Fourth Generation of Photography
 Not only did this era see the growth of
domestic photography but commercial as
well as defense photography.
 In 1960, EG&G develops extreme depth
underwater camera for U.S. Navy.
 In the same year the Polaroid Land 120
instant camera (Manufactured by
Yashica Co. under contract with Polaroid
Corp) is introduced. It was the first
Japanese built instant camera.

1960-1980
Fourth Generation of Photography
 In 1963, Kodak Instamatic Cameras were
introduced with easy-loading film
cartridges. They brought photography
into the hands of many more amateurs,
kids and adults.
 In what was considered as a huge step in
the history of photography, the very first
photograph of earth from the moon was
taken in 1968.
1960-1980
Fourth Generation of Photography
 In early 70s, Canon developed the F-1
camera with high-speed motor drive,
shooting at 8 to 10 fps for photographers
covering events like The Olympics etc.
 Then in 1977, with Canon AE-1 the
apparent shift of cameras from manual
models to electronic ones was observed.
 A year later in 1978, the market saw the
Canon A-1 which controlled everything
electronically.
1960-1980
Fourth Generation of Photography
 In 1980, the Nikon F3 camera was
introduced, with liquid crystal display in
the viewfinder and an electronic shutter.
 Also the Pentax LX professional SLR
camera system was introduced.
 In 1980 only, Sony came up with its first
with its ever consumer camcorder;
opening gateways for modern digital
photography.
1980s till date
Fifth Generation of Photography
 In 1980s Sony unveiled the first
consumer camera to use a CCD(Charge-
Coupled Device ) for imaging, and which
required no film -- the Sony Mavika
 1983: Kodak introduces disk camera,
using an 8x11mm frame (the same as in
the Minox spy camera)
 1985: Minolta markets the world's first
autofocus SLR system (called "Maxxum"
in the US)
1980s till date
Fifth Generation of Photography
 1985: Pixar introduces digital imaging
processor.
 1986 - Kodak scientists invent the world's
first megapixel sensor.
 In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS100, the
first commercially available digital
camera.
 1992: Kodak introduces PhotoCD
1980s till date
Fifth Generation of Photography

 Lately, a Combination of Digital and SLR
camera has been evolved, which is
spearheading the camera market world
over.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful