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Introduction

History
Manufacturing Process
Advantages and Disadvantages
Comparison
Classes
Applications

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also known as autoclaved
cellular concrete (ACC) or autoclaved lightweight
concrete (ALC), was invented in the mid-1920s by the Swedish
architect and inventor Johan Axel Eriksson.

It is a lightweight, precast building material that simultaneously
provides structure, insulation, and fire and mold resistance. AAC
products include blocks, wall panels, floor and roof panels, and
lintels.

It has been refined into a highly thermally insulating concrete-
based material used for both internal and external construction.

Besides AAC's insulating capability, one of its advantages in
construction is its quick and easy installation, for the material can
be routed, sanded, and cut to size on site using standard carbon
steel band saws, hand saws, and drills.




Even though regular cement mortar can be used, 98% of the
buildings erected with AAC materials use thin bed mortar,
which comes to deployment in a thickness of inch. This varies
according to national building codes and creates solid and
compact building members. AAC material can be coated with a
stucco compound or plaster against the elements. Siding
materials such as brick or vinyl siding can also be used to cover
the outside of AAC materials.

Developed in Sweden in the 1920s in response to increasing
demands on timber supplies, AAC is a lightweight manufactured
building stone.

Comprised of all natural raw materials, AAC is used in a wide
range of commercial, industrial, and residential applications and
has been in use in Europe for over 70 years, the Middle East for
the past 40 years, and South America and Australia for
approximately 20 years.

According to one manufacturer, AAC now accounts for over 40%
of all construction in the United Kingdom and more than 60% of
construction in Germany.
The ancient Romans developed a highly sophisticated type of
concrete that has withstood the test of time for nearly two
thousand years. They used the volcanic ash pozzolan for its
chemical reactivity. The silica bases in todays AAC blocks
closely emulate their techniques.
The material was perfected in the mid-1920s by Dr. Johan
Axel Eriksson, an architect working with Professor
Henrik Kreger at the Royal Institute of Technology.

It went into production in Sweden in 1929 in a factory
in Hllabrottet and became very popular.

AAC industry in Europe has slowed down considerably. In
contrast to these, same industry is growing rapidly in Asia due
to strong demand in housing and commercial space. China, India,
Middle-East and Central Asia are the biggest markets in terms
of AAC manufacturing and consumption.


Unlike most other concrete applications, AAC is produced
using no aggregate larger than sand.

It consists of :- (Materials for AAC are specified in ASTM
C1386)
1. Water
2. Cement
3. Lime
4. Aluminum
5. Quartz Sand or Fly Ash

In some countries like India and China, fly ash generated
from thermal power plants is also used as aggregate.
Generally fly ash having 50-65% silica content is used for
manufacturing AAC..


When AAC is mixed and cast in forms, several chemical
reactions take place that give AAC its light weight (20% of
the weight of concrete) and thermal properties.
After pouring , the cakes stay in mould about 1-3 hours, and
it will have a little intension, and the tilting crane will take
off the mould and move the cake to cutting line, The waster
cake will be sent into a Waster tank, and Pumped into Ball
miller and Milled twice.
After evaporation of the hydrogen, the now highly closed-
cell, aerated concrete is cut to size and formed by steam-
curing in a pressurized chamber (an autoclave) for 12 hours.
During this steam pressure
hardening process, when the
temperature reaches 190 Celsius
(374 Fahrenheit) and the
pressure reaches 8 to 12 bars,
quartz sand reacts with calcium
hydroxide to form calcium
silica hydrate, which accounts
for AAC's high strength and
other unique properties




After the autoclaving process, the material is ready
for immediate use on the construction site.

Depending on its density, up to 80% of the volume of
an AAC block is air. AAC's low density also accounts
for its low structural compression strength.

It can carry loads of up to 8 MPa (1,160 PSI),
approximately 50% of the compressive strength of
regular concrete.

The result is a non-organic, non-toxic, airtight
material that can be used for wall, floor, and roof
panels, blocks, and lintels which according to the
manufacturers, generate no pollutants or hazardous
waste during the manufacturing process
Batching is defined as the collection of raw
materials from quarry sites. It is carried out by
Weigh and Volume batching.

Mixing is achieved by :
Hand Mixing and Machine Mixing
Types of Machine Mixers: Drum type, Pan type
Drum Type: Tilting, Non-Tilting and Rotating

Pan-type mixer Drum-type mixer
After pre-curing and reaching the cutting intensity
(tested by special instrument or determined by
production experience), the cake will be
transported to cutting position through turning
crane.
The turning hoister will turn the mold in 90 degree
and strip off the mold frame, and the cake will
stand in the side plate.
Finally, the longitudinal cutter and traverse cutter
will cut the cake.
After the cake is cut, the crane will transport it to
the hardening carriage and group it in front of
autoclave.
Curing is carried out by:
o Water curing
o Membrane Curing
o Application of Heat
o Steam Curing




The temperature of the autoclave is about 190
210. Cured cake will be pulled out of autoclave
by low speed winch, and the end product will be
transported manually to truck or store at the
storage yard.



Sprinkling
Membrane Curing
Steam Curing
After cutting, the wet waste slurry will fall into
pond under the cutting machine.
The water will wash it into waste
slurry mixer.
Then mixed with each other until
reaching the reqd. concentration,
it will be pumped into the batching
section for reservation.
According to the requirement of
pouring, the waste treated slurry
is added in the appropriate proportion
for its use as a raw material, and
the remaining non-usable slurry
is sent for recycling.

Concrete Recycling
Equipment
Basic mix ratio
Fly ash (sand): lime: cement: gypsum=69: 20: 8: 3
Aluminum is about 0.08% of total of dry material
Water ratio: 0.6~0.65
Note: special reference should be adjust according
with actual situation of raw material

Cycle of mixing and pouring: The cycle of mixing and
pouring is 5.5minutes

The complete rest of blocks
Time: 2-3 h
Temperature: about 40 C
Pressure :0.3~0.5 Mpa


Cycle of cutting: 5.5 minutes

Autoclave system
Evacuation: 0~-0.06 Mpa 0.5h
Boost pressure: -0.06~1.3 Mpa 1.25h
Isopiestic pressure: 1.3 Mpa (temperature is
about 183) 7.0h
Depressurization: 1.3 Mpa~0 1.25h
Total: 10h
Coal consumption: 24kg/ m3

ADVANTAGES
Lightweight
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) blocks are about 50%
lighter than clay bricks of equivalent size. This translates into
less dead weight of buildings and allows entire structure to be
lighter therefore reducing amount of steel and concrete used
in structural components like beams, columns and roof/floor
slabs.

Easy Workability
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete is very easy to work with and
can be cut accurately reducing the amount of waste generated.

Easy Transportation
It is easy to transport AAC blocks as it does not suffer from
high transit breakage usually associated with clay bricks.




Longevity
AAC blocks do not lose strength or deteriorate over time.
Buildings constructed with AAC blocks do not require routine
repairs that are required for buildings using clay bricks.
Sound Insulation
Sound absorption properties of AAC make it ideal material for
reducing ambient noise. AAC is well-suited for establishments
like hospitals and offices situated in noisy areas.
Thermal Insulation
AAC blocks and panels
offer excellent thermal
insulation. This reduces
recurring cost of
energy required for
heating and cooling.


Fire Resistance
Due to high fire resistance offered by AAC blocks,
structures made from AAC blocks have higher rate of
survivability in case of fire.







Environmental Impact
Manufacturing of AAC blocks and panels does not have high
energy requirements. Moreover since AAC is light weight, it
also saves energy required for transportation and leads to
reduced CO2 emissions by transport vehicles. Since AAC
blocks are made from fly ash an industrial waste product
generated by thermal power plants, it offers a low cost and
sustainable solution for today and tomorrow. AAC is a
requisite for green buildings.
Shorter Project Duration
Buildings can be built with
AAC blocks 50% faster
compared to clay bricks.
This translates to lower
project completion times
benefiting project
developers.







Single Product Solution
Buildings constructed with AAC blocks do not require separate
insulation products reducing construction cost, energy
footprint and environmental impact of buildings.
High Survivability
Millions of air pockets in AAC cushion structure from major
force and prevents progressive collapse of a building. AAC
structures are known to maintain structural integrity despite
of seismic activity (earthquakes), heavy rains, extremely low
temperature and salty air.
EXAMPLE :- The AAC house is a survivor of the 1995
earthquake in Kobe, Japan. In this earthquake 106,763
buildings were damaged. Of the 5,578 houses made from AAC
none were completely or even partially destroyed.
Contribution to Nation
AAC factories create many jobs directly and indirectly
creating a social impact. Along with that they pay Excise Duty
and VAT contributing to national economy.




Cost
Buildings close to AAC production facilities benefit from short
transportation and minimal shipping costs, especially since this
concrete's lighter weight makes it easier to transport than
regular concrete. However, AAC itself has an initial cost per
unit higher than ordinary concrete. In addition, the small
number of manufacturing facilities in the US could make using
AAC very expensive for projects where the material must
travel long distances from a manufacturer.
Strength Limitations
AAC is strong enough to use for structural parts of a building,
but isn't as strong as conventional concrete. According to the
Portland Cement Association, autoclaved aerated concrete has
an allowable shear stress of 8 to 22 psi, and a compressive
strength of 300 to 900 psi. Conventional concrete has an
shear stress closer to 40 psi, with a compressive strength of
1500 psi.

DISADVANTAGES
Unfamiliarity
Building with AAC has a learning curve both with respect to
the
construction community as well as with local governments. Few
contractors are currently familiar with the product, and
trained masons must adjust to using thin-set mortar as
opposed to traditional cement-based mortar, which requires
less precision in its
application. Local building departments, design review boards,
and planning commissions are also largely unfamiliar with AAC
and must be educated with respect to the products ability to
satisfy local building codes.

Availability
Since North America has so few AAC manufacturers, this
material can be hard to obtain. Homeowners who wish to use
AAC may need to contact the manufacturer directly, or pay a
premium to acquire this building material.


S.
No.
PARAMETERS AUTOCLAVED
AERATED
CONCRETE
BURNT CLAY
BRICKS
1 Basic raw
materials & other
inputs
Cement, Fly Ash &
Acration Compound
Top Soil &
Energy
2 General
Properties
Dry Density
kg/m
3

600 1900
Compressive
Strength in
kg/cm
3

40 40-75
Range of
applications /
utility
Non-load bearing
blocks
Load-bearing &
non-load bearing
Aging No gain in strength
with age
No gain in
strength with age
Thermal
Conductivity
(W/m.k.)
0.132-0.151 for 600
kg/m
3

0.184
S.
No.
PARAMETERS AUTOCLAVED
AERATED
CONCRETE
BURNT CLAY
BRICKS
Sound Insulation Superior than burnt
clay & hollow
concrete
Normal
Ease of Working Can be cut, nailed &
drilled
Normal
3 Water Absorption
% by weight
45% by volume 20% by volume
4 Drying Shrinkage
mm/meter
Shrinkage after
maturing0.011 (for
600 kg/m
3
) 0.058 (for
kg/m
3
)
No shrinkage
5 Productivity Output 100% more
than brick work
Normal
7 Structural saving
due to dead
weight reduction
55% reduction in
weight of walls.
Tremendous
structural saving for
high rise buildings
in Earthquake / Poor
soil area
No additional
saving
S.
No.
PARAMETERS AUTOCLAVED
AERATED
CONCRETE
BURNT CLAY
BRICKS
6 Eco Friendliness Pollution freeHigh
energy requirement
Open process uses fly
ash
Creates
smokeUses high
energy Wastes
agricultural land
AAC is produced in different densities and corresponding compressive
strengths, in accordance with ASTM C1386. Densities and corresponding
strengths are described in terms of "strength classes" .

Strength
Class
Specified
Compressive
Strength
lb/in2 (MPa)
Nominal Dry
Bulk Density
lb/ft3 (kg/m3)
Density Limits
lb/ft3 (kg/m3)
AAC 2.0 290 (2.0) 25 (400)
31 (500)
22 (350) - 28 (450)
28 (450) - 34 (550)
AAC 4.0 580 (4.0) 31 (500)
37 (600)
28 (450) - 34 (550)
34 (550) - 41 (650)
AAC 6.0 870 (6.0) 44 (700)
50 (800)
44 (700)
50 (800)
41 (650) - 47 (750)
47 (750) - 53 (850)
41 (650) - 47 (750)
47 (750) - 53 (850)
AAC Unit
Type
Thickness,
in. (mm)
Height,
in. (mm)
Length,
in. (mm)
Standard
Block
2 - 15 (50 - 375) 8 (200) 24 (610)
Jumbo
Block
4 - 15 (100 - 375) 16 - 24 (400 -
610)
24 - 40 (610 -
1050)
APPLICATIONS

Since 1980, there has been a worldwide increase in the use of
AAC materials. New production plants are being built in
the USA, Eastern Europe, Israel, China, Bahrain, India,
and Australia. AAC is increasingly used by
developers, architects, and home builders

Autoclaved aerated concrete is used in the construction of
dwellings and businesses.

Autoclaved aerated concrete is used preferentially in
external walls because of its outstanding insulation properties.

Autoclaved aerated concrete is used in multi-storey
construction and it is quite viable for even 5-storey
constructions.



Entire residential areas are built using autoclaved aerated
concrete.

A very big reason for this is the ease of application, even
for the non-professional, thus enabling a high level of
personal contribution and resulting in a reduction of
building costs.

Autoclaved aerated
concrete can also be used
for internal walls.
Because the walls are
so level, they can be
finished with a very thin
coat of plaster (3 5 mm).
Use of adhesive
considerably reduces
dampness in the brickwork.

Because of its low weight, autoclaved aerated concrete
enables the construction of a fireplace as an add-on after the
initial loads have been calculated without leading to significant
extra stress on ceilings with standard load-bearing properties.

AAC can be used to quickly create kitchen surfaces. The
advantage for the tenant is that such a kitchen can easily be
removed without damage to the surroundings.

Autoclaved aerated concrete has the advantage that it can be
shaped with saws, files and rasps. It is nevertheless very
stable and thus suitable for load-bearing and non-load-bearing
elements like shelves.
Shown is an AAC hotel in Las Palmas, Mexico, where AAC is
used as structure and envelope.