Ethical Hacking

By: Aashish Sharma CS Final Year


 Hacker : any programming specialist who

has expertise to enter computer network unauthorized.  Cracker : some one who destructs things.  Hacking : act of illegally entering a computer system, and making unauthorized changes to the files and data contain within.

What is Ethical Hacking?
♦ Ethical hacking – defined “methodology adopted by ethical

hackers to discover the vulnerabilities existing in information systems’ operating environments.” ♦ With the growth of the Internet, computer security has become a major concern for businesses and governments. ♦ In their search for a way to approach the problem, organizations came to realize that one of the best ways to evaluate the intruder threat to their interests would be to have independent computer security professionals attempt to break into their computer systems.

Ethical Hacking
♦ Independent computer security

Professionals breaking into the computer systems. ♦ Neither damage the target systems nor steal information. ♦ Evaluate target systems security and report back to owners about the vulnerabilities found.

Ethical Hackers but not Criminal Hackers
♦ Completely trustworthy. ♦ Strong programming and computer

networking skills. ♦ Learn about the system and trying to find its weaknesses. ♦ Techniques of Criminal hackersDetection-Prevention. ♦ Published research papers or released security software. ♦ No Ex-hackers.

January - 2005

June 01, 2004 to Dec.31, 2004

Domains .com .org .net .biz .info .edu other Total

No of Defacements 922 24 53 39 12 48 13 3 2 2 13 1131

Defacement Statistics for Indian Websites
Source: CERT-India

Graph upto fiscal year 2003

Total Number of Hacking Incidents

Source: CERT/CC

Types of hacking
Normal data transfer





Why do hackers hack?
♦ Just for fun ♦ Show off ♦ Hack other systems secretly ♦ Notify many people their thought ♦ Steal important information ♦ Destroy enemy’s computer network during

the war

What do hackers do after hacking?
♦ Patch security hole
– The other hackers can’t intrude

♦ Clear logs and hide themselves ♦ Install rootkit ( backdoor )
– The hacker who hacked the system can use the system later – It contains trojan ls, ps, and so on

Being Prepared
♦ What can an intruder see on the target systems? ♦ What can an intruder do with that information? ♦ Does anyone at the target notice the intruder's attempts

or successes?

1. What are you trying to protect? 2. Who are you trying to protect against? 3. How much time, effort, and money are you willing to

expend to obtain adequate protection?

Modes of Ethical Hacking
♦ Insider attack ♦ Outsider attack ♦ Stolen equipment attack ♦ Physical entry ♦ Bypassed authentication attack (wireless

access points) ♦ Social engineering attack

Anatomy of an attack:
– Reconnaissance – attacker gathers information; can include social engineering. – Scanning – searches for open ports (port scan) probes target for vulnerabilities. – Gaining access – attacker exploits vulnerabilities to get inside system; used for spoofing IP. – Maintaining access – creates backdoor through use of Trojans; once attacker gains access makes sure he/she can get back in. – Covering tracks – deletes files, hides files, and erases log files. So that attacker cannot be detected or penalized.


Black Hats

White Hats

Gray Hats

Black Hats: →Hacker specialized in unauthorized, illegal

→Use computers to attack systems for profit, for
revenge, or for political motivations

White Hats: → Hacker who identifies security weakness in a
computer system or network and

→ Exposes these weakness that will allow the system's
owners to fix the breach.

Grey Hats: → Hybrid between White Hats and Black Hats.

Script Kiddies: → Use scripts or programs developed by others to
attack computer systems and networks.

→ Objective - To impress their friends or gain credit in
computer-enthusiast communities.

Hactivism : → The non-violent use of illegal or legally ambiguous
digital tools in pursuit of political ends.

→Writing of code to promote political ideology promoting expressive politics, free speech, human rights.

Classes of Attack
1. Authentication 2. Client-Side Attacks 3. Command Execution 4. Information Disclosure


Covers attacks that target a web site's method of validating the identity of a user, service or application.  Attack Types : 1. Brute Force 2. Weak Password Recovery Validation


Client-Side Attacks
 Focuses on the abuse or exploitation of a web site's
users. Attack Examples : 1. Content Spoofing 2. Cross-Site Scripting


Command Execution
Covers attacks designed to execute remote commands on the web site Attack Examples : 1. OS Commanding 2. SQL Injection


SQL Injection
♦ Allows a remote attacker to

execute arbitrary database commands ♦ Relies on poorly formed database queries and insufficient input validation ♦ Often facilitated, but does not rely on unhandled exceptions and ODBC error messages ♦ Impact: MASSIVE. This is one of the most dangerous vulnerabilities on the web.

Information Disclosure
Covers attacks designed to acquire system specific information about a web site like backup / temporary files, softwares used etc.. Attack Examples : 1. Path Traversal 2. Predictable Resource Location


Definition : Google hacking is a term that refers to the art of creating complex search engine queries in order to filter through large amounts of search results for information related to computer security.

Google Hacking Queries
Inurl :
inurl:admin inurl:passwd filetype:txt

Index of :
"Index of /secret " "Index of /credit-card "

Intitle :
?intitle:index.of?MP3 Songname ?intitle:index.of?ebook BookName

♦ Viruses - A virus is a small piece of software that

piggybacks on real programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.
♦ E-mail viruses - An e-mail virus moves around in e-

mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.

♦ Worms - A worm is a small piece of software that uses

computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well. Code Red is an example of a nasty worm. program. The program claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically.

♦ Trojan horses - A Trojan horse is simply a computer

♦ A destructive program that masquerades as a benign

application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer. Greeks give a giant wooden horse to their foes, the Trojans, ostensibly as a peace offering. But after the Trojans drag the horse inside their city walls, Greek soldiers sneak out of the horse's hollow belly and open the city gates, allowing their compatriots to pour in and capture Troy.

♦ The term comes from a story in Homer's Iliad, in which the

Hell Raising:
♦ Denial of Service attacks (DoS) are a type of

attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Two types of DoS are called a Zombie and Pulsing Zombie. IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host.

Port Scanning is the act of systematically scanning a computer's ports. Since a port is a place where information goes into and out of a computer, port scanning identifies open doors to a computer. Port scanning has legitimate uses in managing networks, but port scanning also can be malicious in nature if someone is looking for a weakened access point to break into your computer.

Wireless Security
♦ Insertion Attacks

Unauthorized devices on the wireless network. This can be clients or base stations. ♦ Interception and monitoring wireless traffic Wireless Sniffer , Hijacking the session, Broadcast Monitoring, ArpSpoof Monitoring and Hijacking, BaseStation Clone (Evil Twin) intercept traffic ♦ Client to Client Attacks Two wireless clients can talk directly to each other by-passing the base station. Because of this, each client must protect itself from other clients.

Wireless (continued)
♦ Jamming

Denial of service attacks for wired networks are popular. This same principle can be applied to wireless traffic, where legitimate traffic gets jammed because illegitimate traffic overwhelms the frequencies, and legitimate traffic can not get through.
♦ 2.4 GHz Interfering Technology

An attacker with the proper equipment and tools can easily flood the 2.4 GHz frequency, so that the signal to noise drops so low, that the wireless network ceases to function. This can be a risk with even non-malicious intent as more technologies use the same frequencies and cause blocking. Cordless phones, baby monitors, and other devices like Bluetooth that operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency can disrupt a wireless network.

War Chalking:
Using chalk to place a special symbol on a sidewalk or other surface that indicates a nearby wireless network, especially one that offers Internet access.

Based on old hobo language -----

Hacking Tools: Web Based Password Cracking

Cain and Abel

Cain and Abel (Cont.)



CERT - The Experts
Established in 1988, the CERT® Coordination Center (CERT/CC) is a center of Internet security expertise, located at the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center operated by Carnegie Mellon University.

Penalties under IT Act, 2000
♦ S. 66 (2) – Hacking with Computer System

“Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years or with fine which may extend upto two lakh rupees, or both.”

Amarjit & Associates, New Delhi

Penalties under IT Act, 2000
♦ S. 72 – Penalty for Breach of Confidentiality and privacy

“If any person who, in pursuance of any powers conferred under this Act, Rules or Regulations made thereunder, has secured access to any electronic record, book register, correspondence, information, document or other material without the consent of the person concerned discloses such electronic record, book, register, correspondence, information, document, or other material to any other person shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.”

Penalties under Indian Penal Code
♦ S. 379 – Punishment for Theft

“ Whoever commits theft shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.”

Penalties under Indian Penal Code
♦ S. 406 – Punishment for criminal

breach of trust.

“Whoever commits criminal breach of trust shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.”

Penalties under Indian Penal Code
♦ S. 447 – Punishment for criminal trespass

“Whoever commits criminal trespass shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.”


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