GPS 4-H

:
USING THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM IN 4-H PROGRAMMING
MIKE CLIFFORD

GPS WOULD HAVE SAVED HIM !!!

Global Positioning System
A network of satellites that continuously transmit coded information, which makes it possible to precisely identify locations on earth by measuring distance from the satellites.

THE GPS SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

From GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

GPS and GIS DEFINITIONS
GPS is short for Global Positioning System which is "a network of satellites that continuously transmit coded information, which makes it possible to precisely identify locations on earth by measuring distance from the satellites". Of course, many users also refer to their hand-held GPS receivers as "my GPS" ... as in the statement "my GPS' batteries went dead and I got lost!" GIS is short for Geographic Information System(s). "In the strictest sense, a GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information , i.e. data identified according to their locations. Practitioners also regard the total GIS as including operating personnel and the data that go into the system" ( from: http://www.usgs.gov/research/gis/title.html ).

The NAVSTAR System
24 Satellites 6 orbital plates 11,000 miles up 12 hour orbit

from GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

THE EARTH: Latitude & Longitude

from GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

LINE OF SIGHT

ERROR SOURCES Multipath interference Atmospheric Geometric DOP Clock Ephemeris S.A. (now turned off)

from GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

ACCURACY
STANDARD CIVILIAN RECEIVERS (Selective Availability OFF)

HORIZONTAL ACCURACY TO 15 METERS (49.2’) OR BETTER VERTICAL ACCURACY (altitude) TO 100 METERS (328’)

DIFFERENTIAL GPS (DGPS)
SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE POSITION ACCURACY

•Coast Guard •Commercial Ground & Satellite Based Correction •Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

WIDE AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM
FAA SPONSORED GEO-STATIONARY SATELLITES FREE ACCESS ACCURACY TO 3 METERS INSTALLED ON MOST NEW (2001+) GPS MODELS

SOME GPS APPLICATIONS
COMMERCE & GOVERNMENT
l MILITARY l MARITIME l AUTOMOTIVE l SURVEYING l AVIATION l FORESTRY l ENVIRONMENTAL l PUBLIC SAFETY l ETC.

RECREATIONAL
l HIKING l HUNTING l NATURE STUDY l FISHING l BOATING l BIKING l SKIING l SNOWMOBILING l GEOCACHING l GOLF ! ETC.

HOW CAN WE UTILIZE GPS IN 4-H PROGRAMMING?
WILDLIFE MAPPING

EDUCATIONAL & OPERATIONAL USES

HIGH ADVENTURE LEADER TRAINING BIG TREE SEARCH SEARCH & RESCUE

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY HUNTER EDUCATION

TRIP PLANNING & SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FISHING & CANOEING

AND LOTS MORE !

NAVIGATION BASICS
1. 2. 3. 4. KNOW YOUR POSITION PLAN YOUR ROUTE STAY ON YOUR ROUTE RECOGNIZE YOUR DESTINATION

BASIC NAVIGATION INFORMATION PROVIDED BY GPS UNITS . . .
YOUR CURRENT POSITION
•COORDINATES (LATITUDE & LONGITUDE, UTM, MGRS, ETC.) •ELEVATION (0R BETWEEN WAYPOINTS)

DIRECTION TO SPECIFIED WAYPOINTS DISTANCE TO SPECIFIED WAYPOINTS (0R BETWEEN WAYPOINTS YOUR SPEED OF TRAVEL YOUR DIRECTION OF TRAVEL

. . . AND OFTEN MUCH MORE
MAPS TIME OF DAY CROSS TRACK ERROR ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL ESTIMATED TIME ENROUTE COORDINATES OF CITIES & TOWNS ETC.

USING THE GARMIN

eTrex

ENTERING COORDINATES TO CREATE A NEW WAYPOINT IN ETREX l FIND “ MENU” PAGE
l l l l l SELECT “MARK” NAME IT & SELECT SYMBOL (optional) ENTER ELEVATION (optional) ENTER COORDINATE DATA SELECT “OK” AND YOU’RE DONE

PROJECTING COORDINATES TO CREATE A NEW WAYPOINT IN ETREX
YOU CAN ALSO CREATE A NEW WAYPOINT BY ENTERING A BEARING AND DISTANCE FROM YOUR CURRENT POSITION OR AN EXISTING WAYPOINT

l
l l l l l l

ON “ MENU” PAGE SELECT “WAYPOINTS” SELECT AN EXISTING WAYPOINT AND ENTER SELECT “PROJECT” AND ENTER NAME IT & SELECT SYMBOL (optional) ENTER DISTANCE ENTER BEARING SELECT “OK” AND YOU’RE DONE

SPEED TRIP ODOMETER TRIP TIME SUNSET SUNRISE LOCATION ELEVATION BEARING HEADING MAX SPEED AVERAGE SPEED

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

AERIAL PHOTO

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

HIGHWAY MAPS

VIRGINIA ROAD MAP
Latitude-Longitude coordinates & grids

ALEXIS ROAD MAP
UTM & MGRS coordinates & grids

Map Symbol Quiz

TOPO MAP MARGIN INFO: BOTTOM CENTER

TOPO MAP MARGIN INFO: BOTTOM LEFT

TOPO MAP MARGIN INFO: BOTTOM RIGHT

TOPO MAP MARGIN INFO: TOP LEFT

TOPO MAP MARGIN INFO: TOP RIGHT

MAP DATUMS
l WGS84
World Geodetic System 1984 Default datum on Garmin and most other GPS receivers. Most accurate datum, but not yet in wide use on maps. Older datum used on most USGS topographic maps. (We will be using this datum for the workshop)

l NAD27 (NAD27CONUS) North American 1927 l NAD83
q

North Amerian Datum 1983 Very similar to WGS84. Used on newer USGS maps.

and hundreds of others!

COORDINATE SYSTEMS
l LATITUDE / LONGITUDE
DEGREES - MINUTES - SECONDS (ANGULAR)

l UTM / UPS

(RECTANGULAR, METRIC) UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (WE WILL BE USING UTM IN OUR FIELD EXERCISES) UNIVERSAL POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC MILITARY GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM

l MGRS (UTM USING ALPHANUMERIC I.D.)
OTHERS … TOWNSHIP & RANGE, STATE PLANE COORDINATE, ETC.

USING A

MAGNETIC COMPASS

from GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

from GPS Land Navigation by Michael Ferguson

FOUR COMPASS STYLES ...

BASEPLATE - MIRROR

- LENSATIC - SIGHTING

FEATURES OF THE “ORIENTEERING STYLE” BASEPLATE COMPASS

LENSATIC COMPASS

From A Comprehensive Guide to Land Navigation with GPS by Noel Hotchkiss

From A Comprehensive Guide to Land Navigation with GPS by Noel Hotchkiss

Compass Only
1. Select an on-route landmark. Hold compass level and point the Direction of Travel Arrow at the landmark. 2. Find your heading to the landmark by turning compass dial until the N aligns with the Red end of the Needle. Read heading at the Index Line. 3. Keep the Needle aligned with the N. Sight and move toward your landmark. Repeat procedure until you reach your destination.

The Brunton Company

Compass & Heading
1. When given a heading in degrees, turn the Dial so the heading is set at the Index Line. Hold compass level with the Direction of Travel Arrow pointing straight ahead. Turn your body until the Red end of the Needle is aligned with the N on the Dial.Travel in this direction. Pick out a landmark in line with your heading. Move toward it. Repeat procedure until you reach your destination.

2.

3.

Compass & Map
Hold the compass level in front of you with the Direction of Travel Arrow pointing straight ahead. Turn your body until the Red end of the Needle is directly over the Red Orienting Arrow. Look up. Find a landmark. Move to it. Repeat until you reach your destination. 1. Place compass on map with baseplate edge connecting where you are (start “A”) and where you want to go (finish “B”). 2. Turn the compass Dial until the N aligns with Magnetic North (MN) on map. 3. Hold the compass level in front of you with the Direction of Travel Arrow pointing straight ahead. Turn your body until the Red end of the Needle is directly over the Red Orienting Arrow. Look up. Find a landmark. Move to it. Repeat until you reach your destination.

The Brunton Company

The Brunton Company

The Brunton Company

THE END

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