Sewer Appurtenances

Dr. Akepati S. Reddy
Associate Professor, Thapar University
Patiala (PUNJAB) – 147 004
Ancillary structures in sewerage system
• Ancillary structures
– Gully traps, and Oil & grease traps
– Gutters, storm water inlets and catch basins
– Manholes
– Flushing tanks, flushing manholes and clean outs
– Lamp holes and sewer ventilators
– (Inverted) siphons
– Culverts
– Pumping stations
• IS:4111 (Part I)-1967 Code of practice for ancillary structures
in sewerage system: Part I Manholes
• IS:4111 (Part II)-1967 Code of practice for ancillary structures
in sewerage system: Part II Flushing tanks
• IS: 4111 (Part III)-1967 Code of practice for ancillary structures
in sewerage system: Part III Inverted syphons
• IS : 4111 (Part 4)-1968 Code of practice for ancillary structures
in sewerage systems: Part 4 Pumping stations and pumping
mains (rising mains)
• openings by which humans along with their machinery have
access to sewers for inspection, cleaning, repair and other
maintenance operations
• Components of manholes
– Manhole cover
– Access shaft (passage from manhole cover to manhole
– Manhole chamber (chambers constructed over the sewage
channel within manholes)
– Sewage channel with benching (sloping surface on either side)
• Locations of manholes
– At change of sewer diameter or slope or direction
– At the upstream ends and at the sewer junctions
– At regular intervals/distances along straight sewer stretches
• Manholes for manually cleaned sewers and for the sewers
cleaned mechanically
• Pre-cast manholes and manholes constructed onsite
Spacing of Manholes
In case of manually cleaned sewers
• In case of smaller sewers which can not be entered for
cleaning the manhole spacing is ≤30 m
• For sewers of >900 mm size, spacing of manholes is
determined by
– Distance through which silt and other obstrcutions can be
conveyed manually
– Distance by which materials for repair can be conveyed
– Ventilation requirements
For sewers of 900-1500 mm diameter on straight runs the
spacing can be upto and above 90-150 m
For sewers of 1.5 to 2.0 m diameter the spacing is 150-200 m
For sewers of >2.0 m diameter the spacing is above 300 m
• General rule: spacing is 100 m x sewer diameter in meters
In case of the sewers cleaned with mechanical devices, the
spacing depends on the type equipment used for the cleaning
Types and sizes of manholes
Rectangular, arch type and circular manholes
• Rectangular manholes of 0.9 m x 0.8 m size are provided for
sewers of <0.9 m depths, and 1.2 m x 0.9 m size manholes for
sewer of 0.9 to 2.5 m depth
• Arch type manholes with manhole chamber size 1.4 m x 0.9 m
are used for sewers at >2.5 m depth
– Width of the manhole is suitably increased from 0.9 m on bends
and junctions, and for sewers of size >450 mm
• Benching of >200 mm is ensured on either side
• Circular manholes are stronger and better alternatives to
rectangular and arch type manholes
– These are straight down in the lower portion and slanting in the
top portion
– Can be provided for all depths starting from 0.9 m
• 900 mm manhole is used for 0.9 - 1.65 m depth sewers, 1200 mm
for 1.65 -2.3 m depth; 1500 mm for 2.3 – 9.0 m depth, and 1800
mm for 9 – 14 m depth
Sewage channels and benching
• Channels and benching should be in cement concrete
• If possible channels should be of the same material as the sewers
• Benching is a sloping surfaces (1 in 12 slope) on either side of the
sewer within the manhole
• Meant to confine sewage flow to sewer/channel, to avoid
accumulation of deposits, and to provide safe working platform
• Channels should be semi-circular in the bottom half (diameter
equal to that of sewer) and sides should be extended veritcally 50
mm above the sewer crown, and the channel top edge is rounded
– Within the manhole the channel should be appropriately sloped
– When a smaller sewer joins the main sewer, invert level of the smaller
sewer should be located 2/3
diameter above the main sewer invert
– Branch sewers should deliver sewage in the manhole in the direction
of flow in the main sewer – should not impede flow in the main sewer
Invert levels of incoming and leaving sewers
• Maximum length of the building sewer should be 6 m
• When sewer diameter is increasing, crown of the entering sewer is
fixed at the same level as that of the leaving sewer
Manhole rungs
• Should be provided if the manhole depth is >0.8 m
• Cast iron rungs of suitable dimensions are set in two staggering
vertical runs 300 mm apart both vertically and horizontally
• The rungs should project 100 mm beyond the finished wall
• 1
rung should be 450 mm below the manhole cover and the last
one 300 mm above the benching
Manhole covers and frames
• Clear opening of the manhole should be >560 mm for manhole
depth is >0.9 m
• Manhole frame should be firmly embedded in concrete alignment
• Should be of heavy duty casting for manholes provided on heavy
vehicular traffic roads, otherwise can be medium duty casting

• Manholes should be built on a concrete bed designed to carry
weight of walls, wheel loads, impacts of traffic and water
– Can be constructed in brick work or reinforced cement concrete
– Sites with higher sub-soil water conditions can have RCC manholes
• Still walls can be in brick masonry above the subsoil water level
• A cement concrete collar should be provided over the sewer
where it is passing through the manhole walls
• On natural undeveloped ground the manholes are built to
about 600 mm elevation from the ground level
• Deeper manholes (>6 m) can have rest chambers at 6 m
• Manholes on sewers of >1.0 m diameter should have safety
provisions, such as,
– Safety chains across the sewer mouth
– Galvanized pipe handrails provided on the benching edges,
platforms, etc.
• Manholes are not permitted in a building or passage

Types of Manholes
• Straight through manholes
• Junction manholes
• Side entrance manholes
• Drop manholes
• Scraper type manholes
Junction manholes (and junction chambers)
• Precast or constructed onsite structures interconnecting two or
more sewers
• Soffit of a smaller sewer in the junction manhole should not be
lower than that of the main sewer
• Gradient of the smaller sewers if feasible may steepened from the
previous manhole for reducing the invert level difference at
junction manhole
• Junction chambers: manholes constructed onsite – used when
sewer diameters are large and precast manholes can not be used
Types of Manholes
Drop manholes (external or internal)
• Provided when
– Water level in the main sewer during peak flow is >600 mm below the
invert level of the branch sewer joining the main sewer
– Difference in elevation between incoming and outgoing sewers is >0.6
m (flow of incoming sewer is dropped to the outgoing sewer elevation)
• Drop is provided inside the manhole for smaller drops & smaller
sewers – external drop is preferred for larger sewers & larger drops
• Continuation of the sewer with half blank flange is built to facilitate
access to the sewer for cleaning and repair and maintenance
• External drop is usually encased in concrete and internal drops are
supported on brackets
• Internal drop sewer can be cast iron (if not, it is encased in 150 mm
thick concrete encasement)
• Diameter of the drop sewer should be ≥ to the sewer
• Drop pipe terminates with a plain or duck foot band and water is
discharged at 45 angle with the flow direction in the main sewer
• 150 mm depth water cushion is provided under the drop sewer

Types of Manholes
Side entrance manholes
• Provided on larger sewers
• Access shaft is constructed in the nearest convenient position and
connected to the manhole chamber by lateral passage
• Floor of the side entrance should be sloped 1 in 30 towards the
manhole chamber
Scraper (service) manholes
• All sewers of >450 mm diameter should have manholes at 110-120
m intervals
• The manhole should have a clear opening at the top of 1.2m x 0.9m
size to facilitate lowering of buckets for clog material removal, etc.,

Flushing tanks, Flushing
manholes, and Cleanouts
Flushing Tanks
• Devices that hold/store sewage/water and throw out or
discharge into the sewer at intervals for the sewer flushing
• Provided in the sewer sections where flow is never sufficient
to generate self-cleansing velocity
– At the heads of sewers
• Quantity of sewage/water for the flushing is equal to half full
70 m long sewer (for sewers of <450 mm diameter)

• Flushing tanks are operated either manually or they are
Sewer diameter Sewer length Flush water need
250 75 – 90 1.4 – 1.7 m3
350 75 – 90 1.7 – 2.7 m3
400 75 – 90 2.7 – 3.6 m3
450 75 – 90 3.6 – 4.5 m3
Flushing Tanks
• Flushing without using an independent flushing tank is also
– Using a flap valve or plug in the downstream manhole - opening
the valve/plug at intervals to rush sewage through for flushing
– Water is admitted into the sewer at controlled rate for achieving
the desired level of backing
– Fire hoses or water tankers may deliver the water
• Flushing by manually operated flushing tank
– Water supply connection to the flush tank and controlled flow
of water into the flush tank
– The flush tank is connected with the upstream manhole by a
pipe of same size as the sewer
– The flush tank drain has a slot with a wooden plank for manually
regulating the flushing
– The risk of sewage back up (in the event of flushing failure) is
tackled by providing an overflow pipe connecting to the sewer
Flushing tanks
Automatic flushing tank
• A masonry/concrete/RCC tank flushing tank has an Adam’s
siphon (automatic siphon) at the bottom
– Adam’s siphon is in cast iron and comes in different diameters
(65, 80, 100 mm diameter)
– The jointing should be leak proof
• The tank has a water supply connection
– A physical break (of 30 mm) between the water supply
connection and maximum water level in flushing tank is ensured
• When the tank is full, the siphon goes into operation and
water is quickly discharged into the sewer
– The flushing frequency should be once a day
• An inclined pipe connected from
above ground to the sewer
• Provided at the upper ends of the
lateral sewers in place of manholes
• When needed, cover of the
cleanout is removed and water is
forced through for cleaning the
• If needed a flexible rod is inserted
for removing the obstructions

Septic Tanks and Interceptor
Interceptor Tanks
• Interceptor tanks on house connections are designed to settle
solids and allow solids-free sewage to flow into sewers
– Interceptor tanks reduce peak flows, and hence sewers can be
smaller (typical dia. of 50mm or 75mm, min. dia. of 38mm
– Because the sewage do not have solids, sewers can be laid on
flatter gradients than conventional sewers
– Interceptor tanks reduce oxygen demand by about 30%
• Interceptor tanks are rectangular in plan, designed with two
compartments and have T pipes on the outlet
– Existing septic tanks can be used as interceptor tanks
• Interceptor tanks tend to concentrate maintenance
requirements at the interceptor tanks
– Periodic desludging of the interceptor tanks is required
– Institutional arrangements for fecal sludge management will
have to be strong and effective
• Smaller interceptor tanks operate as traps for large objects
Gutters, Storm water inlets and
Catch basins
Street Gutters
• Gutter: A channel alongside the road for conveying storm
water water flows to sewer inlets
• Gutters have
– Both depth and width (gutter spread)
– Both cross slope and longitudinal slope
• Flow in gutter is estimated by (modified Manning’s equation)

• Flow spread allowed in the gutter or depth of flow at the curb
is used as the criterion for locating sewer inlets
• Rational method is used for quantifying the runoff
– Area contributing to the runoff, Design rainfall intensity and
Runoff coefficient are required
5 . 0
67 . 2 5 . 0 87 . 1
1 376 . 0
376 . 0
S d
S n
Q is gutter capacity
‘n’ is manning’s roughness coefficient
T is gutter spread (width of flow)
Sx is gutter cross slope
S is longitudinal slope of gutter
‘d’ is depth of flow at the curb
Street Gutter
Storm water inlets
• May be located either on a continuous grade or in a sag
– Part of the gutter flow can bypass the inlet in case of the Inlets
on continuous grade (carry over, bypass or runby flow)
• Storm water inlet types:
– Gutter (grate) inlets
– Curb opening inlets
– Slotted drain inlet
– Combination inlets
• A concrete box with grating or opening in the vertical or
horizontal direction
– Vertical or curb inlet
– Horizontal inlet or gutter
• Grates of the inlets can be reticular, rectangular or parallel
Storm water inlets
• Storm water inlets act as weirs for shallow flows and as
orifices for deeper depth flows
• Located on road sides at 30 to 60 m distance at low points and
cross slope reversal points
– Inlets in sag are located at points where runoff from a
given area ultimately accumulates
• Open into catch basins and connected to neay by manholes of
the sewerage system
• Have clear opening of ≤25 mm size
Curb Inlet
• Recommended length is 1.2 m for 0.08 m3/sec.
• Curb opening height is <150 mm
• Flow through a curb inlet (Qi)

( )
5 . 1
5 . 1
2 67 . 0
8 . 1 27 . 1
27 . 1



÷ =
+ =
d g A Q
d W L Q
Ld Q
---- for a gutter without depression
---- for a gutter with depression
---- for a gutter with d ≥1.4 h
Qi is discharge through curb inlet
L is length of the curb inlet
‘d’ is depth of flow
‘h’ is height of the curb opening
A is area of the curb opening
Catch Basins
• Masonry chambers of 75-90 cm diameter and 75-
90 cm depth provided along the storm sewer (or
combined sewer) line for collecting and clarifying
storm water and allowing into the storm sewer
• Storm water inlets open into these catch basins
and outlets of these basins provided 60 cm above
the basin bottom convey storm water into the
• Frequent maintenance (degritting and cleaning)
of the catch basins is required
Inverted Siphons
Inverted Siphon
• It is the section of a sewer at a lower elevation than the
adjacent sewer
• It is actually a depressed sewer or a sag pipe used to carry
sewage below obstructions (ground depressions, streams,
rivers, railway lines, etc.)
• These pipes flow full under the pressure greater than the
atmospheric pressure
• Inverted siphon usually includes two or more pipes of ≥200
mm diameter running parallel
– 1
pipe carries dry weather minimum flow
– 2
pipe carries the difference of dry weather minimum flow
and dry weather maximum flow
– 3
carries the storm water flow
– Large fluctuations in storm water flows demand >3 pipes
• Minimum dry weather flow, maximum dry weather flow, and
maximum wet weather flow for the design period are
required for the design of inverted siphons
Inverted Siphon
• Flow velocity in the siphons is maintained at ≥1.2 m/sec. for
self cleansing
– Velocity produced in the siphon pipe is function of the liquid
level difference between the siphon’s inlet and the outlet
• Deposits are prone to form at siphon pipe bends
– Sharp bends are avoided and only easy bends are allowed
– Hatch boxes of adequate size in manholes are provided at bends
for access to pipes for rodding
– Hatch boxes are often omitted and only water tight manholes
are provided – but floating matter can accumulate here
• Provisions to isolate any of the siphon pipes for cleaning
– Suitable penstocks or stop planks are provided at both the inlet
and outlet ends for this purpose
• Draw off valve on siphon pipe at lowest point for draining
– Provision of wash out into a manhole and pump out from there
– Portable pumps with suction end connected to the draw off of
the siphon pipe and discharge end connected to the draw off of
the another siphon pipe
Inverted Siphon
• Siphon inlet (fore bay) is designed for bringing the siphon
pipes successively into action
– The fore bay or inlet chamber the same number of channels as
the number of siphon pipes
– The incoming sewer extends as a middle channel and feeds the
siphon pipe carrying the minimum dry weather flow
– On one side the middle channel has a overflow weir at specified
elevation for diverting the flow in excess of the minimum dry
weather flow into the 2
– On the other side the middle channel has another overflow weir
at another specified elevation for diverting the flow in excess of
the maximum dry weather flow into the 3
• Outlet of the inverted siphon is arranged in such a way that
the inverts of all the siphon pipes merge into a single channel
– Outlet of the 2
pipe is maintained higher to the 1
pipe and so
on to avoid eddies and accumulation of solids
– Groves for stop planks are provided in the outlet chambers for
facilitating closure of siphon pipes for cleaning

Inverted Siphon
• The inlet and outlet chambers of the siphon should allow
sufficient room for the access, entry and maintenance
– Ramps or if not feasible vertical access shafts are provided
• Bypass arrangements are made to the inlet chambers
• Siphon pipes under river beds are
– Surrounded by RCC of appropriate thickness to prevent floating
when empty
– Protected against the water currents and swifting bottoms or
• Outlet chamber is designed to prevent backflow of sewage
• Inverted siphons are constructed of cast iron pipes or
reinforced pressure pipes
Pumping Stations
and Pumping Mains
Sewer and Storm Sewer Outfalls
Storm water Regulators
• Storm water regulators are used to divert part of the sewage from
combined sewer into a natural stream or river
• The regulators include leaping weir, overflow weir and siphon
• Leaping weir
– A gap or opening is provided in the invert of the combined sewer
– And intercepting sewer running at right angles to the combined sewer
the diverted sewage
– When flow is quite high additional water will flow forward in the
combined sewer
• Overflow weir
– Excess sewage is allowed to overflow into the channel made in the

Float activated gates and valves
• automatic mechanical regulators actuated by
water level in the sump
• These regulators involve moving parts and
require periodic maintenance
• Flap gates and flood gates are installed at or
near sewer outlets to prevent backflow of

Storm Sewer Outfall
• For erosion control velocity is reduced and energy dissipators
• Stilling basin, stone rip-rap, erosion control mat, Sod and
• Stone rip-rap
– Type and size of stone
– Thickness of stone lining
– Length and width of apron

02 . 0

D50 is median stone size
TW is tail water depth in feet
Do is maximum pipe/colvert width
Q is design discharge
Other Appurtenances
Lampholes and Sewer Ventilators
• Openings/holes constructed in sewer for lowering lamp - often
used also as a flushing device
• Located at change of gradient or direction, specially if providing a
manhole is not possible, and on straight sewer stretches between
maintenance manholes
• Has a vertical pipe, encased in concrete and connected to the sewer
line through a T-junction
• Lamphole is covered at ground level by manhole cover with a frame
– If the cover is perforated, the lamphole can also ventilate the sewer
Sewer ventilators
• 15-23 cm diameter cast iron or RCC pipe with cowl at the top
• Ventilating shaft is connected to a manhole by 15 cm diameter pipe
or it may be provided directly on the manhole cover
• Provided on sewers at every 80-100 m
• Ventilators are needed if intercepting traps are provided in house
Gully traps
• It is a 60-70 mm water seal in stoneware provided inside a masonry
chamber with cast iron grating on its top
• Located near the external face of wall, and these are starting points
of horizontal flow of sewage
• Leads sewage to sewer, inspection chamber or manhole
• Prevents entry of gases from sewer line to household drainage
Oil & grease traps
• It is a trap chamber with outlet near bottom and inlet near top
• If enough space is provided at the bottom sand and grit can also be
excluded from sewage
• Located near the source of oil & grease (Automobile garages, oil &
grease producing industries, kitchens of hotels, etc.)
• Excludes oil & grease from sewage prior to entry into the sewer line
• If not excluded SS become sticky and stick to sewer walls
• Oil & grease trap requires regular inspection and cleaning

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