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Learning objectives:
After completing this chapter, you will
be able to:
Define an operating system
Describe the functions of an operating
Explain the purpose of the utilities
included with most operating systems
Discuss a variety of stand alone operating
systems, network operating systems and
embedded operating systems
Operating Systems
What is an operating system (OS)?
Sometimes called the platform
A set of programs containing instructions that
coordinates all the activities among computer
hardware resources
The computers operating system is probably the
most important kind of systems software,
responsible for the direct control and management
of hardware and basic system operations
In most cases, the operating system is installed
and resides on the computers hard disk; on
smaller handheld computers and PDAs, the
operating system may reside on a ROM chip

What are the functions of an
Start the
Provide a user
Manage memory
Schedule jobs
and configure
Establish an
Provide file
and other utilities
Control a
Start a computer
Booting is the process of starting or
resetting a computer
Cold boot
Turning on computer that has been powered off
To perform a cold boot, push the Power: button on
the system unit
Warm boot
Restarting computer that is powered on
To perform a warm boot, click restart: button in the
dialog box or press the Reset: button on the
system unit

Start a computer
Each time you boot a computer, the
kernel and other frequently used
operating system instructions are loaded
from the hard disk (storage) to the
computers memory or primary storage
The kernel (or supervisor program) is the
core of an operating system that:
Manages memory and services
Maintains the computer clock
Starts applications
Assign the computer resources such as
devices, programs, data and information

Start a computer
The kernel is memory resident,
which remains in memory (primary
storage) all the time while the
computer is running is called
resident program.
Other parts of the operating system
are nonresident , that is, these
instructions remain on hard disk until
they are needed is called transient

Provide a user interface
Controls how you enter data and
instructions and how information is
displayed on the screen
Three types of user interfaces are:
Command line interface
Menu driven interface
Graphical user interfaces (GUI)
Operating system often use a
combination of these interfaces to define
how a user interacts with a computer
Command line interface
In a command line interface, a user
types commands or presses special keys
on the keyboard (such as function keys
or key combinations) to enter data and
When working with a command line
interface, the set of commands entered
into the computer is called command
Command line interface often are difficult
to use because they require exact
spelling, grammar and punctuations
Command line interface
Menu driven interface
Provides menus as means of entering
Easier to learn than a command line
interface because users do not have
to learn the rules of entering
Menu driven interface
Graphical user interface (GUI)
User interacts with menus and visual
images such as icons, buttons and
other graphical objects to issues

Graphical user interface (GUI)
Graphical user interface (GUI)
Manage programs
Program management features of OS:
Single user/single tasking operating
Single user/multi tasking operating
Multi user OS
Multi processing OS
Fault tolerant compute
Single user/single tasking
operating systems
Allows only one user
to run program or one
task at a time
With a single tasking
OS, you must quit one
program before you
can run another
PDAs and other small
computing devices
often use a single
user/single tasking
operating system
Single user/multi tasking
operating systems
Allows a single user to work on two
or more programs that reside in a
memory at the same time
With a multi tasking OS, you do not
have to quit one program to run
another program; both programs can
run concurrently
When a computer is running multiple
programs concurrently, one program
is in the foreground and the others
are in the background:
Foreground contains program you are
using (active program)
Background- contains programs that are
running but are not in use
Multi user OS
Enables two or
more users to run
midrange servers,
mainframes and
allow hundred to
thousands of users
to connect at the
same time

Multi processing OS
Support two or
more processors
running programs
at same time

Fault tolerant compute
Has duplicate components
such as processors,
memory and disk drives
If any one of these
components fails, the
computer switches to the
duplicates components and
continues to operate,
ensuring that no data is lost
Airline reservation system,
communications networks
and automated teller
machine (ATM) that must
be operational at all times
use fault tolerant computer

Manage memory
Purpose of memory management optimizing
use of RAM (random access memory)
If multiple programs run simultaneously, it is
possible to run out of RAM.
Assume an operating system requires 12MB of RAM,
a Web browser requires 32MB of RAM, a photo
editing program requires 32MB of RAM, a business
suite requires 40MB of RAM
With all these programs running simultaneously the
total RAM require would be 232MB of RAM
The computer has only 128MB RAM
The operating system have to use virtual memory to
solve the problem
Manage memory
Schedule jobs
Determines which jobs are processed
A jobs is an operation the processor
manages; it includes:
Receiving data from an input device
Processing instructions
Sending information to an output device
Transferring items between storage and
The operating system adjusts the
schedule of jobs based on jobs priority
Configure devices
Device driver, also called driver- small
program that tells the operating system
how to communicate with a specific
Each device on a computer, such as the
mouse, keyboards, monitor, printer, card
reader and scanner has its own
specialized set of commands and thus
requires its own specific driver
These devices will not functions without
their correct drivers
Configure devices
Configure devices
To attach a new device to computer,
such as printer or scanner, its driver
must be installed before the device
can be used.
Today, with Plug and Play operating
system automatically configures new
devices as you install them
It assist a user in the devices
installations by loading the necessary
drivers automatically and checking
conflict with other devices.

Establish an Internet
Operating systems typically provide a
means to establish Internet Connection.
Windows XP includes New Connections
Guides user through setting up connections
between computer and an Internet Service
Some operating system also include a
Web browser and an e-mail program,
enabling users to begin using the web as
soon as they set up the internet
Monitor performance
Operating systems typically contain a
program called performance monitor
that assesses and reports information
about system resources and devices.
With performance monitor, users can
monitor the processor, disks, memory
and network usage.
A performance monitor also can check
the number of reads and writes to a

Monitor performance
The information in performance reports
helps users identify a problem with
resources and try to resolves any
If a computer is running extremely slow,
monitor performance may determine that the
computers memory is being used to the
User might consider installing additional
memory in the computer
What is a utility program
System software that performs maintenance type
tasks, usually related to managing a computer,
its devices or programs.
Also called a utility
Utility program provide the following functions:
Managing files
Viewing graphics files
Uninstalling programs
Scanning disks
Defragmenting disks
Diagnosing problems
Backing up files and disks
Setting up screen saver
What is a utility program
Program Descriptions
File manager A utility that performs functions related to file management
such as organizing, copying, renaming, deleting, sorting and
moving file
Windows includes a file manager called windows explorer
Image viewer A utility that allows users to displays and copy the contents
of graphics file.
with an image viewer, user can see images without having
to open them in a paint or image editing program.
Windows includes an images viewer, double click the
thumbnail of the image in file manager
What is a utility program
Program Descriptions
Disk scanner A utility that detect and correct both physical and
logical problems on hard disk or floppy disk.
Searches for and removes unnecessary files.
physical disk problems a problem with the media
such as a scratch on the surface of the disk
Logical disk problems a problem with the data
such as a corrupt file
compiles technical information about computer
hardware and certain system software programs.
Prepares a report outlining any identified problems.
What is a utility program
Program Descriptions
A utility that recognizes files and unused space on a
computers hard disk so the operating system accesses
data more quickly and programs run faster.
Fragmentation slows down disk access and thus the
performance of entire computer
Defragmenting the disk or recognizing it, so the files
are stored in contiguous sectors, solving fragmentation
problems, which speeds access time.
Backup utility Allows users to copy or back up selected files or entire
hard disk onto another disk or tape.
Most compress files during backup require less
storage space
What is a utility program
Program Descriptions
A utility that causes monitors screen to
display moving image or blank screen if there
is no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a
specified time.
when you press a key on the keyboard or
move the mouse, the screen saver disappear
and the screen returns to the previous state.
To secure computer, user configures screen
saver to require password to deactivate
Administer Security
Network operating system administer
security by establishing user name
and password for each user
Operating System (cont)
What are three
categories of
operating system?

Network Embedded
Stand Alone
A complete operating system that works on
a desktop computer, notebook computer or
mobile computing device.
Examples of stand alone operating system:

Allows users to share printer, Internet
access, files and programs on a network.
Examples of network operating system:
Netware designed for client/server system
Windows Server 2003 upgrade to Windows
2000 Server
Solaris version of Unix developed by Sun
Microsystems; specially for e-commerce
Linux Multipurpose operating system

Found on most PDA and other small
Resides on ROM chip
Popular embedded operating system:
Windows CE.NET (scale down version of
Pocket PC 2002
Palm OS
Symbian OS

What is an operating system
OS Descriptions
DOS (Disk
Single user operating system developed in
the early 1980s for personal computer
The two widely used versions of DOS were:
Used command line interface when first
developed; later version included both
command line and menu driven user
Hardly used today because it does not offer
a graphical user interface (GUI)
What is an operating system
OS Descriptions
MAC OS X The latest version of Macintosh
operating system
A multitasking operating system
available only for computers
manufactured by Apple
Macintosh operating system released
with Macintosh computers in 1984
Macintosh operating system has been
model for most of the new GUIs
developed for non Macintosh systems
What is an operating system
OS Descriptions
Unix A multitasking operating system developed in
the early 1970s by scientist in Bell Lab
In addition to being a stand alone operating
system, UNIX also is a network OS some
computer professional call UNIX a
multipurpose operating system
UNIX is capable of handling a high volume of
transactions in a multi-user environment and
working with multiple processor using
Some versions of UNIX have a command
line interface; most versions of UNIX offer
What is an operating system
OS Descriptions
LINUX Popular, free, multitasking UNIX type Operating system
Linux is open source software, which means its code is
available to the public
Some versions of Linux are command line interface
Others are GUI two most popular GUIs for Linux are
Linux also is a multipurpose operating system because it is
both a stand alone and network operating system
What is an operating system
OS Descriptions
Windows An operating system provided by Microsoft
Also called Microsoft Windows OS
Uses a GUI with pull down, multiple typefaces and dialog
Also implement multitasking operations and provides the
capability to move material from one program to another
Since 1990, Microsoft has continually updated its
windows OS, incorporating new features and functions
with each subsequent version
Operating System (cont)
Program Descriptions
Windows 3.x Provided a GUI
An operating environment only
worked in combination with DOS
Windows NT 3.1 Client OS that connected to a
Windows NT advanced Server
Interface similar to Windows 3.x
Operating System (cont)
Program Descriptions
Windows 95 True multitasking operating system
Improved GUI
Included support for networking,
plug and play technology, longer file
names and email
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Client OS that connected to a
Windows NT Server
Interface similar to Windows 95
Network integration
Operating System (cont)
Program Descriptions
Windows 98 Upgrade to windows 95
More integrated with the internet
included Internet Explorer (a Web
Fast system startup and shutdown
better file management, support for
multimedia technologies (eg: DVD)
and USB connectivity.
Windows Millennium Edition Upgrade to windows 98
Designed for home user who
wanted music playing, video
editing and networking capabilities
Operating System (cont)
Program Descriptions
Windows 2000 Professional Upgrade to Windows NT workstation 4.0
Complete multitasking client OS designed for
business personal computers
Certified device drivers, faster performance,
adaptive start menu, image viewer, enhanced
for mobile users.
Windows XP Upgrade to Windows Millennium Edition called
Windows XP Home Edition
Upgrade to Windows 2000 Professional called
Windows XP Professional
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition designed for
Tablet PC User
Improved interface and increased performance
in all editions
Available in 5 editions; Home Edition,
Professional Edition, Tablet PC Edition, Media
center Edition and 64-Bit edition
Operating System
Windows version Year Released
Windows 3.x
Windows NT 3.1
Windows 95
Windows NT Workstation 4.0
Windows 98
Windows Millennium Edition
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows XP

Windows Server 2003
Windows Vista
Windows 7

Warm boot from windows desktop
Perform warm boot
Warm boot or cold boot from system unit
Power button
Reset button
Start the computer
Provide user interface
Command line interface
C: A: (enter)
A: dir (enter)
Menu driven interface
C: (dir menu)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Menu bar
Foreground program
Background program
Manage program
Manage Memory
Schedule jobs & Configure
Establish internet connection
Monitor performance
File management & utilities
Control a network
Administer security
Revision Chapter
1. What is an operating system (OS)?
2. How many functions does an OS have?
List all the functions discussed.
3. What is the purpose of utility program?
4. What are the three (3) categories of OS?
List all and explain.