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Faqiha Rizvi

• Democritus a fifth century B.C. Greek

philosopher proposed that all matter was
composed of indivisible particles called
atoms (Greek for uncuttable).
John Dalton
• From his experiments and observations, he suggested
that atoms were like tiny, hard balls. Each chemical
An element is a substance made from only one type of
atom. An element cannot be broken down into any
simpler substances. element had its own atoms that
differed from others in mass. Dalton believed that atoms
were the fundamental building blocks of nature and
could not be split. In chemical reactions, the atoms
would rearrange themselves and combine with other
atoms in new ways.
In many ways, Dalton's ideas are still useful today. For
example, they help us to understand elements,
compounds, and molecules name it as Billiard Ball
J.J. Thomson
• At the end of the nineteenth century, a scientist
called J.J. Thomson discovered the electron.
This is a tiny negatively charged particle that is
much, much smaller than any
• An atom is the smallest particle of an element
that can still be defined as that element. atom.
When he discovered the
• Electrons are tiny, negatively charged particles
that orbit the nucleus of an atom in energy levels
(or shells). electron, Thomson was
experimenting by applying high voltages to
gases at low pressure.
Thomson proposed model for the
atom (Plumb Pudding Model )
• He said that the tiny negatively charged
electrons must be embedded in a cloud of
positive charge (after all, atoms
themselves carry no overall charge, so the
charges must balance out). Thomson
imagined the electrons as the bits of plum
in a plum pudding (rather like currants
spread through a Christmas pudding – but
with lots more space in between).
Thomson Model of the Atom
Ernest Rutherford
• The next development came about 10 years
later. Two of Ernest Rutherford's students, Hans
Geiger and Ernest Marsden, were doing an
experiment at Manchester University with
radiation. They were using the dense, positively
charged particles (called alpha particles) as
'bullets' to fire at a very thin piece of gold foil.
They expected the particles to barge their way
straight through the gold atoms unimpeded by
the diffuse positive charge spread throughout
the atom that
• In 1911, Ernest Rutherford interpreted these
results and suggested a new model for the atom.
He said that Thomson's model could not be
right. The positive charge must be concentrated
in a tiny volume at the centre of the atom,
otherwise the heavy alpha particles fired at the
foil could never be repelled back towards their
source. On this model, the electrons orbited
around the dense nucleus (centre of the atom )
Niels Bohr
• The next important development came in 1914 when
Danish physicist Niels Bohr revised the model again. It
had been known for some time that the light given out
when atoms were heated always had specific amounts
of energy, but no one had been able to explain this. Bohr
suggested that the electrons must be orbiting the
• The nucleus is the centre of an atom, containing protons
and neutrons. nucleus in certain fixed energy levels (or
shells). The energy must be given out when 'excited'
electrons fall from a high energy level to a low one.
Bohr`s Atomic Model
The Refined Bohr Model
Electron Cloud Model (1920's)-
• an atom consists of a dense nucleus
composed of protons and neutrons
surrounded by electrons that exist in
different clouds at the various energy
levels. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner
Heisenburg developed probability
functions to determine the regions or
clouds in which electrons would most
likely be found.