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# 1) High Speed Aerodynamics

## Topic: - Scramjet Inlets.

2) Missile Aerodynamics
Topic: - Missiles with non circular cross section.
3) Theory Of Turbulence
Topic: - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Supersonic combustion ramjet
scramjet engine is a direct descendant of a ramjet engine.

High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Not self starting, a scramjet powered vehicle must be accelerated to the
required velocity by some other means of propulsion, such as turbojet or
rocket engines.

Types of scramjet Inlets
1) External compression

High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Types of scramjet Inlets
2) Mixed compression

3) Internal Compression
High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Theoretical calculation is performed for a scramjet with a free stream
starting Mach number 4. The following assumptions are taken: -

1) Flow is one dimensional.
2)Boundary layer shock wave interactions are neglected.
3)Air as perfect gas.
4)Heat transfer to or from the wall will be neglected.

High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
varying from 13.1 to 13.5 and For Altitude of 22000 m, P = 4275 Pa, T =
218.22 K
OSW Ma Mna Mnb Mb Pa Pb Ta Tb (Po)a (Po)b
1 4 25 1.6904 0.6431 3.093 4275 13530.37 218.22 316.68 647727.27 556980.67
2 3.093 29 1.524 0.6941 2.484 13530.37 34215.59 316.68 422.59 556980.67 514260.26
3 2.484 34 1.418 0.7355 2.005 34215.59 74788.45 422.59 535.67 514260.26 490141.45
4 2.005 42 1.361 0.7572 1.538 74788.45 148918.77 535.67 658.34 490141.45 474260.87
High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Total Pressure Loss
For OSW, loss = 26. 7 %

For Normal Shock
M =4, (Po)a = 647727.27 , from NS tables (Po)b / (Po)a = 0.1388
(Po)b = 89904.54, loss = 86.12 %

For Mach numbers greater than 3, the normal shock losses become
unacceptably high and oblique shock compression becomes necessary.

High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Comparison With CFD Values: -

Mach Number Pressure Temperature
CFD 1.82 1.09 * e^5 609
Theoretical 1.538 148918.77

658.34
High Speed Aerodynamics : - Scramjet Inlet
Conclusion

While scramjets are conceptually simple, actual implementation is limited
by extreme technical challenges.

Maintaining combustion in the supersonic flow presents additional
challenges, as the fuel must be injected, mixed, ignited, and burned within
milliseconds
Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
Commonly used cross section is circular.

Other types of cross section
1) Rectangular.
2) Square.
3) Elliptical.
Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
Why?
Storage and carriage purposes.
Higher aerodynamic efficiencies.
Increase the available internal volume of a store relative to the store with
a circular cross section.

Predicting Aerodynamic Characteristics
1) Empirical Approach.
2) EFD.
3) CFD.

Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
Results

The bodies with square and rectangular cross sections had greater CN values.
Pressure drag was more in the
circular c-s missile, than square c-s missile.
The problem with rectangular case is that,
when the missile rolls and its cross-section changes
from horizontal rectangle to vertical
its aerodynamic efficiency drops drastically
Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
Square cross-section (with rounded corners) decrease in CN and large
vortex separation are formed above the missile body at a medium angle of
attack

But for the case of elliptical bodies, (at phi = 0) the body vortices are
symmetric and the feeding sheet forms at the side edge of the body.

Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
at phi = 45, the size of both vortices decreased with roll angle and these
vortices increased the lifting efficiency of this elliptic body
The use of round corners have led to considerable decrease in the above
unfavorable effects, but a loss
in CN value was evident.
Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
Practical use: - In Submarine launch platforms/ launch tubes
Initially used one-missile-per-tube approach, which severely restricts the
number of missiles which may be carried.
Partitioning of launch tubes. (constraints Diameter, volume and hence
affects range)

Missile Aerodynamics : - Missiles with non circular cross section.
So missiles with non-circular cross section - configuration would enable
more efficient use of existing space in a missile launch tube in terms of

Difficulties in manufacturing.

Noguidance air-to-ground missiles: - Which need to have the maximum
possible load density and the minimum possible drag.
Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
Turbulence is the most natural mode of fluid motion. It can be found in
everyday life situations the wind, a fire, cumulus clouds, boundary layers
growing on aircraft wings, most combustion processes, the flow in a river
etc.

The K-epsilon model is one of the most common turbulence model
K turbulent kinetic energy
Epsilon - turbulent dissipation

Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
CFD Analysis Flow over a flat plate (problem from research paper - 1991)
Free-stream velocity of 33 m/s, length 5.5 m and height is 1.5 times as
high as the measured boundary layer thickness
Using two turbulence models Spalart Allmaras and K Epsilon model

Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
T.B.L thickness

= 0.37 * x / (Re)^(0.2) at x= 5.5m , the thickness is calculated
as 0.0775 m

Domain Height, H = 1.5 * 0.0075 = 0.11m
H 0.1 m

Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
Catia modelling

Ansys Workbench Meshing
Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
Boundary Condition

Results: - Friction Coefficient
1) From experiment 0.00243.
2) Spalart Allmaras 0.003.
3) K Epsilon 0.0025.
Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
Vector Plot

Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
Velocity Profile (@ x= 5.5 m)

= 0.0775 m (Theoretical).
= 0.08 m

Theory Of Turbulence - Predicting Turbulence Using K-Epsilon Model.
For a flow field the success of numerical computations depend on two
factors

1) A well-constructed grid generation.
2) Choosing proper Turbulence model.

An ideal turbulence model should introduce the minimum amount of
complexity while capturing the essence of relevant physics.