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Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition.

Chapter 7 Slide 1
Requirements Engineering
Processes
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 3
Topics covered
Feasibility studies
Requirements elicitation and analysis
Requirements validation
Requirements management
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 4
Requirements engineering processes
The processes used for RE vary widely
depending on the application domain, the
people involved and the organisation
developing the requirements.
However, there are a number of generic
activities common to all processes
Requirements elicitation;
Requirements analysis;
Requirements validation;
Requirements management.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 5
Requirements document
structure
Preface
Introduction
Glossary
User requirements definition
System architecture
System requirements specification
System models
System evolution
Appendices
Index
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 6
The requirements engineering process
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 7
Requirements engineering
process
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 9
Feasibility studies
A feasibility study decides whether or not the
proposed system is worthwhile.
A short focused study that checks
If the system contributes to organisational
objectives;
If the system can be engineered using current
technology and within budget;
If the system can be integrated with other
systems that are used.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 10
Feasibility study implementation
Based on information assessment (what is required),
information collection and report writing.
Questions for people in the organisation
What if the system wasnt implemented?
What are current process problems?
How will the proposed system help?
What will be the integration problems?
Is new technology needed? What skills?
What facilities must be supported by the proposed
system?
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 11
Topics covered
Feasibility studies
Requirements elicitation and analysis
Requirements validation
Requirements management
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 12
Elicitation and analysis
Sometimes called requirements elicitation or
requirements discovery.
A people-intensive process.
Involves technical staff working with customers to
find out about the application domain, the services
that the system should provide and the systems
operational constraints.
May involve end-users, managers, engineers
involved in maintenance, domain experts, trade
unions, etc. These are called stakeholders.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 13
Problems of requirements analysis
Stakeholders dont know what they really want.
Stakeholders express requirements in their own
terms.
Different stakeholders may have conflicting
requirements.
Organisational and political factors may influence
the system requirements.
The requirements change during the analysis
process. New stakeholders may emerge and the
business environment change.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 14
The requirements elicitation spiral
Requirements
classifi cat ion and
organi sat i on
Requirements
pri orit i zat ion and
negoti ati on
Requirements
document at i on
Requirements
di scovery
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 15
Process activities
Requirements discovery
Interacting with stakeholders to discover their
requirements. Domain requirements are also discovered
at this stage.
Requirements classification and organisation
Groups related requirements and organises them into
coherent clusters.
Prioritisation and negotiation
Prioritising requirements and resolving requirements
conflicts.
Requirements documentation
Requirements are documented and input into the next
round of the spiral.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 16
Requirements discovery
The process of gathering information about
the proposed and existing systems and
distilling the user and system requirements
from this information.
Sources of information include
documentation, system stakeholders and the
specifications of similar systems.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 17
ATM stakeholders
Bank customers
Representatives of other banks
Bank managers
Counter staff
Database administrators
Security managers
Marketing department
Hardware and software maintenance engineers
Banking regulators

Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 18
Viewpoints
Viewpoints are a way of structuring the
requirements to represent the perspectives
of different stakeholders. Stakeholders may
be classified under different viewpoints.
This multi-perspective analysis is important
as there is no single correct way to analyse
system requirements.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 19
Types of viewpoint
Interactor viewpoints
People or other systems that interact directly with the
system. In an ATM, the customers and the account
database are interactor VPs.
Indirect viewpoints
Stakeholders who do not use the system themselves but
who influence the requirements. In an ATM, management
and security staff are indirect viewpoints.
Domain viewpoints
Domain characteristics and constraints that influence the
requirements. In an ATM, an example would be standards
for inter-bank communications.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 20
Viewpoint identification
Identify viewpoints using
Providers and receivers of system services;
Systems that interact directly with the system
being specified;
Regulations and standards;
Sources of business and non-functional
requirements.
Engineers who have to develop and maintain
the system;
Marketing and other business viewpoints.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 21
LIBSYS viewpoint hierarchy

Art icl e
providers
Fi nance
Li brary
manager
Li brary
staff
Users
Int eract or Indirect
Al l VPs
Cl assifi cati on
system
UI
standards
Domai n
Ext ernal
St aff St udent s
Cat al oguers
Syst em
managers
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 22
Interviewing
In formal or informal interviewing, the RE
team puts questions to stakeholders about
the system that they use and the system to
be developed.
There are two types of interview
Closed interviews where a pre-defined set of
questions are answered.
Open interviews where there is no pre-defined
agenda and a range of issues are explored with
stakeholders.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 23
Interviews in practice
Normally a mix of closed and open-ended
interviewing.
Interviews are good for getting an overall
understanding of what stakeholders do and how
they might interact with the system.
Interviews are not good for understanding domain
requirements
Requirements engineers cannot understand specific
domain terminology;
Some domain knowledge is so familiar that people find it
hard to articulate or think that it isnt worth articulating.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 24
Effective interviewers
Interviewers should be open-minded, willing
to listen to stakeholders and should not have
pre-conceived ideas about the requirements.
They should prompt the interviewee with a
question or a proposal and should not simply
expect them to respond to a question such
as what do you want.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 25
Scenarios
Scenarios are real-life examples of how a
system can be used.
They should include
A description of the starting situation;
A description of the normal flow of events;
A description of what can go wrong;
Information about other concurrent activities;
A description of the state when the scenario
finishes.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 26
LIBSYS scenario (1)
Initial assumption: The user has logged on to the LIBSYS syst em and has located the journal containing
the copy of the article.
Normal: The user selects the article to be copied. He or she is t hen prompted by the syst em t o ei ther
provide subscriber information for the journal or to indicat e how they will pay for the article. Alt ernative
payment met hods are by credit card or by quot ing an organisat ional account number.
The user is then asked t o fill in a copyright form that maintains det ails of the transaction and they t hen
submit this to t he LIBSYS syst em.
The copyright form is checked and, if OK, the PDF version of the art icle is downloaded t o the LIBSYS
working area on the userscomput er and the user is informed that it is available. The user is asked to select
a printer and a copy of the article is print ed. If the article has been flagged as print-onlyit is delet ed from
the users system once the user has confirmed that print ing is complet e.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 27
LIBSYS scenario (2)
What can go wrong: The user may fail to fill in the copyright form correctly. In t his case, the form should
be re-presented to the user for correct ion. If the resubmitted form is s till incorrect then the usersrequest
for the article is rejected.
The payment may be reject ed by the system. The users r equest for the article is rejected.
The article download may fail. Retry until successful or t he user terminat es the session.
It may not be possible to print the article. If the article is not flagged as print-onlythen it is held in the
LIBSYS workspace. Otherwise, the art icle is deleted and the users account credited wit h the cost of the
article.
Other activities: Simult aneous downloads of other articles.
System state on completion: User is logged on. The downloaded article has been deleted from LIBSYS
workspace if it has been flagged as print-only.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 28
Use cases
A scenario-based technique in UML which
identify the actors in an interaction and which
describe the interaction itself.
Used also to clarify the system boundaries.
A set of use cases should describe all
possible interactions with the system.
Sequence diagrams show the interactions
and event processing inside a use case.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 33
Use Case Diagrams
Used during requirements
elicitation to represent
external behavior

Actors represent roles, that
is, a type of user of the
system
Use cases represent a
generalized scenarios
The use case model is the
set of all use cases. It is a
complete description of the
functionality of the system
and its environment
Passenger
PurchaseTicket
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 34
Actors
An actor models an external entity
which communicates with the system:
User
External system
Physical environment
An actor has a unique name and an
optional description.
Examples:
Passenger: A person in the train
GPS satellite: Provides the system with
GPS coordinates
Passenger
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 35
Use Case
A use case represents a class of
functionality provided by the
system as an event flow.

A use case consists of:
Unique name
Participating actors
Entry conditions
Flow of events
Exit conditions
Special requirements
PurchaseTicket
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 36
Use Case Description: Example
Name: Purchase ticket

Participating actor: Passenger

Entry condition:
Passenger standing in front
of ticket distributor.
Passenger has sufficient
money to purchase ticket.

Exit condition:
Passenger has ticket.
Event flow:
1. Passenger selects the
number of zones to be
traveled.
2. Distributor displays the
amount due.
3. Passenger inserts money, of
at least the amount due.
4. Distributor returns change.
5. Distributor issues ticket.


Anything missing?
Exceptional cases!
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 37
The <<extends>> Relationship
<<extends>> relationships
represent exceptional or seldom
invoked cases.
The exceptional event flows are
factored out of the main event
flow for clarity.
Use cases representing
exceptional flows can extend
more than one use case.
The direction of a <<extends>>
relationship is to the extended
use case
Passenger
PurchaseTicket
TimeOut
<<extends>>
NoChange
<<extends>>
OutOfOrder
<<extends>>
Cancel
<<extends>>
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 38
The <<includes>> Relationship
<<includes>> relationship
represents behavior that
is factored out of the use
case.
<<includes>> behavior is
factored out for reuse,
not because it is an
exception.
The direction of a
<<includes>> relationship
is to the using use case
(unlike <<extends>>
relationships).
Passenger
PurchaseSingleTicket
PurchaseMultiCard
NoChange
<<extends>>
Cancel
<<extends>>
<<includes>>
CollectMoney
<<includes>>
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 39
Sequence Diagrams
Used during requirements
analysis
To refine use case
descriptions
to find additional objects
(participating objects)
Used during system design
to refine subsystem
interfaces
Actors and Classes are
represented by columns
Messages are represented by
arrows
Activations are represented
by narrow rectangles
Lifelines are represented by
dashed lines
selectZone()
pickupChange()
pickUpTicket()
insertCoins()
Passenger
TicketMachine
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 40
Nested activations
The source of an arrow indicates the activation which sent the
message
An activation is as long as all nested activations
Horizontal dashed arrows indicate data flow
Vertical dashed lines indicate lifelines
selectZone()
Passenger
ZoneButton TarifSchedule Display
lookupPrice(selection)
displayPrice(price)
price
Dataflow
to be continued...
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 41
Iteration & condition
Iteration is denoted by a * preceding the message name
Condition is denoted by boolean expression in [ ] before the
message name
Passenger
ChangeProcessor
insertChange(coin)
CoinIdentifier Display CoinDrop
displayPrice(owedAmount)
lookupCoin(coin)
price
[owedAmount<0] returnChange(-owedAmount)
Iteration
Condition

to be continued...
continued from previous slide...
*
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 42
Creation and destruction
Creation is denoted by a message arrow pointing to the object.
Destruction is denoted by an X mark at the end of the
destruction activation.
In garbage collection environments, destruction can be used to
denote the end of the useful life of an object.
Passenger
ChangeProcessor
continued from previous slide...
Ticket
createTicket(selection)
free()
Creation
Destruction
print()
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 43
Social and organisational factors
Software systems are used in a social and
organisational context. This can influence or
even dominate the system requirements.
Social and organisational factors are not a
single viewpoint but are influences on all
viewpoints.
Good analysts must be sensitive to these
factors but currently no systematic way to
tackle their analysis.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 44
Ethnography
A social scientist (also known as cultural
anthropologist) spends a considerable time
observing, analysing and recording how people
actually work.
People do not have to explain or articulate their
work.
Social and organisational factors of importance may
be observed.
Ethnographic studies have shown that work is
usually richer and more complex than suggested by
simple system models.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 45
Focused ethnography
Combines ethnography with prototyping
Prototype development results in
unanswered questions. The next phase of
ethnographic analysis will then focus on
these problem areas.
The problem with ethnography is that it
studies existing practices which may have
some historical basis which is no longer
relevant.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 46
Ethnography and prototyping
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 47
Scope of ethnography
Requirements that are derived from the way
that people actually work rather than the way
in which process definitions suggest that
they ought to work.
Requirements that are derived from
cooperation and awareness of other peoples
activities.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 48
Requirements elicitation:
Putting it all together
Identify viewpoints
Conduct interviews and ethnographies to
understand the user and the context of the
system
Draw up scenarios, use cases and/or
prototypes to provide feedback to the user
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 49
Topics covered
Feasibility studies
Requirements elicitation and analysis
Requirements validation
Requirements management
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 50
Requirements validation
Concerned with demonstrating that the
requirements define the system that the
customer really wants.
Requirements error costs are high so
validation is very important
Fixing a requirements error after delivery may
cost up to 100 times the cost of fixing an
implementation error.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 51
Requirements checking
Validity. Does the system provide the functions
which best support the customers needs?
Consistency. Are there any requirements conflicts?
Completeness. Are all functions required by the
customer included?
Realism. Can the requirements be implemented
given available budget and technology
Verifiability. Can the requirements be checked?
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 52
Requirements validation techniques
Requirements reviews
Systematic manual analysis of the
requirements.
Prototyping
Using an executable model of the system to
check requirements.
Test-case generation
Developing tests for requirements to check
testability.

Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 53
Requirements reviews
Regular reviews should be held while the
requirements definition is being formulated.
Both client and contractor staff should be
involved in reviews.
Reviews may be formal (with completed
documents) or informal. Good
communications between developers,
customers and users can resolve problems
at an early stage.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 54
Review checks
Verifiability. Is the requirement realistically
testable?
Comprehensibility. Is the requirement
properly understood?
Traceability. Is the origin of the requirement
clearly stated?
Adaptability. Can the requirement be
changed without a large impact on other
requirements?
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 55
Topics covered
Feasibility studies
Requirements elicitation and analysis
Requirements validation
Requirements management
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 56
Requirements management
Requirements management is the process of
managing changing requirements during the
requirements engineering process and system
development.
Requirements are inevitably incomplete and
inconsistent
New requirements emerge during the process as
business needs change and a better understanding of the
system is developed;
Different viewpoints have different requirements and
these are often contradictory.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 57
Requirements change
The priority of requirements from different
viewpoints changes during the development
process.
System customers may specify requirements
from a business perspective that conflict with
end-user requirements.
The business and technical environment of
the system changes during its development.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 59
Enduring and volatile requirements
Enduring requirements. Stable requirements
derived from the core activity of the customer
organisation. E.g. a hospital will always have
doctors, nurses, etc. May be derived from
domain models
Volatile requirements. Requirements which
change during development or when the
system is in use. In a hospital, requirements
derived from health-care policy
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 60
Volatile requirements
Requirement
Type
Description
Mutable
requirements
Requirement s that change because of changes to the environment in which the
organisation is operat ing. For example, in hospital systems, the funding of patient
care may change and thus require different treatment information to be collected.
Emergent
requirements
Requirement s that emerge as the customer's underst anding of the syst em develops
during the system development. The design process may reveal new emergent
requirements.
Consequential
requirements
Requirement s that result from the introduction of the computer system. Introducing
the computer syst em may change the organisations processes and open up new ways
of working which generate new syst em requirement s
Compatibility
requirements
Requirement s that depend on t he particular syst ems or business processes within an
organisation. As these change, the compatibility requirements on the commissioned
or delivered syst em may also have to evolve.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 61
Requirements management planning
During the requirements engineering process, you
have to plan:
Requirements identification
How requirements are individually identified;
A change management process
The process followed when analysing a requirements
change;
Traceability policies
The amount of information about requirements relationships
that is maintained;
CASE tool support
The tool support required to help manage requirements
change;
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 62
Traceability
Traceability is concerned with the relationships
between requirements, their sources and the system
design
Source traceability
Links from requirements to stakeholders who proposed
these requirements;
Requirements traceability
Links between dependent requirements;
Design traceability
Links from the requirements to the design;
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 63
A traceability matrix
Req.
id
1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2
1.1 D R
1.2 D D D
1.3 R R
2.1 R D D
2.2 D
2.3 R D
3.1 R
3.2 R
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 64
CASE tool support
Requirements storage
Requirements should be managed in a secure, managed
data store.
Change management
The process of change management is a workflow
process whose stages can be defined and information
flow between these stages partially automated.
Traceability management
Automated maintenance and retrieval of the links
between requirements.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 65
Requirements change management
Should apply to all proposed changes to the
requirements.
Principal stages
Problem analysis. Discuss requirements
problem and propose change;
Change analysis and costing. Assess effects of
change on other requirements;
Change implementation. Modify requirements
document and other documents to reflect
change.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 66
Change management
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 67
Key points
The requirements engineering process
includes a feasibility study, requirements
elicitation and analysis, requirements
specification and requirements management.
Requirements elicitation and analysis is
iterative involving domain understanding,
requirements collection, classification,
structuring, prioritisation and validation.
Systems have multiple stakeholders with
different requirements.
Modified from Sommervilles originals Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 7 Slide 68
Key points
Social and organisation factors influence
system requirements.
Requirements validation is concerned with
checks for validity, consistency,
completeness, realism and verifiability.
Business changes inevitably lead to
changing requirements.
Requirements management includes
planning and change management.