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An optimal load shedding strategy for

Islanded Distribution network


Name
Roll Number




1. Objectives
2. Under-frequency Load Shedding Scheme
i. Block Diagram
ii. Formulation
iii. Load Shedding Manager
iv. Algorithm
3. Load Priority
4. Case Study
5. Sensitivity Analysis
Conclusions
References



Saptarshi Prakash (EE09B076)
2
CONTENTS
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
1. Islanding - isolation from the rest of the power system network.

2. Main challenge load - generation balance

3. If the islanded system is under generated (over load), it leads to
frequency drop.

4. Frequency decay is more severe in case of distribution system.


5. If no control action is taken, it leads to system collapse


6. To prevent this condition, load shedding is used

3
1.Introduction
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
Smart grids are modernized electrical grids .
Smart Grid =Electrical Grids +Digital layer









Smart grid are being developed with the objectives of Improving efficiency
reliability and sustainability of production and distribution of Electrical energy.
ELECTRICAL
GRID
High Voltage
Transmission
Lines
Generating
Stations
Distribution
Lines
Digital
Layer
Data
Monitoring
Data
Storage
Data Analysis
Communication
Automation/Contr
ol
1. Introduction
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2. Objectives

To implement a simple and efficient load shedding scheme
for an islanded distribution network which can
1.shed an optimal number of loads
2.maintains the system stability by keeping the frequency
within acceptable limits.
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3.Scope of work
1. Study of different existing load shedding schemes

2. Implement an UFLS algorithm for optimal load shedding.

3. Verify effectiveness of the scheme through Matlab / Simulink
software.


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4. Literature Review
1. Conventional UFLS Scheme

i. Shed loads if frequency
goes below threshold value.

ii. fixed amount of load is shed
at fixed intervals.

iii. Slow response

iV. Unnecessary load shed

f < f
min1

f <f
min2


Gives trip signals to
load feeders in step-1

Gives trip signals to
load feeders in step-2
f <f
minn


Gives trip signals to
load feeders in step-n

f <f
min3


Gives trip signals to
load feeders in step-3

Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
Cont
8
4. Literature Review
3. RoCoF based load shedding phenomenon

1. f and ROCOF (df/dt) as
input signals

2. More frequency drop leads
to more loads shed.

3. Fixed load is shed in each
stage

df /dt <
df/dtmin

f < fmin2

Gives trip signals
to shed load
feeders in step -2
f < fminn

Gives trip signals
to shed load
feeders in step -n
f < fmin3

Gives trip signals
to shed load
feeders in step -3
f < fmin1


Load
shedding
controlle
r
Gives trip signals
to shed load
feeders in step-1
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
Cont
9
4. Literature Review
3. Adaptive Load Shedding Scheme

1. online measurement of
system parameters

2. Actual magnitude of
power loss is known.

3. Redundant communication
links



System
informat
ion
Power
(load/generation)
ROCOF
at all
generator
terminals
Voltage at
different
buses
Frequency

Central
load
shed
controll
er

Gives
trip
signals
to
respecti
ve load
feeders
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
5. Need for study
1. Load shedding action must be initiated quickly to curtail the
excess load during islanding condition

2. Minimum amount of load to be shed and also keeping the
system stability.

3. Most of the existing adaptive Load shedding schemes
requires various communication devices and links

4. Hence the optimal Load shedding scheme should consider
both technical and economical factors


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11
Saptarshi Prakash (EE09B076)
IED 1
IED 2
IED 3
Data
Interface
Unit
IED 1
IED 2
IED 3
Data
Interface
Unit
IED 1
IED 2
IED 3
Data
Interface
Unit
Load Shedding
Manager
Local Diesel
Generator
Alternate Sources
Local Diesel
Generator
Alternate Sources
Local Diesel
Generator
Alternate Sources
5. Block Diagram
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
5. Project Process Flow Diagram
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6. Implementation of UFLS algorithm
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Cont
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
start
No ROCOF
< ROCOFl
Nl < = N
f < fl
df/dt < = 0 for
T times
Calculate number of loads
(N) to be shed from load
priority table
Shed the load
ranked Nl
stop
N = N+1
Measure
frequency at
every 10 ms
N = 0
Yes
Yes
Yes
Delay time
(CB+ Relay
pick up)
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Fault Simulated
cleared within
t=0.1s
6. Test System Under Consideration / Study
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Saptarshi Prakash (EE09B076)
Location 1
IED 1 IED 2 IED 3
Location 2
IED 1 IED 2 IED 3
Location 3
IED 1 IED 2 IED 3
6. Schematic Representation of Case Study
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
7. Test Distribution system
[6] Pukar Mahat, Zhe Chen and Birgitte Bak-Jensen, Under-Frequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System with
Distributed Generators, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 911 -918, April 2010
16
slack
slack
Transmission
Grid
Bus - 05
Bus - 06
Bus - 07 Bus - 08 Bus - 09
Bus - 10 Bus - 11
Bus -12
Bus -13
Bus -14
Load - 1 Load - 2 Load - 3 Load - 4 Load - 5 Load - 6
Load - 07 Load - 08
Load - 09
Load - 10
Load - 11
GTG-1
GTG -2
GTG - 3
CHP
WTG - 1
WTG - 2
WTG - 3
GTGXmr
GTGXmr
GTGXmr
WTGXmr
WTGXmr
WTGXmr
A
Amps
A
Amps
A
Amps
A
Amps
A
Amps
A
Amps
A
Amps
1
203. 00 MW
316. 00 MW
SL.
No
Description
Total
(No.s)
1 Buses 14
2 Generators 6
3 Loads 11
Roll No Name EE5970: EMS-SCADA
8. Test data Considered
1. LOAD AND GENERATION DATA [7]
Bus-no PG (MW) QG(MVAr) PL(MW) QL(MW)
5 9 0 0 0
6 0 0 7.6417 1.1607
7 0 0 0.4523 0.2003
8 0 0 0.7124 0.3115
9 0 0 0.1131 0.0501
10 0 0 0.1131 0.0501
11 0 0 0.1131 0.0501
12 0.63 0 0 0
13 0.63 0 0 0
14 0.63 0 0 0
Sl.No Parameter Gas Turbine
Generator
Wind Turbine
Generator
1 Rated power 3 MW 630 KW
2 Rated Voltage 6.3kV 0.4 kV
3 Inertia Constant 0.54 0.38
2. GENERATOR DATA
[7] Pukar Mahat, Zhe Chen and Birgitte Bak-Jensen, A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of
Voltage Change and Real Power Shift, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 764 771, April
2009
Cont
Sl.No Load PL(MW) df/dt (Hz/s)
1 Load-1 1.888 -48.36
2 Load-2 0.89 -30.66
3 Load-3 2.521 -69.86
4 Load-4 1.158 -36.34
5 Load-5 1.699 -53.33
6 Load-6 1.901 -52.91
7 Load-7 0.4995 -22.82
8 Load-8 0.7868 -28.53
9 Load-9 0.1249 -15.66
10 Load-10 0.1249 -15.66
11 Load-11 0.1249 -15.66
1.Calculating df/dt corresponding to a load with deficiency equal to its peak value
(November month)

2. Given system has deficiency of 3.31 MW (peak load) in month of December.

3.Rate of change of frequency (df/dt) for 3.31 MW deficiency is -46 Hz/s

9. Results
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1. Here load with highest peak demand value is shed first
2. The Load priority table is
Rank
(NL)
Load P(MW) RoCoFLi RoCoFLi
1 Load-3 2.521 -69.86 -69.86
2 Load-7 0.4995 -22.82 -92.68
3 Load-9 0.1249 -15.66 -108.34
4 Load-10 0.1249 -15.66 -124
5 Load-4 1.158 -36.24 -160.24
6 Load-1 1.888 -48.36 -208.6
7 Load-11 0.1249 -15.66 -224.26
8 Load-2 0.89 -30.63 -254.89
9 Load-6 1.901 -52.91 -307.8
10 Load-8 0.7868 -28.53 -336.33
11 Load-5 1.699 -53.23 -389.56
3. In this case, load -3 will shed at 0.09 s
4. Load-7 and load-9 also need be shed to maintain system stability.
5. Total load shed amount is 3.3 MW
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0.969
9. CASE STUDY : Highest Peak Demand
10. Conclusions

1. Less amount of load is shed in case -3 compare to case -1 and
case-2.Frequency drop is also less in case-3.


2. The methodology is simple and it can be easily implemented in
load shedding relays







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11. Important References
[1] K. Raiamani, U.K. Hambarde, Islanding and load shedding schemes for captive power plants,
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 14, no. 3, July 1999
[2] C. Concordia, L. H. Fink, G. Poullikkas, Load shedding on an isolated system, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 13, no. 3, 1995, pp. 1467 1472
[3] X. Ding and A. A. Girgis, Optimal load shedding strategy in power systems with
distributed generation, Winter Meeting in Power Engineering society, 2001.IEEE, pp. 788
793, Vol.2.
[4] V. Tarija, Adaptive under frequency load shedding based on the magnitude of the disturbance ,
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 3,2006, pp. 12601266
[5] M.S. Pasand, H .Seyedi, New centralized adaptive under frequency load shedding algorithms,
in proc. of Power Engineering conference on Large Engineering Systems, Montreal, 2007
[6] Pukar Mahat, Zhe Chen and Birgitte Bak-Jensen, Under-Frequency Load Shedding for an
Islanded Distribution System with Distributed Generators, I EEE Transaction on Power
Delivery, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 911 -918, April 2010
[7] Pukar Mahat, Zhe Chen and Birgitte Bak-Jensen, A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique
Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift, IEEE Transaction on Power
Delivery, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 764 771, April 2009
[8] ] U. Rudez, R. Mihalic, Analysis of under frequency load shedding using a frequency gradient,
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, April. 2011
[9] Y. Xu, Y. Dai, Z. Y. Dong, Y. Xue, K. P. Wong, Load shedding and its strategies against
frequency Instability in power systems, in IEEE proc. of Power and Engineering Society
general meeting, San Diego, CA, 2012
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The End
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