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# Direct current (DC)motors

Principle of work

## Simplified description of DC motor (machine)

Current commutation

## !athematical model of DC motor (machine)" (with

independent e#citation)

## Speed vs torque characteristics

DC motors\$ %ntroduction
&
'dvantages(

& The lacks(

## 1equest for often maintaining

Cross cutting of the DC motor
Direct current (DC)motors
( ) F I l x B

=
E v x B l

=

2ack\$emf (E) and Force (F) definition

## %f armature winding is connected to the suppl voltage" the electrical

current appears. 2ecause of e#isting magnetic field (induction
2)" tangential force arise according to equation (3).

## 2ecause of force F (3)" torque is generated and push the rotor to

rotate .

4hen the rotor rotating in magnetic field" the voltage 5" equ*" is
induced in armature winding opposed to the voltage 6. This voltage is
called as 7/ack\$5!F8 (/ack electromotor force) .This voltage is
proportional to rotor speed v, see equ*).

## %f supplied (armature) voltage in stead state (constant rotor speed) is

greater than /ack\$emf" 695" we are talking a/out motor work"
(motoring) or motor mode of operation: otherwise" 6;5 we are talking
a/out generator work.
(3)
(*)
DC motors\$ %ntroduction
Construction of DC motor

The rotor is made of sliced iron (alternated current in the rotor coils)<<.

## 1otor winding consists of one or more solenoid (coils) where each of

them is connected to collector segment (slice)" se picture /ellow)

## Stator is aimed for a e#citation (electromagnetic or permanent magnets)

a) Description of DC motor components
Covering of
housing
shaft
/earing
frame
stator
collector
/rushes
and girder
armature

Stator:

laminated.

## !ain magnetic poles (electromagnets) are fi#ed on stator and assure

magnetic fields (2) in the air\$gap. The amount of magnetic field can /e
changed onl if electromagnetic e#citation is used.

## %f permanent magnet is used for e#citation" the amount of e#citation can

not /e changed<
5#citation coils
pole=s shoes
hausing
b) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (Armature):

## !oving part" made off laminated iron (/ecause of alternating current in

armature winding)

1otor has slotings with coils in it. 1otor=s winding consits of one or more
coils where each of it is connected to collector.
shaft
Fe
laminated
'rmature
winding
collector
/earing
c) Description of DC motor components
/rush with girder
collector
rotor=s winding
d) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (Armature):
Collector with /rushes (mechanical commutator<<)" we wil see that
later<
Slices
(segments) on
collector)
/rush
/rush girder
'rmature
winding (coils)
e) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (collector):
z u r A n k e r w i c k l u n g
B r s t e
I s o l a t i o n
K o m m u t a t o r -
l a m e l l e
K o m m u t a t o r f a h n e
To rotor=s coil
isolator
collector=s segment
Coil connection to collector=s segment
/rush

## Collector=s segment is connected to rotor=s coil (as presented in the

picture /elow).

Current flow from e#ternal source" over /rush with girder and over
collector=s slice enter into a coil (at the position of the neutral >one"
where there are no induced voltage in this coil)<
Collector=s segment
f) Description of DC motor components
Construction of torque and /ack\$5!F (voltage E)
g) Description of DC motor components
\$
!agnetic field (permanent
magnets)
\$
two /rushes
\$ two collector=s segment
\$ one coil in magnetic field
Forces under poles 7S8 and 7?8 results in equivalent torques on the coil
under 7S8 pole and 7?8 pole.
Current direction in the coil under pole S change its direction when the
coil reach the position under ? pole. This is the reason wh we sa that
the current in armature winding" when looking from outside the motor" is
')T51?'T5 current<<<

a) How DC motor works
Current enter in the motor
from source over collector
and /rushes in armature
winding . 1esult is motor
work.
collector @
mechanical
rectifier
u
i
t
u
t
/rush
colector slice
/rush
b) How DC motor works
2ecause magnetic field act on the arm which is changed according to
sinusoidal low" then torque is changed in the same wa!
DC motor '?%!'T%A? B motor parts
S"A"#Rpermanent magnet or electromagnet):
R#"#Rarmature winding
DC motor e#ample (cross and longitudinal section)
DC motor B 'nimation
Red !agnet or electromagnet with 7\$8 pole
%reen !agnet or electromagnet with 7S8 pole
Stator ma consist from more permanent magnets (multipole DC motor)
1otor coils are connected to collector (brown colour )" C pair of poles
2rushes are dark&gra!
Distance /etween collector slices is black.
'?%!'T%A?
P%CT615
Slots
with
coils in it
DC motor animation B demonstration of work
DC motor as generator of DC voltage B animation
Sstem 7/rush\$collector8 rectifire alternate armature voltage in DC voltage .
DC motor B mathematical model
a e m e m
e k c = =
a
a a a a a
di
u e R i L
dt
= + +
m m a m a
m k i c i = =
( )
1
m
m t
eq
d
m m
dt J

=
Stacionarno stanDe
m e
k k =
a a a a a a
e e
U I R U I R
k c

= =

m e
c c =
( )
m t
m
m
M M
c

=
= =
eq m t
J J J = +
The list of varia/les and constants
6
a
" %
a
Eoltage and armature current
1
a
" )
a
1esistance and inductance of armature winding
5
a
(5
i
) /ack\$emf
c
e
" k
e
constants of /ack\$emf
c
m
" k
m
torque constants
!
m
" !
t

m
"
t
F
m
" F
t
moment of inertia for motor and load
magnetic field" e#citation
Gow to change the speed of motorH
a a a
m
e
U I R
k

= =

## (*) Changing armature voltage (C) Changing armature resistor

(3) Changing magnetic field (e#citation)
(*) Changing armature voltage (a)
& Gistoricall" first qualitative control solution without considera/le losses"
see figure.
& For high power ratings later is used sstem with asnchronous (induction)
motors
& ?e#t solutions are %nduction motor (A' ) which drive machine(generator
%)" in order to suppl DC motor(') with separate e#citation. Controlling
e#citing current of generator G" the armature voltage (motor ! voltage) is
directl controlled. DC !otor ' has constant e#citation u
um
.
& There is now new solution with power converter in motor armature for IJ
operation
& This solution don=t use rotational machines for voltage change. Eoltage is
changed with static converter (in this situation it is simple diode and
autotransformer).
& The alternating voltage from the input side of transformer is changed /
auto\$transformer using slider on secondar transformer side. This voltage
is rectifired using diode and forwarded then to the motor .
& %t is possi/le also to change the sign of motor e#citation
(*) Changing armature voltage (/)
& ?ew solution with 'C0DC converters in u armature.
& Two C\$phase converters in antiparalel connection insure Iq operation
with high dnamic performances. The change of current direction is
reali>ed electronicall
(*) Changing armature voltage (c)
(Speed vs Torque)
simplicit of control" speed is proportional
to the supplied voltage
a a a
m a
e
u i R
ku
k

const.
(*) Changing armature voltage (d)
& %n series with armature coil (winding)" resistor is added. The slope of
the characteristic is changed.
&
1otor=s resistor as starter
&
For starting" the ma#imal resistor
should /e used" 1
dI
" (speed@-) "
see figure
& 'fter start "1
dC
and finall 1
d
@- (1@1
a
& Gigh losses" heating" not
economical solution"
(C) Changing armature resistance
(C) Changing armature resistance (a)
& %t is used a lot in the past in DC traction drives. There were a lot of losses
in energ conversion. (converted in heat). Stead state points in motoring
and /raking were set changing the amount of resistor added to armature
circuit. 5#ample is thetram. ?o efficient energ /alance" great energ
part is converted in the heat.
%ndependent e#citation
a)
/)
c)
The tpes of the e#citation sstems for DC motors
paralel e#citation
serial e#citation
DC motor B region of speed control
a a a
P u I ku = =
Controlled / armature voltage"
magnetic field constant
CA?ST'?T TA1J65 region
Controlled / magnetic field" 'rmature
voltage constant " CA?ST'?T PA451
region
1
a a a
e m m
u i R
k
k

Konst.
DC motor characteristics\$varia/les of DC motor
armature voltage
current
Flu# (mag. field)
torque
)iterature
(! http:))www!phsclips!unsw!edu!au)*w)electricmotors!html+DCmotors
,! http:))electronics!howstuffworks!com)motor!htm
-! R!.olf!/0undamentals of electrical machines/1 str!,,2&,341 5kolska
kn*iga1 6agreb1 (789! (#sno:e elektri;nih stro*e:a)