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Fluid technologies for a better world

2004 The Lubrizol Corporation


Grease
02-12-04 GR100-001
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
When to Lubricate with a Grease
To reduce lubricant leakage, dripping and spattering
To reduce relubrication frequency
To help seal out contaminants
For equipment that runs intermittently or is kept in storage for
long time periods
For extreme operating conditions (high temperatures,
pressures, shock loads, low speeds)
For badly worn equipment (thicker grease films work well in
worn, increased clearances)
For noise reduction in badly worn equipment (grease acts as a
"cushion")
To suspend (act as a reservoir for) solid additives
GR101-002
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Grease Requirements
High speed
Temperature extremes
Water tolerance
Corrosion protection
Pumpability
Oxidation inhibition
Impact, shock loading

GR101-008
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications

GR101-011
Thickener Structure
Dropping Point
F/C
Max Service
Temperature F/C
Sodium soap Fibrous 350/177 200-275/93-136
Calcium soap
simple
Smooth 270-290/132-143 250/121
Complex Smooth, buttery >450/>232 300/149
Lithium soap
simple
Smooth 390/199 325/163
Complex
Smooth, slightly
stringy
>450/>232 350/177
Aluminum complex Smooth gel >450/>232 300/149
Clay Smooth >500/>260 350/177
Polyurea
Opaque, slightly
mealy
>450/>232 350/177
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Soap Thickened Greases
GR101-012
Type Thickener Characteristics Applications
Aluminum Smooth, gel-like appearance
Low dropping point
Excellent water resistance
Softening/hardening tendencies
Greatly dependent on shear rate
Lubricate low speed bearings
Wet applications
Usage decreasing
Sodium Rough, fibrous appearance
Moderately high dropping point
Poor water resistance
Good adhesive (cohesive)
properties
Older industrial equipment
Where relubrication is frequent
Rolling contact bearing
Calcium Smooth, buttery appearance
Low dropping points
Good water resistance
Bearings in wet applications
Railroad rail lubricant
Lithium Smooth, buttery to slightly
Stringy appearance
High dropping point
Resistant to softening and leakage
Moderate water resistance
Automotive chassis and wheel
bearings
General industrial grease
Thread lubricants for oil drilling
industry
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Complex Soap Thickened Greases
GR101-013
Type Thickener Characteristics Applications
Aluminum complex Smooth, slight gel-like
appearance
Dropping points above 450F
Good water resistance
Shorter life at high
temperature
Steel mill roll neck
Rolling and plain bearings
Calcium complex Smooth, buttery appearance
Dropping points above 450F
Good water resistance
Inherent EP/load-carrying
capability
High-temperature industrial
and automotive bearing
applications
Lithium complex Smooth, buttery appearance
Dropping points above 450F
Resistant to softening and
leakage
Moderate water resistance
Automotive wheel bearing
High-temperature industrial
service including various
roller-element applications
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Other Thickened Greases
GR101-014
Type Thickener Characteristics Applications
Polyurea Smooth, slight opaque
appearance
Dropping points above 450F
Good water resistance
Oxidation resistant
Less resistant to softening and
leakage
Industrial roller-element
bearings
Automotive constant
Velocity joints
Organo-clay Smooth, buttery appearance
Dropping point above 500F
Resistant to leakage
Good water resistance
High temperature bearings with
frequent relubrication
Steel mill roll neck
Steel mill roll neck bearings
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
When to Lubricate with a Grease
Choice depends on:
Expected operating conditions
Lubrication system to be used
Properties of available lubricants
Greases are frequently used to lubricate machine parts which
are difficult to reach during operation
Greases are especially suitable for severe or extreme operating
conditions:
High operating temperatures
Heavy or shock loading
Low speed with high pressure
Intermittent operation
GR101-015
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Oil versus Grease for Bearings - Advantages
GR101-016
Oil Grease
Excellent heat transfer Simplifies seal design
Acts as a sealant
Carries away dirt and
moisture
Permits prepacking of
bearings
Easily controlled
lubrication
Requires less frequent
lubrication
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Compatibility Chart
10-20-97 GR101-075
Aluminum
Complex Barium Calcium
Calcium
12-Hydroxy
Calcium
Complex Bentone Lithium
Lithium
12-Hydroxy
Lithium
Complex Polyurea
Aluminum
Complex
I I C I I I I C I
Barium I I C I I I I I I
Calcium I I C I C C B C I
Calcium
12-Hydroxy
C C C B C C C C I
Calcium
Complex
I I I B I I I C C
Bentone I I C C I I I I I
Lithium I I C C I I C C I
Lithium
12-Hydroxy
I I B C I I C C I
Lithium
Complex
C I C C C I C C I
Polyurea I I I I C I I I I
B = Borderline compability
C = Compatible
I = Incompatible
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Grease Applications
Reading the Specification Sheet
Read worked penetration (P
60
)
Determine grade
Read dropping point
Estimate heat resistance
Read base oil viscosity
Estimate suitability for high or low speed application
Estimate suitability for high or low load application
Estimate pumpability
Read thickener type
Estimate water resistance
Estimate pumpability
01-27-98 GR101-076
Fluid technologies for a better world


2004 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
01-30-04 GR103-001
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
NLGI Definition
GR103-004
Grease:
A solid to semisolid product of
dispersion of a thickening agent in a
liquid lubricant. Additives imparting
special properties may be included.
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition

Base Stock
86%
Performance
Additive
4%
Thickener
10%
10-20-97 GR103-005
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Properties Contributed by Thickeners
GR103-011
Thickener Type
Shear
Stability
Water
Resistance
High Temperature
Stability
Calcium (Hydrous) M G P (90)
Calcium (Anhydrous) G G M (140)
Lithium G M G (180)
Sodium M-G P G (200)
Calcium Complex M G G (300)
Lithium Complex G M-G G (250)
Polyurea M-G G G (240)
Bentonite Clay M M G (None)
G = Good, M = Medium, P = Poor
( ): Dropping Point C
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Properties Determined by Thickener Alone
Rheology
Water resistance
GR103-012
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Rheology
Describes behavior of flowing materials under stress
Shear rate
Rate at which adjacent layers of a substance
move against one another
Shear stress
Force which must be applied to a substance in
order to cause shear

GR103-013
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Grease Properties Determined by Base Fluid
Alone
Evaporation loss

GR103-018
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Grease Properties Determined Jointly by
Thickener, Base Fluid, and Additives
Consistency
Oxidative and thermal stability
Corrosion resistance
Structure stability
Load carrying capability
Low temperature behavior
Dropping point
Elastomer compatibility

GR103-019
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Thickener
Solvency of fluid medium in thickener
Solvency of thickener in the fluid medium
Attractive forces between the thickener and the fluid
Capillary forces holding the fluid within the fiber
network
Mechanical interlocking of the fiber network

12-10-96 GR103-029
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Naphthenic Base Oils
Soap tends to be smoother
Soap is more translucent
Oil has better affinity for soap
Pour point lower
Low temperature pumpability
12-10-96 GR103-030
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Paraffinic Base Oils
High temperature stability
Improved oxidation resistance
Soap formation more difficult
Higher soap content
12-10-96 GR103-031
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Synthetic Base Oils
Performance at high and low temperatures
Specialty applications
Soap formation difficult
Soap content high
12-10-96 GR103-032
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Function and Chemical Composition
Vegetable Base Oils
Biodegradability
Oxidation during heating cycle
Low temperature mobility
High temperature performance
Soap content high

12-10-96 GR103-033
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease

Grease additives may be
Organic
Chemically active
Or
Chemically inert
Solid lubricants (inorganic)
GR105-002 03-29-05
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Chemically Inert Additives

Affect a physical property such as structure,
rheology, or water tolerance

GR105-003
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Examples of Chemically Inert Additives
Viscosity modifiers
Pour Point depressants
Antifoam agents
Emulsifiers
Demulsifiers
GR105-004
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Chemically Active Additives
Produce their effect through chemical reaction either
within the lubricant medium or on the metallic surface

GR105-005
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Examples of Chemically Active Additives
Oxidation inhibitors
Rust and corrosion inhibitors
EP/antiwear agents

GR105-006
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Current Chemistry
Antimony dithiocarbamate
Sulfurized olefin (combinations)
Chlorinated compounds
Barium sulfonate
Lead dithiocarbamate
Zinc dithiophosphates

GR105-011
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Future Chemistry
No lead
No antimony
No zinc
No barium
No chlorine
No sodium nitrite

GR105-012
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Factors Influencing Additive Selection
Performance requirements
Product application
Compatibility
Synergistic/antagonistic reactions
Environmental considerations
Product application
Odor
Disposal
Biodegradability
Color
Cost
GR105-015
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Types of EP Agents Used in Grease
Formulations
Ashless dithiocarbamates
Borates
Calcium acetate
Chlorinated paraffins
Lead naphthenates and carboxylates
Metal dithiocarbamates
Phosphate and thiophosphate esters
Sulfurized olefins and esters
Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates

04-01-98 GR105-018
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Antiwear Agents
Borates
Metallic dialkyldithiophosphates
Phosphate and thiophosphate esters
Various molybdenum compounds

04-01-98 GR105-019
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates
GR105-020
Antiwear Antioxidant
Hydrolytic
Stability
Thermal
Stability
Aromatic Poor Poor Poor Best
Primary Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Secondary Best Best Best Poor
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Oxidation Resistance Factors
Type of thickener
Relative acidity or basicity
Nature of base oil component

GR105-023
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Results of Oxidation
Increase in penetration
Lowering of dropping point
Drying and cracking
Increased uptake of oxygen
Increased acid number
Deposits on bearing surfaces
GR105-024
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Types of Oxidation Inhibitors
Hindered phenols
Aromatic amines
Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
Metal dialkyldithiophosphates
Metal dialkyldithiocarbamates

GR105-025
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Oxidation Inhibitors
Aromatic amines
Effective at high temperatures; offer little inhibition
at low temperatures
Alkylated phenols
Function well at low temperatures; less effective at
high temperatures because of volatility
Metal dithiocarbamates
Effective oxidation inhibitors because of their
ability to scavenge hydroperoxides
Dual functionality as oxidation inhibitors and EP
agents
GR105-026
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Rust Inhibitors
Usually highly polar oil soluble compounds
Function by adsorption on metal surface to form
protective film
Function by adsorption on metal surface
Form thin protective film which excludes air and
moisture

GR105-027
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Types of Rust Inhibitors
Fatty amines
Fatty amides
Carboxylic acids
Sodium and calcium sulfonates
Barium sulfonates
Sodium nitrite

GR105-028
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Metal Deactivators Triazole and Thiazole
Derivatives
Passivate nonferrous metal surfaces
Compete with sulfur for metal surface to prevent
formation of dark sulfide stains
GR105-029
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Tackiness Agents
Impart surface adhesion
Polymers
Polyisobutylene
Polymethacrylate
OCP (olefin copolymer)
Styrene/diene copolymers
GR105-030 07-12-05
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Solid Additives - Function
May impart durability as well as EP protection
Most useful in protecting heavily loaded bearings
from fretting wear galling and seizing
Function at the metal surface under boundary
conditions
Provide method for product recognition

GR105-031
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Solid Additives - Example
Molybdenum disulfide
Graphite
Powdered zinc
Zinc oxide
Titanium dioxide
Cerium fluoride

01-27-98 GR105-032
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Multipurpose EP Grease: Typical Additive
Package
GR105-034
%
Extreme pressure 2.00
Friction modifier 0.50
Antiwear agent 0.50
Rust inhibitor 0.50
Oxidation inhibitor 0.25
Metal deactivator 0.25
Total 4.00
2003 The Lubrizol Corporation
Performance Additives for Grease
Multipurpose EP Grease: Typical Performance
06-05-05 GR105-035
Additive
Test Method No Yes
Timken OK load D 2509 8 lb. 45 lb.
Four ball wear D 2266 .68 mm .45 mm
Four ball EP D 2596
LWI
Weld
20.0
160 kg
50
315 kg
Rust D 1743 Fail Pass
Oxidation D 942 --- <5.0 psi Loss
at 100 hrs.
Copper corrosion D 4048 1A 1B