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NUR SYUHADA
NURUL ADI BAH
SI TI FATI MAH ANI

Behaviorism
What is the Behaviorism Theory?
 Behaviorism is a view that operates on a principle of
“stimulus response.”
 Behaviorism is the prediction and control of human
behavior where independent thinking play no
essential part of its teaching methods.
 To a behaviorist, human learning is solely an
objective and experimental branch of natural
science.

What is the Behaviorism Theory? Cont..
 The learner starts off with a clean slate.
 Then behavior is shaped with positive or negative
reinforcements.
 Positive rewards indicate the application of a
stimulus. Negative rewards indicate the withholding
of a stimulus.
 Learning is defined as a change in behavior in the
learner.

Three Basic Assumptions
1. Learning is manifested by a change in behavior.
2. The environment shapes the behavior.
3. The principles of proximity and reinforcement are
central to explaining the learning process.

Learning is the acquisition of new behavior through
conditioning.

Theorists Associated With Behaviorism
 Ivan Pavlov
 John B. Watson
 Albert Bandura
 B.F. Skinner

Ivan Pavlov
(1849 – 1936)
 Created the process of classic
conditioning by teaching dogs to
associate the ringing of a bell with
food. As a result, the dogs began to
salivate when they heard the bell,
even if the food was not present.
 His experiments were intended to
study digestion, but other behaviorists
studied his work as an example of
stimulus response.
 Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in
1904
 These experiments made classic
conditioning famous.

John B. Watson
(1878 – 1958)
 Extended Ivan Pavlov’s work and
applied it to human beings.
 Is famous for his experiment with
Albert, an 11 month old infant,
who he trained to become afraid
of a white rat by pairing it with a
very loud, jarring noise.
 The implications of his
experiment suggested that classic
conditioning could cause some
phobias in humans.
Albert Bandura
(1925 – Present)
 Is famous for his ideas on social learning, which
he renamed Social Cognitive Theory.
 Focuses on those motivational factors and self-
regulatory mechanisms that contribute to a
person’s behavior, rather just environmental
mechanisms.
 Believes that people acquire behaviors, first,
through the observation to imitate what they
have observed. This concept is known as
observational modeling.
 His ideas on social learning have been applied
in the context of behavior modification, which is
widely used in training programs.
 Recently, his work focuses on the concept of
self-efficacy.
 Bandura analyzes a person’s personality
through the interaction of three things: the
environment, the behavior, and the person’s
psychological processes.
B.F. Skinner
(1904 – 1990)
 Described operant conditioning as learning
that is controlled and results in shaping
behavior through the reinforcement of
stimulus-response patterns.
 Conducted experiments with pigeons by
rewarding them when he saw them
behaving in a desired manner. Using this
technique, he was able to teach pigeons to
dance and play bowling.
 Believed that people shape their behavior
based on the rewards or positive
reinforcement they receive.
 Many classroom management techniques
are based on Skinner’s principles of his
stimulus-response theory.
Key Points of Behaviorism
 Prediction and control of human behavior
 No dividing line between man and animal
 Both learn through positive and negative rewards
 Human learning is purely an objective
 Classic conditioning
 Natural reflex that occurs in response to stimulus
 Operant conditioning
 Controlled learning that results in shaping behavior through
reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns
 Observational modeling
 Watching something and mimicking the behavior observed
 Self-efficacy
 Personal observation of one’s ability to feel, think, and motivate oneself
to learn

Classroom Implications
 The teacher will reward positive behavior. Behaviors that
are rewarded will increase.
 The teacher will not reward negative behavior. Behaviors
that are not rewarded will decrease.
 Since students learn without teaching in their natural
environments, teachers will arrange special opportunities
to expedite learning.
 The teacher should:
1. Give the learner immediate feedback.
2. Break down the task into smaller steps.
3. Repeat the directions as many times as possible.
4. Work from the most simple to the most complex tasks.
5. Give positive reinforcement.



Behavioral counselling approach
 This is based on the premise that primary learning
comes from experience. The initial concern in
therapy is to help the client analyze behavior, define
problems, and select goals.
 Therapy often includes homework, behavioral
experiments, role-playing, assertiveness training,
and self management training. Like its cognitive
therapy cousins it utilizes collaboration between
client and therapist, and is usually of short duration.

Behavior theory
of Individual
Counseling (B.F.
Skinner)

View of human nature

Role of the counselor
THEY SERVE AS
CONSULTANT ,A
REINFORCER AND A
FACILITATOR
COUNCELLOR USING SOCIAL
LEARNING MAY MODEL
DESIRE BEHAVIOR
RESPONDENT AND OPERANT
CONDITIONING COUNSELOR
ARE MORE DIRECTIVE AND
PERSPECTIVE
Techniques:
REINFORCE BEHAVIOURS
USES CLASSICAL CONDITIONING FOR
POSITIVE BEHAVIORS
USES OPERANT CONDITIONING TO
MAINTAIN CLASSROOM DISCIPLINE.
What you think about the theory for your own
teaching
Behaviorism is a good theory to use in teaching
because it is based on a system of positive and
negative rewards. For many students, this type of
conditioning is good for their learning. B.F. Skinner
believed that people base their behavior based on the
rewards they receive. If students see that they are
receiving positive reinforcement with the actions they
are doing, the chances are high of them continuing to
do the same actions and will enjoy learning because
students like the positive feedback they receive.

References
 http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-
pavlov.html
 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureate
s/1904/pavlov_postcard.jpg
 http://eweb.furman.edu/~einstein/watson/jbwform.jpg
 http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/images/BFSkin
ner2.jpg
 http://news.stanford.edu/news/2007/december5/gifs/gra
w_bandura.jpg
 http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html
 http://blog.ps119amersfort.com/wp-
content/uploads/2011/10/pavlovs_dog.jpeg



We believe students learn from positive and negative
reinforcements. A student that receives an award for a
positive behavior will be more inclined to repeat the
behavior then the student who did not receive an
award. We will practice this theory in our classroom by
reinforcing behaviors that are good, such as turning in
homework and sharing with the other students. We
also think praise is very important and it is the key to
the motivation of students.
What We Think

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