TOPIC 1

:
MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLES AND
PROCEDURES
SUB TOPICS

1. INTRODUCTION TO MAINTENANCE
2. COST CONSIDERATION IN MAINTENANCE
3. WORKPLACE SAFETY
4. HAND TOOLS, POWER TOOLS AND
MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENTS
WHAT IS MAINTENANCE?
• “THE ACTION OF PRESERVING” (OXFORD)
• In engineering : Actions necessary for
retaining or restoring a piece of equipment,
machine, or system to the specified operable
condition to achieve its maximum useful life. It
includes corrective maintenance and
preventive maintenance.

OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENANCE
1. Minimizing the loss of productive time
because of equipment failure ( i.e.
minimizing idle time of equipment due to
breakdown)
2. Minimizing the repair time and repair cost
3. Minimizing the loss due to production
stoppage
4. Prolonging the life of capital assets by
minimizing the rate of wear and tear

OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENANCE
5. To keep all productive assets in good
working conditions
6. To eliminate / minimize accidents through
regular inspection and repair of safety
devices
7. To minimize the total maintenance cost


ADVANTAGES OF IMPLEMENTING
MAINTENANCE
1. Production capacity – Machines idled by
breakdowns cannot produce, thus the
capacity of the system reduced
2. Production costs – Labor costs per unit rise
because of idle labor due to machine
breakdowns. When machine malfunctions
result in scrap, unit labor and material costs
increase
ADVANTAGES OF IMPLEMENTING
MAINTENANCE
3. Product and service quality – Poorly maintained
equipments produce low quality products.
4. Employee or customer safety – Worn-out
equipment is likely to fail at any moments and
these failure can cause injuries to the workers
5. Customer satisfaction – When production
equipment break-down, product often cannot
be produced according to the master production
schedules

COST OF MAINTENANCE
• Breakdown (B/D) cost = labour + downtime
• Preventive Maintenance (PM) cost = labour +
downtime due to planned shutdown
• Cost of sub-standard performance = loss in
process material + scrapping of material +
wastage
• Cost of spares = cost of spares + other
materials

Cost related to Maintenance
1. Lubrication
2. Cleaning
3. Adjustments - Return or slowdown the process of
deterioration or wear
4. Application of protective coating
5. Examination of the state of the components
6. Analysis of history of behaviour of the machine
and its components
7. Replacement of worn out component



Cost related to Maintenance
8. Repair of cracks or other repairable damages
9. Modification of design of the components or location
of the equipment
10. Capital replacement - Replacement of the machine
when the age of the existing machine requirements of
quality and quantity of output and emergence of better
machines make it economical to dislodge the present
and install a new machine


WORKPLACE SAFETY
Benefits of clean and safe working environment:
1. Prevent accidental slips with or around
dangerous tools and machine
2. OSHA (Act 514, 1994) compliance
3. Prevent Chemical hazards – mists, vapour,
gases, dusts and fumes
4. Prevent Physical hazards –noise, vibration,
extremes of temperature and excessive
radiation


WORKPLACE SAFETY
5. Prevent Biological hazards – mould , fungi,
bacteria and insects
6. Prevent ergonomics hazard – related to design
and condition of the workplace
7. Reduce operation and production cost including
accident cost and other cost due to accident
8. Reduce downtime and shutdown including lost
work hours, medical costs, insurance premium
and administration, property damage, fire
losses and other indirect costs

WORKPLACE SAFETY
Important of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• PPE – Includes devices and clothing designed to be
worn or used for the protection of safety of an
individual while in potentially hazardous areas or
performing potentially hazardous operations.
• PPE most commonly used for protection of the head,
including eyes and ears and the torso, arms, hands and
feet.
• Head protection – Prevent head injuries caused by
falling or flying objects, such as working below other
employees who are using tools and materials that could
fall, or by bumping the head against a fixed object.
(PPE- safety hats)


WORKPLACE SAFETY
• Safety glasses, chemical goggles, face
shields, welding goggles, welding face
shield)
• Ear protection – Prevent from excessive
noise exposure to avoid hearing damage.
(PPE- ear plug, ear muffs)
• Respiratory Protection – Appropriate
respirators should be worn to prevent
atmospheric contamination caused by
articulates (dust/mist/fumes) or
gases/vapors
WORKPLACE SAFETY
• Torso Protection – Protect torso treated by heat,
splashes from hot metals and liquids, impacts, cuts,
and acids. (PPE- vest, jackets, aprons, coveralls, full
body suits, kevlars)
• Arm and Hand protection- Protect arm and against
various hazardous situation. (PPE-gloves, hand
pads, sleeves, wristlets
• Foot and Leg Protection – For protection of feet
and legs from falling or rolling objects, sharp
objects, molten metal, hot surfaces, and wet
slippery surfaces. (PPE – Foot guard, safety
shoes/boots, legging)

WORKPLACE SAFETY
Organization that governs the safety of hazardous material:
1. Department of Occupational Safety and Health, DOSH
2. (Occupational Safety and Health Act (Use and standards of
exposure of hazardous To Health – Regulation 2000))
3. Lembaga Pelesenan Tenaga Atom (AELB)
Akta Perlesenan Tenaga Atom, 1984 Standard
Perlindungan sinaran (standard asas Keselamatan)
Peraturan-peraturan 1988 Act 304.
1. Chemical Industry Safety and Health Council
2. Chemical Industries Association Limited

WORKPLACE SAFETY
Lockout/ Tag out System
• The purpose of these instructions is to ensure that
before any employees performs any servicing or
maintenance on machinery or equipment, where the
unexpected energizing, start up, or release of any type
of energy could occur and cause injury, the machinery
or equipment will be rendered safe to work on by
being locked out or tagged out.
• When an employee performs work on machines,
equipment, or systems is exposed or causes other
employees to be exposed to the hazards of unexpected
energization, these procedures must be followed.

WORKPLACE SAFETY
• OSHA Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR)(USA)
• The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout). - 1910.147
• Standard Number: 1910.147
• Standard Title: The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout).
• SubPart Number: J
• SubPart Title: General Environmental Controls

• This standard covers the servicing and maintenance of machines
and equipment in which the "unexpected" energization or start up
of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could
cause injury to employees. This standard establishes minimum
performance requirements for the control of such hazardous
energy
• This standard applies to the control of energy during servicing
and/or maintenance of machines and equipment.

WORKPLACE SAFETY
• Example of a tag out/lock out
system

WORKPLACE SAFETY
• Each person places their lockout keys in the box which is
padlocked by one controlling person. During a lockout, any
person joining the work team places their keys through the
open slot without exposing the keys inside. Only when the job
is checked and finished will the controlling person unlock the
box and re-issue the keys.

WORKPLACE SAFETY
Heavy duty steel constructed group
lockout box with yellow powder
coated finish has a standard 40
hook key capacity. Clear Perspex
door allows contents to be easily
checked. Lockable with up to 6
padlocks, ideal for larger group
lockout applications
450mm high x 380mm wide x
80mm deep

TYPES OF HANDTOOLS, POWER TOOLS
AND MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENTS

GROUP ASSIGNMENT 1 (GROUP A & B) :
- LIST THE TYPES OF HAND TOOLS D
- DEMONSTRATE THE PROPER USE OF HAND
TOOLS
- DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF INSPECTING
HAND TOOLS
DUE : WEEK 8 (31
ST
JAN 2013)
TYPES OF HANDTOOLS, POWER TOOLS
AND MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENTS
GROUP ASSIGNMENT 1 (GROUP C & D) :
- LIST THE TYPES OF POWER TOOLS
- DEMONSTRATE THE PROPER USE POWER
TOOLS
- DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF INSPECTING
POWER TOOLS
DUE : WEEK 8 (31
ST
JAN 2013)


PRACTICAL TASK GROUPING
BIL KUMPULAN A BIL KUMPULAN B
1. 02DKM10F1060
MOHAMAD NAQIUDDEN BIN
MOHAMAD NAZRI
1. 02DKM10F1090
MUHAMMAD FAHYADH FAHMI BIN ABDUL
MALIK
2. 02DKM10F1056 MOHAMAD JAMALUDIN B SUHAIMI 2. 02DKM10F1048 AMIMZA BIN AHMAD
3. 02DKM10F1083 MUHAMAD SYAFAIZ BIN ZULKIFLI 3. 02DKM10F1084 MOHAMAD HUSNI BIN ASBUDI
4. 02DKM10F1092
AHMAD FARIS BIN MOHD IMARAM @
MOHD IMRAN
4. 02DKM10F1070 MOHAMAD AFIQ BIN MAT ROZALI
5. 02DKM10F1047
SYED MUHAMMAD YUSUF BIN SYED
HASHIM
5. 02DKM10F1087 MOHAMAD AMIRUL SHAFIQ B. ABDUL RAZAK
6. 02DKM10F1116 MOHD NOR FAIZAN BIN ABD JALIL 6. 02DKM10F1065 MUHAMMAD FARIS BIN AZANAN
7. 02DKM10F1055 MUHAMMAD FAIZAL BIN MD ZOR 7. 02DKM10F1069 SHARUL NIZAM BIN YAAKOP
BIL KUMPULAN C BIL KUMPULAN D
1. 02DKM10F1079 NURUL SYUHADA BTE ALIAS 1. 02DKM10F1075 MUHAMAD NUR FAIZ BIN HAMIDON
2. 02DKM10F1049 NUR ATIKAH BINTI ABDUL RAZAK 2. 02DKM10F1062 MOHAMAD HAZIQ IZHAM BIN NAZAR
3. 02DKM10F1063 MOHAMAD HAFIZ IZMER BIN NAZAR 3. 02DKM10F1051 MOHD SAFWAN BIN MD NOR
4. 02DKM10F1080 NASHRUL AQIM BIN JAAFAR 4. 02DKM10F1086 MOHAMAD AZMI BIN MOHAMED NAZARI
5. 02DKM10F1057 MUHAMAD YUSRIZAL BIN OTHMAN 5. 02DKM10F1082 MOHAMMAD HASRUL BIN JALALUDIN
6. 02DKM10F1088 MOHAMAD SYAHAQIL BIN ABD TALIB 6. 02DKM10F1076 MUHAMAD AZRI BIN AZIZ
7. 02DKM10F1072 HASAN BIN SAPARUDDIN 7. 02DKM10F1188 MEGAVARNAN A/L THANGGASELVAM
8. 02DKM10F1077 PAVITHRAN A/L PARAMSIVAN