Enzyme Action

Learning objective: to describe different models for
enzyme action and to investigate factors which control the
rate of an enzyme reaction
18
th
October
Lock and Key
Lock and Key
However certain substances can bind to the enzyme at sites other than the
Active site and modify its activity (inhibitors/co-factors)

Idea that the enzyme is flexible
Induced Fit
Enzyme reactions
enzyme + substrate enzyme-substrate complex
Enzyme reactions
enzyme + substrate enzyme-substrate complex
E +S
ES
Enzyme reactions
enzyme + product
enzyme-substrate complex
E +P ES
enzyme + substrate enzyme-substrate complex
E +S
ES
Enzyme activity
How fast an enzyme is working
Rate of Reaction
Enzyme activity
How fast an enzyme is working
Rate of Reaction
Rate of Reaction = Amount of substrate changed (or amount product formed)
in a given period of time.
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Enzyme activity
Variable you are looking at
Enzyme activity
Four Variables
Enzyme activity
Four Variables
Temperature
pH
Enzyme Concentration
Substrate Concentration
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Temperature
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Temperature
0 20 30 50 10 40 60
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Temperature
0 20 30 50 10 40 60
40
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C - denatures
5- 40
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C
Increase in Activity
<5
o
C - inactive
Effect of heat on enzyme activty
If you heat the protein above its optimal temperature
bonds break
meaning the protein loses it secondary and tertiary structure
Effect of heat on enzyme activty
Denaturing the protein
Effect of heat on enzyme activty
Denaturing the protein
ACTIVE SITE CHANGES SHAPE
SO SUBSTRATE NO LONGER FITS
Even if temperature lowered – enzyme can’t regain its correct shape
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pH
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pH
1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 9
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pH
1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 9
Narrow pH optima
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pH
1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 9
Narrow pH optima
WHY?
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pH
1 3 4 2 5 6 7 8 9
Narrow pH optima
Disrupt Ionic bonds - Structure
Effect charged residues at active
site
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Enzyme Concentration
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Enzyme Concentration
Enzyme Concentration
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Substrate Concentration
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Substrate Concentration
Substrate Concentration
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Substrate Concentration
Substrate Concentration
Active sites full- maximum turnover
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