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From:
Er Manjit Singh
Sr Lect ECE
GPC,Bathinda
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INTRODUCTION

Modulation is the process of frequency
translation in which any one
parameter(Amplitude, frequency or phase)
of high frequency carrier signal is varied in
accordance with instantaneous value of
low frequency modulating signal.

Modulation is either analog or digital.
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INTRODUCTION

Many signals in modern communication
systems are digital

Additionally, analog signals are
transmitted digitally

Digitizing a signal results in reduced
distortion and improvement in signal-to-
noise ratios
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INTRODUCTION

A digital signal is superior to an analog
signal ecause it is more roust to noise
and can easily e recovered, corrected
and amplified. !or this reason, the
tendency today is to change an analog
signal to digital data.

"he process of transmitting signals in the
form of pulses (discontinuous signals) y
using special techniques.
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PULSE MODULATION INCLUDES
#
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
#
Pulse Width Modulation
#
Pulse Position Modulation
#
Pulse Code Modulation
#
Delta Modulation
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PULSE MODULATION
Analog Pulse Modulation Digital Pulse Modulation
Pulse Amplitude (PAM
Pulse Width (PWM
Pulse Position (PPM
Pulse Code (PCM
Delta Modulation(DM
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Sampling

"he process of transmitting signals in the
form of pulses (discontinuous signals) y
using special techniques.

"he signal is sampled at regular intervals
such that each sample is propotional to the
amplitude of signal at that instant."his
technique is called $sampling%.

&ampling is common in all pulse
modulation techniques.
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Sampling
Analog signal is sampled every "
&
secs.
"
s
is referred to as the sampling interval.
f
s
' ()"
s
is called the sampling rate or
sampling frequency.

"here are * sampling methods+

,deal - an impulse at each sampling
instant

-atural - a pulse of short width with
varying amplitude

!lat top - sample and hold, li.e natural
ut with single amplitude value
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Th!ee di""e!ent sampling methods
"or PCM
4.9
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Sampling Rate
#
-yquist showed that it is possile to
reconstruct a and-limited signal from
periodic samples, as long as the sampling
rate is at least twice the frequency of the of
highest frequency component of the signal
i.e. fs / 0fm
where fs is sampling rate
#
&ampling rates that are too low result in
aliasing or "oldo#e!
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Sampling
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Sampling

&ampling alone is not a digital technique

"he immediate result of sampling is a
pulse$amplitude modulation (PAM
signal

1AM is an analog scheme in which the
amplitude of the pulse is proportional to
the amplitude of the signal at the instant of
sampling

Another analog pulse-forming technique is
.nown as pulse$du!ation modulation
(PDM% "his is also .nown as pulse$&idth
modulation (PWM

Pulse$position modulation is closely
related to 1DM
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

,n 1AM,amplitude of pulses is varied in
accordance with instantaneous value of
modulating signal.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Lo&
Pass
'ilte!
Multiplie!
Pulse
t!ain
gene!ato!
Modulating
Signal
PAM
Signal
"he carrier is in the form of narrow pulses
having frequency fs."he uniform sampling
ta.es place in multiplier to generate 1AM
signal.&amples are placed "s sec away from
each other.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

Depending upon the shape and polarity
of the sampled pulses, 1AM is of two
types,

Natu!al PAM sampling occurs when top
portion of the pulses are su2ected to
follow the modulating wave.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

'lat topped PAM sampling is often used
ecause of the ease of generating the
modulated wave. ,n this pulses have flat
tops after modulation.
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Pulse Amplitude Modulation

"he 1AM signal can e detected y
passing it through a low pass filter.
17
Fig
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Pulse Width Modulation

,n this type, the amplitude is maintained
constant ut the width of each pulse is
varied in accordance with instantaneous
value of the analog signal.
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Pulse Width Modulation
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Fig:
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Pulse Width Modulation

"hat is why the information is contained in
width variation. "his is similar to !M.

,n pulse width modulation (13M), the
width of each pulse is made directly
proportional to the amplitude of the
information signal.
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Pulse Width Modulation
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Pulse Width Modulation

A simple method to generate the 13M
pulse train corresponding to a given signal
is the intersective 13M+ the signal (here
the green sinewave) is compared with a
sawtooth waveform (lue). 3hen the latter
is less than the former, the 13M signal
(magenta) is in high state ((). 4therwise it
is in the low state (5).
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Pulse Width Modulation

"he loc. diagram of ne6t slide can e
used for generation of 13M as well as
11M.,n this case a sawtooth signal of
frequency fs is a sampling signal.

,t is applied to inverting terminal of a
comparator with modulating signal at non
inverting terminal.

4)1 remains high as long as modulating
signal is higher than that of ramp signal.
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Pulse Width Modulation
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Pulse Position Modulation

,n this type, the sampled waveform has
fi6ed amplitude and width whereas the
position of each pulse is varied as per
instantaneous value of the analog signal.

11M signal is further modification of a
13M signal.
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Pulse Position Modulation
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Pulse Position Modulation

"he vertical dotted lines shown in last slide
treated as reference lines.

"he 11M pulses mar.ed (,0 and * go
away from their respective reference
lines."his corresponds to increase in
modulating signal amplitude.

"hen as modulating signal decreases the
11M pulses 7,8,9,: come closer to their
respective reference lines.
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Pulse Position Modulation
#
"he 11M signal can e generated from
13M signal.
#
"he 13M pulses otained at the
comparator output are applied to a
monostale multivirator which is ;ve
edge
#
triggered.
#
<ence for each trailing edge of 13M
signal, the monostale output goes high.,t
remains high for a fi6ed time decided y its
own => components.
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Pulse Position Modulation

"hus as the trailing edges of the 13M
signal .eeps shifting in propotion with the
modulating signal,the 11M pulses also
.eep shifting.

"herefore all the 11M pulses have the
same amplitude and width."he information
is conveyed via changing position of
pulses.
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Digital Pulse Modulation

Me!its o" Digital Communi(ation)
(.Digital signals are very easy to receive.
"he receiver has to 2ust detect whether the
pulse is low or high.
0.AM ? !M signals ecome corrupted over
much short distances as compared to
digital signals. ,n digital signals, the
original signal can e reproduced
accurately.
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Digital Pulse Modulation
#
Me!its o" Digital Communi(ation
*."he signals lose power as they travel,
which is called attenuation. 3hen AM
and !M signals are amplified, the noise
also get amplified. @ut the digital signals
can e cleaned up to restore the quality
and amplified y the regenerators.
7."he noise may change the shape of the
pulses ut not the pattern of the pulses.
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Digital Pulse Modulation

Merits of Digital >ommunication+
8.AM and !M signals can e received y
any one y suitale receiver. @ut digital
signals can e coded so that only the
person, who is intended for, can receive
them.
9.AM and !M transmitters are Areal time
systemsB. i.e. they can e received only at
the time of transmission. @ut digital
signals can e stored at the receiving end.
:."he digital signals can e stored.
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Digital Pulse Modulation

"he process of &ampling which we have
already discussed in initial slides is also
adopted in Digital pulse modulation.

,t is mainly of two types+

1ulse >ode Modulation(1>M)

Delta Modulation(DM)
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM

1ulse->ode Modulation (1>M) is the most
commonly used digital modulation scheme

,n 1>M, the availale range of signal
voltages is divided into levels and each is
assigned a inary numer

Cach sample is represented y a inary
numer and transmitted serially

"he numer of levels availale depends
upon the numer of its used to e6press
the sample value

"he numer of levels is given y+ N = 2
m
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM

1>M consists of three steps to digitize
an analog signal+
(. &ampling
0. Duantization
*. @inary encoding

@efore we sample, we have to filter the
signal to limit the ma6imum frequency of
the signal .!iltering should ensure that
we do not distort the signal, ie remove
high frequency components that affect
the signal shape.
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM
"he asic elements of a 1>M system. 36 10/31/2012 Punjab Edusat society
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM
Analog to digital converter employs two
techniques+
(. &ampling+ "he process of generating
pulses of zero width and of amplitude equal
to the instantaneous amplitude of the analog
signal. "he no. of pulses per second is
called $sampling rate%.

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM

0. Duantization+ "he process of dividing
the ma6imum value of the analog signal
into a fi6ed no. of levels in order to
convert the 1AM into a @inary >ode.
"he levels otained are called
$quanization levels%.
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Time
*
o
l
t
a
g
e
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
111
110
101
100
011
010
001
000
L
e
#
e
l
s
+
i
n
a
!
,

C
o
d
e
s
Time
Time
*
o
l
t
a
g
e
- . - . - . . . - . . . . . - . - . - . -
Sampling/
0uanti1ation and
Coding
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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM
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0uanti1ation

@y quantizing the 1AM pulse, original
signal is only appro6imated

"he process of converting analog signals
to 1>M is called quantizing

&ince the original signal can have an
infinite numer of signal levels, the
quantizing process will produce errors
called 2uanti1ing e!!o!s or 2uanti1ing
noise
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0uanti1ation
"wo types of quantization+ (a) midtread
and (b) midrise
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0uanti1ation

oding and !ecoding

"#e $%ocess o& con'e%ting an ana(og signa(
into P) is ca((ed coding* t#e in'e%se
o$e%ation is ca((ed decoding

+ot# $%ocedu%es a%e acco,$(is#ed in a
CODEC
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0uanti1ation
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0uanti1ation
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Quantization and encoding of
a sampled signal
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0uanti1ation E!!o!

3hen a signal is quantized, we introduce
an error - the coded signal is an
appro6imation of the actual amplitude
value.

"he difference etween actual and coded
value (midpoint) is referred to as the
quantization error.

"he more zones, the smaller ∆ which
results in smaller errors.

@E", the more zones the more its
required to encode the samples -F higher
it rate
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0uanti1ation E!!o! ((ont%

=ound-off error

4verload error
4verload
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0uanti1ation Noise
,llustration of the quantization process
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Pulse Code Modulation

,n 1>M system,- numer of inary digits
are transmitted per sample.<ence the
signaling rate and channel andwidth of
1>M are very large.

Also encodind,decoding and quantizing
circuitary of 1>M is comple6.
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Delta Modulation

,n Delta Modulation, only one it is
transmitted per sample

"hat it is a one if the current sample is
more positive than the previous sample,
and a zero if it is more negative

&ince so little information is transmitted,
delta modulation requires higher sampling
rates than 1>M for equal quality of
reproduction
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Delta Modulation

"his scheme sends only the difference
etween pulses, if the pulse at time t
nG(
is
higher in amplitude value than the pulse at
time t
n
, then a single it, say a $(%, is used
to indicate the positive value.

,f the pulse is lower in value, resulting in a
negative value, a $5% is used.

"his scheme wor.s well for small changes
in signal values etween samples.

,f changes in amplitude are large, this will
result in large errors.
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Delta Modulation
The process of delta modulation
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Delta Modulation
>omponents of Delta Modulation
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Delta Modulation
DM system. (a) "ransmitter. (b) =eceiver.
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Delta Modulation

Distortions in DM system
(.,f the slope of analog signal is much
higher than that of appro6imated digital
signal over long duration,than this
difference is called Slope o#e!load
disto!tion.
0."he difference etween quantized signal
and original signal is called as 3!anula!
noise% ,t is similar to quantisation noise.
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Delta Modulation
"wo types of quantization errors +
Slope o#e!load disto!tion and g!anula!
noise
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Delta Modulation

Distortions in DM system
Hranular noise occurs when step sizeI is
large relative to local slope m(t).
"here is a further modification in this
system,in which step size is not fi6ed.
"hat scheme is .nown as Adapti#e Delta
Modulation.
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Adapti#e Delta Modulation

A etter performance can e achieved if
the value of I is not fi6ed.

"he value of I changes according to the
amplitude of the analog signal.

,t has wide dynamic range due to variale
step size.

Also etter utilisation of andwidth as
compared to delta modulation.

,mprovement in signal to noise ratio.
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Adapti#e Delta Modulation
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Con(lusion

"he main advantage of these pulse
modulation schemes are etter noise
immunity and possiility of use of
repeaters which ma.es communication
more reliale and error free.
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