Enzymes

Learning objective: to examine what enzymes are and
describe how they work.
16
th
October
Enzymes
What are they?
Why do we need them?
Name some examples ?
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Specific
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Specific
Increase rate of the reaction
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Specific
Increase rate of the reaction
Unchanged at the end of the reaction
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Specific
Increase rate of the reaction
Unchanged at the end of the reaction
Need them
Enzymes
Globular proteins that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
Properties
Specific
Increase rate of the reaction
Unchanged at the end of the reaction
Need them
Reactions too slow to maintain life
Can’t increase temperatures/pressure in cells (fatal)
Enzymes Are Proteins
The enzyme binds to the substrates by its active site


The active site is a pocket formed by the folding of the protein
where the substrates bind.
Enzymes Are Proteins
The enzyme binds to the substrates by its active site


The active site is a pocket formed by the folding of the protein
where the substrates bind.
Active site
The active site involves a small number of key residues that actually bind the
substrates

The rest of the protein structure is needed to maintain these residues in position
How do enzymes work?
An Example
An Example
Sucrose + H
2
O
Glucose + Fructose
An Example
Sucrose + H
2
O
Glucose + Fructose
Substrates
Products
For a reaction to occur the sucrose
and water would have to collide with
enough energy to break and form bonds
For a reaction to occur the sucrose
and water would have to collide with
enough energy to break and form bonds

This is the activation energy
Sucrose + H
2
O Glucose + Fructose
+
+
Substrates Products
Energy
Progress of reaction
Energy
Progress of reaction
Substrates
Energy
Progress of reaction
Substrates
Products
Energy
Progress of reaction
Substrates
Products
High energy
intermediate
Energy
Progress of reaction
Substrates
Products
High energy
intermediate
Activation energy
The minimum amount of energy needed to start
the reaction, leading to the formation of a high
energy intermediate

= The Activation energy
Energy
Progress of reaction
Substrates
Products
High energy
intermediate
Activation energy
Enzymes reduce the
height of the energy
barrier
Questions
1. Write a definition for the following: Active Site
Substrate
Products

2. Explain how the structure of the protein is linked to its ability to act
as an enzyme?

3. How does heating a mixture increase the chance that a chemical reaction
Will occur? Why can’t this approach be used in cells?

4. Write a paragraph in your own words describing how enzymes act as
catalysts by lowering activation energy.
Read page 57-60
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