RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING

SPECTROMETRY(RBS)
Course Instructor:- Dr. Ravi
Mohan Prasad

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

MEL471 - MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES
PRESENTATION BY:

INTRODUCTION
• RBS is an analytical
technique
• determine the structure
and composition of
materials by measuring
the backscattering of a
beam of high energy ions

• It involves measuring the
number and energy of ions
in a beam which
backscatter after colliding
with atoms in the near-
surface region of a sample
at which the beam has
been targeted
Source - http://www.mrsec.harvard.edu/cams/RBS.html
• Rutherford backscattering spectrometry is
named after Lord Ernest Rutherford, a
physicist sometimes referred to as the father
of nuclear physics.

• Presented the concept of atoms having nuclei

• According to the then-dominant plum-
pudding model of the atom backscattering of
the high-energy positive alpha particles
should have been non-existent

• Supervised a series of experiments carried out
by Hans Geiger and Marsden studying the
scattering of alpha particles through metal
foils.



HISTORY
Source -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford
Cont..
• When Marsden positioned the detector
on the same side of the foil as the alpha
particle source, he immediately detected
a noticeable backscattered signal.

• Rutherford interpreted the result as an
indication of a Coulomb collision with a
single massive positive particle.

• Concluded that the atom's positive
charge could not be diffuse but instead
must be concentrated in a single massive
core: the atomic nucleus

• Led to the development of the
Rutherford model of the atom

Top: Expected results: alpha particles
passing through the plum pudding
model of the atom undisturbed.
Bottom: Observed results: a small
portion of the particles were deflected,
indicating a small, concentrated positive
charge.
Source -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford
Backscattering
INSTRUMENTATION


An RBS instrument generally
includes three essential
components :-


1) Ion Source

2) Linear particle
accelerator

3) Detector
Source - http://www.eag.com/mc/rbs-instrumentation.html
A
C
C
E
L
E
R
A
T
O
R
Cont..
Source - http://www.eag.com/mc/rbs-instrumentation.html
Cont…
Source - http://www.eag.com/mc/rbs-instrumentation.html
• The basic principle is contained in the
kinematics for binary collisions.
• Rutherford backscattering as an elastic
collision between a high kinetic energy
particle from the incident beam and a
stationary particle located in the sample.
• The incident ions scatter from the nucleus of
the atoms in the sample (called the target
nucleus) and are backscattered owing to the
coulomb repulsion with the positively charged
target nucleus.
• . By monitoring the number of backscattered
ions as a function of energy, the elemental
composition and depth distribution of
elements can be determined





BASIC PRINCIPLE
Source -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford
Backscattering

ENERGY LOSS
Stopping Power
• Energy loss depends on material's stopping power.

• Particles lose energy both before and after a collision.

• Projectile energy dissipates due to interactions with electrons
(electronic stopping)

• A particle will also lose energy as the result of the collision itself.

• The collisional lost depends on the masses of the projectile the
target atoms .


Scattering Cross-section
• Relative number of particles
backscattered is related to the
differential scattering cross section

• Scattering cross section is basically
proportional to the square of the
atomic number of the target atom.

• Graph indicates that RBS is over 100
times more sensitive for heavy
elements than for light elements
Source - http://www.eag.com/mc/rbs-scattering-
cross-sections.html
ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS
 Provides Depth Information

 Well Suited For Thin Film
Analysis

 Rapid Analysis

 High Sensitivity

 Simple Calculations





 Sample must be smooth, thin
films

 No qualitative analysis possible

 Useful information limited to
top 1-2 um of sample

APPLICATIONS :-

• Semiconductor: quantitative depth analysis of metal silicide films,
barrier metals, insulating layers, multilayer stacks and crystal damage
vs. depth.

• Superconductors: quantitative depth profiling

• Polymers: depth profiling of halogens and impurities

REFERENCES

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford
• Http://www.eag.com/mc/rbs-scattering-cross-sections.html
• http://www.mrsec.harvard.edu/cams/RBS.html
• EAG Instrumentation Tutorial:
http://www.eaglabs.com/training/tutorials/rbs_instrumentation_t
utorial/rspect.php

THANK

YOU