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BIOETHICS – LAW –
HUMAN RIGHT
Soenarto Satrowijoto

Center For Bioethics and Medical Humanities,
School of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University
2007
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1. Moral-Ethics-Principles-Regulation-
Professional Code of Ethics
2. Ethics-Discipline-Law-Human Right
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3. Bioethics : 1) - Philosophy
2) - Theology
3) - Medical science & Medicine
4) - Anthropology (Medical
Anthropology)
5) - Sociology (social medicine)
6) - Biomedical Science
7) - Biology
8) - Psychology
9) - Economy, Engineering, etc.
10) - Biometricians
Interdisciplinary approach/subject.
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Social –Culture &
Behavior
1. - Anthropology
(Medical anthrop)
- Sociology
(Social Medicine)
2. - Emotion
- Life style & risk
- Interpersonal
relationship
- Professional Behavior
Philosophy, Religions, Law, Civics/Pancasila
Bioethics

1. Philosophy
2. Ethics in
 Services
 Research
 Education
 Business
3. Professionalism
Law

1. Norms
2. Declarations
3. Laws/Acts
4. Regulations


Respect for differences and social sensitivity
Bioethics & Humanities
Inter Religions
Pancasila

 State-philosophy
 Inter-religions
Studies

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Penyelenggara Pendidikan
Local Wisdom
Kearifan lokal
(Ki Hajar Dewantoro)

1. Pengabdian
2. Keluargaan
3. Kerjasama

 Budi pekerti
 Kejujuran
Global era
Internasionalisasi


1. Professionalism
2. Competencies
3. Competition
4. Accountability
5. Quality Assurance
6. Excellence
+
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1. Bijak; Santun
2. Nasionalis
- mementingkan bangsa
- Mementingkan institusi
3. Cerdas
4. Terampil
Ranking Θ

1. Cerdas
2. Terampil
3. Kurang bijak /santun
4. Mementingkan diri
sendiri

Rangking Θ,
akademik
+
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Dosen / Guru
1. Mampu mendidik
2. Kemampuan
akademik
1. Gelar Akademik
2. Kurang mampu
mendidik
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Globalisasi Kearifan Lokal
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Biotechnology
Medical Science &
technology
Cloning -
technology
Bioethics &
Humanities
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 WHAT, kind of decision
 WHO, do the decision
 HOW, the situation & condition
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Whatever we can do, may or could be done ?
(Apa yang dapat dilakukan, boleh dilakukan)
1. In vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
2. Surogete mother; GIFT; male/female
choice
3. Organ-transplantation
4. Blood transfusion
5. Euthanasia
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 Law – provide a certainty and protection
 Law & ethics – support each other
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ETIKA & HUKUM
KESEHATAN
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I. Etika dan Moral
II. Etika dan Hukum
III. Etika, Disiplin, dan Hukum
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1,2,3.

Latin

 Morales, mos, moris,
adat, istiadat,kebiasaan,
cara, tingkah laku
 Tabiat, watak, akhlak,
cara hidup
Yunani

 Ethicos, ethos-
adat kebiasaan,
praktek

Hati nurani & penilaian (judgment)
Kegiatan praktis seseorang
ETIKA
MORAL
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Etika dibagi = 1. Etika Umum
(klasifikasi) 2. Etika Khusus
- Individual
- Institusional
- Sosial
Filsafat : - kajian, ilmu filsafat
- moral & moralitas
Praktek : - pedoman & aturan
(profesional) baik & benar
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A. Moral - Etika – Asas – Aturan - Kode Etik Profesi
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Ajaran
Moral
Ajaran
Moral
Moral
Falsafah
Moral
Teori2
etika
Ajaran tentang bagaimana manusia
harus hidup dan bertindak menjadi
manusia yang baik
Sistem nilai tentang perbuatan manusia
yang dianggap baik/ buruk, benar / salah,
pantas / tidak pantas
Mencari penjelasan , mengapa perbuatan
tertentu dinilai baik/ buruk, benar/salah,
pantas /tidak pantas
Kerangka berpikir yang disusun oleh
filsuf tertentu-untuk memberi
pembenaran, mengapa suatu perbuatan
dinilai baik dari pendekatan moral
1
2
3
4
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Moral - Etika – Asas – Aturan - Kode Etik Profesi
Ajaran
Moral
Asas2
etika
Aturan2
etika
Kode Etik
Profesi
Asas-asas yang diturunkan dari teori-
teori etika sebagai kaidah-kaidah dasar
moral bagi manusia
Seperangkat norma atau pedoman untuk
mengukur perbuatan, berupa aturan dan
larangan yang didasarkan pada asas –
asas etika
Seperangkat aturan etika yang khusus
berlaku untuk semua anggota asosiasi
profesi tertentu, sebagai konsensus
bersama, yang memuat aturan dan
larangan yang wajib di taati oleh semua
anggota dalam menjalankan profesi
5
6
7
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B. TEORI-TEORI ETIKA
1,2,3
KLASIK

1. Utilitarianisme
 Teologi
 Konsenkuensialisme
 Consequence-based
2. Deontologi
 Kewajiban
 Obligation-based
3. Hukum Kodrat
 Lex Naturalis
 Natural Law
KONTEMPORER

1. Budi Pekerti Luhur
Virtue/character/Value-based
 Compassion
 Discernment
 Dapat di dipercaya
 Integritas moral tinggi
2. Etik mengasuh
 Caring/relation -based
3. Penalaran praktis
 Kasuistik, care - based
4. Pancasila, filsafat moral dan
teori etika
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1) Teori Utilitarianisme
 Utilitarianisme = usefulness
 The greatest good fix the greates number
 Impact / posteriori – sesudah dilakukan
 The greatest happiness priciple
 Konsekuensi suatu tindakan, akhir sautu
tindakan
 Teori konsekuensialisme
 Mencegah /mengendalikan /memberantas/
penyakit; menghilangkan penderita,
memperpanjang hidup, meningkatkan
kualitas hidup.
 Kritik : tujuan menghalalkan cara

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2) Konsekuensi
(utilitarianism)
 Tindakan  BENAR /SALAH  tingkat
konsekuensiya (nilai moral)
 Teori manfaat (utilitarianism)  normatif (sesuai
dengan asas manfaat)
 Tindakan yang benar – akibat BAIK
 Kasus : - Pembunuhan
- aborsi
- pembunuhan bayi
 Teori manfaat : - klasik
- kontemporer
Dipertimbangkan
kondisi masing-
Masing
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1) Teori Deontologi
(Kantianisme, obligation –based theory)
 Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)
 Dasar hubungan : pengharagaan, kewajiban
(deos = wajib) kepada sesama manusia
 Perbuatan kepada orang lain, secara moral baik
dan benar, didasarkan pada niat-niat (good
intention)
 Kontianisme : lakukan terhadap orang lain
sebagaimana yang anda inginkan mereka berbuat
terhadap anda, tidak usah melihat hasilnya.
 Yang menolak dan setuju kepada Deontologi dan
Utilitarianism sama.
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2) Deontologi :
- justifikasi theologis
- justifikasi kemasyarakatan
- justifikasi intuisionis
- justifikasi murni (justifikasi kant)

- universal, mutlak, mengikat
- rasional, otonomi, dignity
- liberal, kebetulan, martabat
* nilai rasionalitas
* kontroversi, samar,

KASUS : Pembunuhan
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Asas – Asas Etika medis
Traditional

1. Beneficence
2. Non maleficence
(Primum non nocere)
3. Menghormati hidup
manusia
4. Konfidensialitas
5. Kejujuran (veracity)
6. Tidak mementingkan
diri
7. Budi Pekerti
Tingkah laku luhur
Asas-Asas Etika Medis
KONTEMPORER

1. - Menghormati otonomi
pasien
- Universal Human right
UN,
- HAM
2. Keadilan /justice
3. Berkata benar / truth
telling / veracity
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C. Kaidah –Kaidah Dasar Moral
2,3,4,5,6

 Beneficence & non maleficence
 Respect for person
 Keadilan /justice
 Budi pekerti
Kegiatan-kegiatan :
• Pendidikan
• Penelitian & pengembangan
• Pelayanan

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D. Kegiatan- kegiatan
Bidang-bidang Life Sciences
1) Biologi
2) Kedokteran
3) Keperawatan
4) Kependudukan
5) Epidemiologi
6) Kesehatan Linkungan
7) Sosiologi – antropologi kesehatan
8) Etika institusional Rumah Sakit
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Kesehatan :
WHO : Keadaaan sejahtera yang sempurna dari
badan, mental, dan sosial, dan bukan
hanya tidak ada penyakit atas
kelemahan
UU RI. No. 23 Th 1992 :
Keadaan sejahtera dari badan, jiwa, dan
sosial yang memungkinkan setiap orang
hidup produktif secara social dan
ekonomis
1948
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F. Bidang Kesehatan
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1. Kode Etik Kedokteran
2. Kode Etik Keparawatan
3. Kode Etik Rumah Sakit
4. Majelis Kehormatan Etik Kedokteran (MKEK)
5. Majelis Kehormatan Etik Rumah Sakit
(MAKERSI)
6. Majelis Kehormatan DISIPLIN Kedokteran
Indonesia (MKDKI)
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1. Hukum menurut standar moral yang minimal
 larangan-larangan
Etika menurut standar moral yang tertinggi
 larangan-larangan dan hal- hal yang
positif dokter kepada pasiennya.
2. Perbuatan seorang yang profesional
a. Etis dan legal
b. Etis tidak legal – tidak ada – kriteria etis melanggar
hukum
c. Tidak Etis dan legal – dokter mengiklankan diri
d. Tak Etis dan tidak legal – dokter membuat tagihan
palsu kepada perusahaan
asuransi beaya pengobatan &
perawatan
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 Kasus : US Supreme Court (Makamah
Agung AS). Memutuskan – Hak
konstitutional seorang wanita untuk
dapat melakukan aborsi kehamilan
trisemester pertama
 kontroversi moral & etika : - prochice
- prolife
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VI. Etika – Disiplin – Hukum
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Etika

 Hati nurani, pikiran pelaku
 Benar/salah, baik/buruk, pantas /tidak pantas
 Moral philosophy
 Das sein und das sollan
(The “oughts” and “Shoulds” of Socienty)
 Klasik dan Kontemporer
 Kode etik profesi
 Etika diperkuat Hukum
 Homo homini lupus
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Etika – Disiplin - Hukum
Hukum

 Hukum & etika – menyatu hubungan antar manusia
 Baik/buruk, pantas /tidak pantas, salah /benar.
 Moral – Indonesia – Falsafah Pancasila
 Pelanggaran norma & nilai-nilai etika dan hukum
 Ringan, membahayakan masyarakat/ ketertiban
umum  fungsi hukum
 Hal-hal kecil – merebut pasien, menjelekan nama
baik sejawat, mengiklan diri.
 De minimus non curat lex
 Aturan /regulasi internal profesi
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Etika – Disiplin - Hukum
Disiplin


 Discipline – jurusan ilmu Pengetahuan
 Tata-tertib, keteraturan sikap-tindak, behavior

 Dua disiplin – dapat saling berbenturan
 Belanda : Medische Tuchtrech
mengadili dan memeberikan sangsi
disiplin (tucht)
Ganti rugi – Perdata, Pidana
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Etika – Disiplin - Hukum
Disiplin


 GMC (General Medical Council)
Keputusan : 1) tidak melanggar disiplin
2) Kurang terampil training
3) melanggar disiplin  tidak boleh
praktek sementara
4) Pelanggaran berat  dicoret dari
registrasi  tidak boleh praktek di
negara tersebut.
Gugatan ganti rugi dll - Pengadilan
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Pelanggaran Disiplin
1. Medical Negligence
 Melakukan sesuatu yang seharusnya tidak
dilakukan
 Tidak melakukan apa yang di lakukan sejawat
lain
2. Serious Profesional Misconduct
 Hubungan sex dengan pasien
 Angkat bagian tubuh yang keliru
 Melantarkan pasien  cacat atau meninggal
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 Operasi – operasi mata
 Operasi – operasi ginjal
 Operasi anggota tubuh
Kebetulan ada bagian KANAN-KIRI
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 Hukum :
Keseluruhan asas dan aturan tentang perbuatan manusia
yang ditetapkan atau diakui oleh otoritas tertinggi
 Hukum Perdata :
hukum yang mengatur hubungan atar orang dengan orang
lain.
 Hukum Pidana :
hukum yang mengatur perbuatan apa yang dilarang dan
memberikan pidana (=hukuman) kepada siapa yang
melanggarnga
 Hukum Administrasi Negara : (Tata Usaha Negara)
hukum yang mengatur cara menjalankan tugas (hak dan
kewajiban) dan kekuasaan alat-alat perlengkapan negara.
 Hukum kebiasaan :
hukum tidak tertulis yang hidup dalam keyakinan
masyarakat dan ditaati seperti suatu peraturan perundangan
 Hukum Yurisprudensi :
Hukum yang terbentuk karena keputusan hukum oleh hakim
dalam prekara sejenis sebelumnya.

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1. Jacobalis S., 2005 Perkembangan Ilmu kedokteran, Etika Medis, dan
Bioetika : Tentang moral dan Etika. Cetakan ke I. Agung Seto. Jakarta
(pp. 62 – 84)
2. Beauchamp TT and Children JP, 1994 Principles of Biomedical Ethics –
Fourth Ed. Oxford Univ. Press. NY.
3. Kushe H and Singer P, 2004 A Companion to Bioethics. Reprinted.
Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Australia.
4. Emmanuel Ej. et al, 2004 Ethical and Regulatory Aspect of Clinical
Research. Reading and Communitary – The John Hopkins Univ. Press.
Baltimore ad london. (pp. 25 – 80)
5. Guwandi J, 2005 Medical Error dan Hukum Medis: Etika, Disiplin, dan
Hukum. Balai Penerbit FK UI Jakarta (pp. 125 – 134)
6. Wiradharma D, 1996 Penutun Kuliah Hukum Kedokteran : Masalah Etis
yang berkaitan dengan hukum Kedokteran. Bima rupa Aksara. Jakarta
(pp. 117 -146)
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I. LEGISLATION REVIEWS of
1. Prohibition of Human Cloning (PHC)
Act. 2002
2. Research Involving Human Embryo
(RIHE) Act 2002
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– ART (Assisted Reproductive
Technology) – IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)
– The use of Human Embryo for research
purposes; should be permitted
– The committee - review website
- written submission
- face to face meeting
with key steak holder
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Background
- public hearing & private
meetings
- discussion forum
- selected site visit.
– Issues of recent scientific and
technological advances in human
cloning, human embryo study, including
stem cell technology.
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2. Rationale for the Recommendation
 Different perspectives, interests and values
of divers communities.
 The perspective or “standards” vary between
and within communities and over time
disagreement will remain there
 Certain moral values (commitment to social
justice, equity, and to care of vulnereble
people.
 Medical research (for preventing or testing
diseases, assisting people to have children
(“wastage” of some embryos)
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Rationale for the
Recommendation
 The higher potential benefits of activity,
the future the need for ethical
objections  consideration of
prohibition or permission through the
legal system may be justified.
 Proponent and opponents of embryo
research  national legislation review –
strict control and monitoring, under
licenses, of human embryo research.
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 Committee has recommended
monitoring the prohibition of human
reproductive cloning
 Embryos created by
- nuclear transfer
- chimeric embryos
- genetic material from
more the two person
- genetic alternative, etc
46
the committee has recommended
that use of such embryo
embryo for reproductive purposes (
that is development beyond 14
days or implantation into a women‟s
reproduction tract) should remain
prohibited.

Prohibited practices
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4. Creating a human embryo by fertilization of
an egg by sperm
 Human Embryos : status, creation, use in research, and
development of therapeutic cloning.
 Pro and cons (Proponent & Opponent)
Pro = potential benefits
- a such technology (is) of embryo
research.
- ART with the ponibelity destruction
of embryo
Opp. Kont : human embryo from the early stage of
development, as entity should be
protected, a port from ART.
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Creating a human embryo
by fertilization of an egg by sperm
 Term of EMBRYO – biologically accurate – different
moral interpretations, status and obligations owed to
them.
 The acceptance that human embryos by the fertilization
of human egg by human sperm are entities of some
social and ethical.
Significance because of their association with the start of
human life.
 Stopped research on culture & maturation of immature
egg (IVM = “in vitro maturation” of oocytes, storage of
frozen eggs, gemete (egg and sperm) development.
Prohibition of oocytes activation (part hemogenesis)
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Creating a human embryo
by fertilization of an egg by sperm
 Definition of a human embryo ;
a new and unique genetic entity is formed only
after the genetic material from the male and
female pronuclear combine, stage of as
“syngamy” accours about one to three hours
before the first cell devision (cleavage)
 Hybrid fertilization should be permitted, under
licence, up to but not including, the first cell
devision.
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 The committee has recommended that
the use of excess ART embryos to be
permitted, under licence, for research,
training an d other uses to improve the
practice of ART.
 Registered excess ART embryos are
available to facilitate the most efficient
use of this resource.
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Use of excess ART embryos
 The status of unsuitable embryo for
implantation is not clear in the current
legislation. The committee
recommended the use of this unsuitable
embryo for research, training, and
improvement for clinical practice –
NHMCR – develop ethical guideline.
Criteria to decide suitable or unsuitable
should be developed by an expert body
 Debate regarding the relative merits of
embryonic and adult stem cell research
– different attitudes toward moral status
of human embryos, different agreements
52
 Creation of human embryo clones 
generate embryonic stem cells 
development of specific cellular therapy –
genotype  “therapeutic cloning”. Further
research is required.
 A member of objection to SCNT- to
generate embryonic stem cells, the
argument
 The technology is the same as that used for
therapeutic cloning, to extract stem cell
 To ensure that such embryo are not used for
reproduction purposes  should be
prohibited
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Creation of embryos other than
by fertilization
 Human embryo clones are human
embryo  the right environment 
develop into a human being
 implanted to women  pregnancy
 not implanted  potential for
research to develop treatment for
serious medical condition.
 Creation of human embryo clone by
SCNT should be permitted, under
licence, for research, training, and
clinical application.

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Creation of embryos other than
by fertilization
 The potential benefits in creating of such
entities using – method not involving
fertilization of human egg by human sperm,
 SCNT
 Genetic material from more than two
people
 Heritable alterations to the genomes
 Using precursor cells – human embryo
or fetus
 Should be permitted, under licence, for use in
research, training, and clinical application.
Prohibition - human embryo for more than 14 days
- implantation into reproductive tract of
women
to prevent any reproductive purposes
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 argument against SCNT - requires the use
of donated human eggs.
 egg donation should be managed by strict
ethical guidelines (payment to donors
should not be permitted beyond
reimbursement of reasonable expenses).
 reduce the need for human eggs during
the developmental stages of nuclear
transfer research, under licence, and are
not implanted into the body of women

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 Informed Consent for embryo and egg
donation, in all stages, having an emotional
component, many people inclined to
donate excess embryos to research rather
than letting them succumb.
 Creating embryonic stem cell lines that are
„immortal‟ and will be used in various other
ongoing research contexts.
Fully informed about the commercial
potential should be considered,
improvement of guideline for consent in
these circumstance is important.
 Cost of licensing from licence applicant
should also considered.

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9. Prescriptive versus regulatory legislation
 The ability of legislation to respond to
research needs in a fast-moving area of
technology  inevitable ambiguities in the
legislation and unfair exposure of researchers
to prosecution.
 Reproductive cloning, should remain
prohibited.
 More flexible system : grant licences for
research that is not expressly permitted by
the Acts, by committee, to protect researcher
from prosecution


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10. Trade and international exchange of
human embryos, gametes and stem cells
 controversy around trade and international
exchange related to ethical concern – about
sources and uses of materials. (human issues) 
commercialization of any therapeutic product.
 Export of human tissus is prohibited, for personal
reproductive use – streamlined – for ART
consumer.
 Import and export of ethicaly derived human
embryo clones and h Esc should be permitted after
approval by the appropriate authority.

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11. Biotechnology and commercialization
 Participants, industry group,
research – commercialization
without investment, new therapeutic
product can not be developed.
 That potentially beneficial product
can be developed for therapeutic
use.
 Donor should be informed about this
matters why they make their
donation.
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Australian Stem Cell Bank
 Stem cell bank world make stem
cells, embyronic and adult stem
cells, available to researchers
 Management of bank – centralized /
decentralized system
 National register of donated
embryos - transparent
61
 The community after lack of
understanding – prohibited or
licensed research
 Public education and consultation
are needed in the area of research
and development covered by the
Act.
62
63
Bioethics of
“Stem Cell Studies”
 Human Cloning
 Research Involving Human Embryo
II. STEM CELL Studies :
64

1. Fertilization of egg by sperm
2. Other than fertilization
– SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer)
– Genetic material from more than two
people
– Heritable alterations to the genomes
– Using procursor cells – Human embryo
or Fetus
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1) Before
fertilization
2) During
fertilization
3) Fertilization
complete
Sperm
1st polar
body
1st polar
body
2st polar
body
Oocyte chromesomes
Cytoplasm
Zone pellucida
Female pronucleus
Male pronucleus
a.
Polar
bodies
Zegote
chromosomes
1. Fertilization of egg be sperma
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a. Stages of fertilisation
b. Stages of early embryonic development
- up to implementation
- Development of the primitive streak
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b. Stages ot early embryonic development
pre implementation
1)
2)
3)
68
4)
5)
69
2. Creation of Human Embryo clone by
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
Morula
3-4 days
Somatic (body) cells
1. Heart disease
2. Diabetes (types)
3. Spinal cord injury
4. Stroke
5. Parkinson‟s disease
6. Huntington‟s disease
70

1. Reproductive cloning
2. Therapeutic cloning
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1. - Human cloning
- Assisted Reproductive (technology)
Treatment (ART)
- IVF (in Vitro Fertilisation)
- IVM (In Vitro Maturation) of Oocytes, etc
2. Therapeutic Cloning
Special for DM, heart disease, brain
disease. etc.
Creating Human Embryo through SCNT,
procursor-cells. etc.

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• Some examples of Legislation
(Australia)
1. Prohibilition of Human Cloning (PHC)
Act. 2002
2. Research Involving Human Embryo
(RIHE) Act. 2002
73
• Some issues of research
Related to human Esc (Embryonic Stem-cell)
1) .
 In h Esc research, maximizing social utility
remains the primary justification for issuing
intellectual property right. (Matthew Herder,
Bioethical Inquiry (2006), 3 : 69-79 US and
European patent System)
 The fundamental question are determining
what benefits are likely to the result from h
Esc research.
 Donor should have control over the stem
cell lines derived from their embryos and
gamete or ovum
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2.
 The fact that human eggs or embryos are the source
of cell lines for stem cells research
 Moral status of the or embryos - eggs come
from WOMEN.
 The third world and our women will supply those
eggs.
 Women “choice” - sell their reproductive tissues
(eggs) or labor.
- Sell their eggs, “donate” ? as a
DONOR ?
 Increasing, such research is not drives by possible
cures for existing diseases, but is driven by the
market itself. Drug Co is – look for market with
patent.
(Rothman BK, 2006 Stem Cell research: Rethinking
the Questions – Bioethical inquiry, 3 : 15 -17)
75

 Newly emerging field of “system biology” X System Bioethics
 Stem cell, blastommeer, stem
 Characterized as responsive, regulatory
system, much interacting with and
responding to their surrounding.
 Autonomous system, interactive and
responsive system, not as precursor.
 Disciplines : philosophy,
religions, clinical medicine,
biomedicine, economic,
social-politics, law
systems.
 “Stem cell research is and should be an excersice in
translational development of Biology”.

(Robert JS, Mainschein J, and Laubichles, 2006 System bioethics
and stem cell study, Bioethical Inquiry. 3 : 19 -31)

76
• Moral Status of the Human Embryo
1. Single criterion view of moral person hood
2. A Pluralistic Approach, moral respect and
personhood as deriving not from one or
oven two criteria, but from variety of
different and interacting consideration.

(Ad Hoc Committee of Consultants to Advisory Committee to
the Director of NIH, 2004 Human Embryo and Stem cells.
Section III : Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical
Research : Reading and Commentary. The John Hopkins
Univ. Press. Baltimore & London)
77
1). Single Criterion View
 Embryo is a person. The moment of
conception/ fertilization  unique
diploid genotype comes into being.
From gametes to embryo  beginning
of personhood /life
 Full moral personhood on sentience :
 The ability to feel or to experience pain
 The beginning of brain activity /function
(brain dead/end of life)
78
Single Criterion View
 Well developed cognitive abilities,
reasoning abilities, possession of self-
concept.
 Degree of moral protection given to
children or adult human ?
 Consciousness, reasoning, or the
possession of self – concept  exclusion -
newborn – protected subject !
79
2). A Pluralistic Approach
Among the quality of considerations are
 Single criterion view : genetic uniqueness,
potentially for full development, brain activities,
sentience, cognitive development
 Capacity for survival outside the mother womb.
 Transition from gametes – zygote – the beginning of
biological uniqueness
 Formation of primitive streak at 14 days, cellular
differentiation and organization – the onset of heart
beat, dev. Nerve system –brain activity.
 Substantial development and independent existence
outside the mothers womb – provide moral basis for
full and equal person hood.
80
• Analysis of Ethics & Regulation
on Human Embryonic Stem Cell (h Esc)
1. Background
2. Rational for decision
3. Prohibited practice
4. Creating a human embryos by fertilization
of an egg by sperm
5. The use excess ART embryos
6. Creation of embryos other than by
fertilization, e.g. SCNT
7. Egg donation
8. Licensing arrangement and over sight of
ART services, informed consent. Etc
81
Analysis of Ethics & Regulation
9. Perspective versus regulatory legislation.
10. Trade and international exchange of human
embryos, gametes, and stem cells
11. Biotechnology and commercialization
12. Stem cell bank, Indonesia ?
13. Public education
(http://www.ag.gov.au/cca)
82
17 June 2005
Committee Conclusion
1. The Committee heard strong arguments for reform
on experimental fertilization techniques to improve
assisted reproductive technology treatment. (ART
treatment)
We have recommended increased regulatory
flexibility to facilitate research in this important
field.
2. On the contentious issues of somatic cell nuclear
transfer (SCNT), some time know as therapeutic
cloning the committee has given its support for
SCNT and the creation and the use is research of
certain other types of experimental embryos in the
very early state of their development under strict
ethical and scientific regulation.
83
17 June 2005
Committee Conclusion
3. The committee agree that the existing prohibitions
in place to prevent reproductive cloning and the
placement of prohibited embryos in the body of a
women should be maintained
84
Legislation and Ethics related to
stem cell studies in Indonesia
 The need of such Act related to human
cloning and Research Involving Human
Embryo, should be considered ?
 Small group discussion, Task farce, draf
of concept
 Collaboration studies, internationally, in
stem cells studies – who regulate ?

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