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# The Fast Fourier Transform

Divide-and-conquer:
Fast algorithm for Integer and matrix
multiplication
Takes time for polynomial multiplications
Fast Fourier Transform:
Takes less time for polynomial multiplication
Useful in the field of signal processing
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Polynomial multiplication
Input: Coefficients of two polynomials, A(x) and
B(x), of degree d
Output: Their product C = A . B
Selection: Pick some points
Where n 2d+1
Evaluation: Compute
and

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Polynomial multiplication
Multiplication: Compute
for
Interpolation:
Recover C(x) as

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Evaluation by divide-and-conquer
To evaluate a polynomial A(x) of degree
n to pick n points if we choose positive-
negative pairs like

then A(xi) and A(-xi) overlap a lot
Evaluation by divide-and-conquer
To evaluate this we need to split A(x) into its odd
and even powers

Where polynomials are of degree n/2-1
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Evaluation by divide-and-conquer

we would get a divide-and-conquer pro-
cedure with running time

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Evaluation by divide-and-conquer
Plus-minus trick only works at the top level of the
recursion
To recurse at the next level, we need the
n/2 evaluation points
to be themselves plus-minus pairs But how can a
square be negative?
We use complex numbers ,to find them we use
reverse engineering

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Evaluation by divide-and-conquer

The complex nth roots of unity, that is, the n
complex solutions to the equation

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********
Interpolation
Polynomials can be represented in terms of
their coefficients or their values at a
selected set of points.
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Interpolation
A matrix reformulation:

Here are representations for a polynomial A(x) of degree
n-1. They are both vectors of n numbers, and one is a
linear transformation of the other.
Call the matrix in the middle M. Evaluation is
multiplication by M, while interpolation is multiplication by
M
-1
.
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Interpolation Resolved
In linear algebra terms, the FFT multiplies an
arbitrary n-dimensional vector, which we have
been calling the coefficient representation by the
nxn matrix.

where is a complex nth root of unity, and n is
a power of 2.
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Inversion Formula

is also an nth root of unity
Lemma: The columns of matrix M are
orthogonal to each other.
Proof. Take the inner product of any
columns j and k of matrix M
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Lemma
This is a geometric series with first term 1,
last term , and ratio .Therefore
it evaluates to which
is 0.except when j = k, in which case all
terms are 1 and the sum is n.
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Fast Fourier Transform
The FFT takes as input a vector
and a complex number and a complex
number whose powers
are the complex nth roots of unity.
It multiplies vector a by the n x n matrix
Mn(),which has (j, k)th entry (starting
row- and column-count at zero) jk.

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Fast Fourier Transform
The potential for using divide-and-conquer
in this matrix-vector multiplication becomes
apparent when M's columns are segregated
into evens and odds:

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Fast Fourier Transform
function FFT(a,)
Input: An array for n a power of 2
A primitive nth root of unity,
Output: Mn()a
if = 1: return a
=FFT

=FFT
for j = 0 to n/2-1:

Return
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Fast Fourier Transform
Next, we have simplified entries in the
bottom half of the matrix using
and
The final product is the vector:

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The Fast Fourier transform unraveled
The divide-and-conquer step of the FFT
can be drawn as a very simple circuit.
A problem of size n is reduced to two sub
problems of size n/2.

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The Fast Fourier transform unraveled
When two wires come into a junction from
the left, the numbers they are carrying get
So the two outputs depicted are executing
the following commands by the FFT
algorithm.

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The Fast Fourier transform unraveled
Unraveling the FFT circuit completely for
n=8 elements:
For n inputs there are levels, each with n
nodes, for a total of n log n operations.
The inputs are arranged in a peculiar order: 0, 4,
2, 6, 1, 5, 3, 7.
There is a unique path between each input
and each output

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The Fast Fourier transform unraveled
There are two edges out of each node:
Going up (0-edge)
Going down (1-edge)
FFT circuit is natural for:
Parallel computation
Direct implementation in hardware.
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The Fast Fourier Transform Circuit
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