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Teaching and Learning

and ICT’s
Alan Amory
Sarah Gravett
Duan van der Westhuizen

Faculty of Education
Preparing students for a rapidly
changing world: “Learning to
• A “world without stable meanings:
– uncertainty, ambiguity and contestability come to the fore”
(Barnett & Hallman, 1999: 145)
• Develop their capabilities for “seeing” and thinking in
effective ways (two types of learning):
– learning about - facts, concepts and procedures (tacit
knowledge – answer what question)
– learning to be – knowledge, skills, values, solve problems
(explicit knowledge - answer how question)
• Knowing is a process, not a product
• Education is not about transmission-of-knowledge
From information to
• Higher education is viewed
– a production of little living libraries and “info-delivery”,
– learning as “info-consumption”
– assessment as “info-replication”
• Learning takes place when one acts on the content,
shapes it and forms it –
– Content is the clay or medium of knowledge construction
• Learning experience leads to personal knowledge
• Education should foster of deep and meaningful
learning and learning to be (personal knowledge)
Teaching as a Learning
activity design: Foster deep
• View students as individuals
• Teacher beliefs influence the way they teach
• Support educational practices
• Foster social cognition
• Define goals (content or technology)
• Emphasise the importance of context
• Create learning activities
• Provide support or tools
• Create opportunities for students to reflect
• Encourage dialog
Assessment of and for
• “… that it is not the curriculum which shapes
assessment, but assessment which shapes the
curriculum and embodies the purposes of higher
education” (Brown & Knight, 1994:12)
• Assessment that supports meaningful learning
– Be planned as an integral
– Show congruence
– Include tasks that are authentic
– Provide feedback to students
– Provide opportunities for peer and self-assessment
• Bloom’s taxonomy
Digital natives
• Grown up digitally
– For example computers, cell phones, music,
video, games, interactive TV, Mix-It, Facebook,
• Today’s students think and process
information fundamentally differently from
their predecessors
• “Different kinds of experiences lead to
different brain structures”
• “Likely that our students’ brains have
physically changed – and are different from
Digital natives (contd)
• Students today are all “native speakers” of the digital
language of computers, video games and the Internet
• Immigrants: turns to the Internet for information
second rather than first, reads a manual rather than
assuming that the program/device itself will teach you
how to use it
• Problem: Digital Immigrant teachers speak an
outdated language and are struggling to teach those
who speak an entirely new language.
Digital Immigrants
• Believe learning takes place step by step,
or sequentially
• Believe learning can’t take place while the
TV/IPOD is on
• Don’t believe learning should be fun
• Believe old teaching methods are still valid
• “Smart adult immigrants accept that they don’t know
about their new world and take advantage of their kids to
help them learn and integrate. Not-so-smart (or not-so-
flexible) immigrants spend most of their time grousing
about how good things were in the “old days”
• So:
– Change thinking about METHOD of teaching
– Change thinking about content
ICTs in Teaching and
• Learning to speak digitally:
– Fosters skill development and nonlinear
thinking, navigation in incongruent spaces,
negotiation in complex environments, and
complex story-telling (reflections)
• Learning to teach digital natives:
– Students who grow up with digital tools and
cultural artefacts (for example cell phone
applications, virtual game worlds, and
music sharing systems)
ICTs in Teaching and
Learning (contd)
• Learning to imagine by:
– metaphor, multiplayer online games, simulations -
• construction of something new, and thereby transforms both the
individual and the world they live in
• Learning to network:
– Social networking in a complex tasks in order to solve a
common problem
• Learning to share:
– Rip and burn approach to music sharing is an example
– Open Access-Open Source-Open Content movements
provides that are based on individual freedoms that
support human liberation
ICTs in Teaching and
Learning (contd)
• Information stream:
– The delivery of learning resources and other
necessary information pertinent/relevant to
learning, research and administration
• Communication:
– Both synchronous and asynchronous modes that
make use increasing intelligent devices
• Collaboration:
– Provide support for social networking and
community building
ICTs in Teaching and
Learning (contd)
• Transformation:
– Information transformed from one, or
many, information streams into more
meaningful individually or group
constructed knowledge
• Professionalisation:
– The use of technological tools associated
directly with a profession (for example, the
use of Computer Aided Design software by
architecture students)
Emerging Technologies

User Created Content
– Audience listening and creating
– Create collaborative, learner-authored resources open to public
• Social Networking
– Connect with friends, colleagues, or even total strangers who
have a shared interest
– Opportunity to contribute, share, communicate and collaborate
• Mobile Phones
– Gateway to our digital lives and learning
– Encourage creativity and mediamaking
• Virtual Worlds
– Chance to collaborate, explore, role-play, and experience other
situations in a safe but compelling way
– Learn through simulations and role-playing
• Massively Multiplayer Educational Games
– Engaging and absorbing but difficult to produce
– Develop leadership and management skills and supports
collaborative complex problem solving