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Turning Operations

L a t h e

rkm2003

Turning Operations

Machine Tool LATHE

Job (workpiece) rotary motion

Tool linear motions

Mother of Machine Tools

Cylindrical and flat surfaces

rkm2003

Some Typical Lathe Jobs

Turning/Drilling/Grooving/

Threading/Knurling/Facing...

rkm2003

The Lathe

Head stock

Spindle

Feed rod

Bed

Compound rest

and slide(swivels)

Carriage

Apron

selector

Feed change

gearbox

Spindle

speed

Lead screw

Cross slide

Dead center

Tool post

Guide ways

Tailstock quill

Tailstock

Handle

rkm2003

The Lathe

Bed

Head Stock

Tail Stock

Carriage

Feed/Lead Screw

rkm2003

Types of Lathes

Engine Lathe

Speed Lathe

Bench Lathe

Tool Room Lathe

Special Purpose Lathe

Gap Bed Lathe

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Size of Lathe

Workpiece Length

Swing

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Size of Lathe ..

Example: 300 - 1500 Lathe

Maximum Diameter of Workpiece

that can be machined

= SWING (= 300 mm)

Maximum Length of Workpiece

that can be held between

Centers (=1500 mm)

rkm2003

Workholding Devices

Equipment used to hold

Workpiece fixtures

Tool - jigs

Securely HOLD or Support while

machining

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Chucks

Three jaw Four Jaw

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Centers

Workpiece

Headstock center

(Live Centre)

Tailstock center

(Dead Centre)

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Faceplates

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Dogs

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Tail

Tail

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Mandrels

Workpiece (job) with a hole

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Workpiece

Mandrel

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Rests

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Jaws

Hinge

Work

Work

Jaws

Lathe bed guideways

Carriage

Steady Rest Follower Rest

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Operating/Cutting

Conditions

1. Cutting Speed v

2. Feed f

3. Depth of Cut d

Workpiece

Tool

Chip

Tool post

S

peripheral

speed (m/min)

N (rev/min)

D

rkm2003

Operating Conditions

Workpiece

Tool

Chip

Tool post

S

peripheral

speed

(m/min)

N (rev/min)

D

N D S speed peripheral

D

rotation 1 in travel tool relative

rkm2003

Cutting Speed

The Peripheral Speed of

Workpiece past the Cutting Tool

=Cutting Speed

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m/min

1000

N D

v

D Diameter (mm)

N Revolutions per Minute (rpm)

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Feed

f the distance the tool

advances for every rotation of

workpiece (mm/rev)

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f

Feed

D D

2 1

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Depth of Cut

perpendicular distance between

machined surface and uncut

surface of the Workpiece

d = (D

1

D

2

)/2 (mm)

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d Depth

of Cut

D D

2 1

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3 Operating Conditions

Chip

Machined

surface

Workpiece

Depth of cut

Tool

Chuck

N

Feed (f )

Cutting speed

Depth of cut (d)

rkm2003

Selection of ..

Workpiece Material

Tool Material

Tool signature

Surface Finish

Accuracy

Capability of Machine Tool

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Material Removal Rate

MRR

Volume of material removed in one

revolution MRR = D d f mm

3

Job makes N revolutions/min

MRR = D d f N (mm

3

/min)

In terms of v MRR is given by

MRR = 1000 v d f (mm

3

/min)

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MRR

dimensional consistency by

substituting the units

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MRR: D d f N

(mm)(mm)(mm/rev)(rev/min)

= mm

3

/min

rkm2003

Operations on Lathe

Turning

Facing

knurling

Grooving

Parting

Chamfering

Taper turning

Drilling

Threading

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Turning

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Cylindrical job

rkm2003

Turning ..

Cylindrical job

Cutting

speed

Chip

Workpiece

Depth of cut (d)

Depth of cut

Tool

Feed

Chuck

N

Machined

surface

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Turning ..

Excess Material is removed

to reduce Diameter

Cutting Tool: Turning Tool

a depth of cut of 1 mm will

reduce diameter by 2 mm

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Facing

Flat Surface/Reduce length

Depth of

cut

Feed

Workpiece

Chuck

Cutting

speed

Tool

d

Machined

Face

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Facing ..

machine end of job Flat surface

or to Reduce Length of Job

Turning Tool

Feed: in direction perpendicular to

workpiece axis

Length of Tool Travel = radius of

workpiece

Depth of Cut: in direction parallel to

workpiece axis

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Facing ..

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rkm2003

Eccentric Turning

Axis of job

Axis of lathe

Eccentric peg

(to be turned)

4-jaw

chuck

Cutting

speed

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Knurling

Produce rough textured surface

For Decorative and/or

Functional Purpose

Knurling Tool

A Forming Process

MRR~0

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Knurling

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Knurling tool

Tool post

Feed

Cutting

speed

Movement

for depth

Knurled surface

rkm2003

Knurling ..

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Grooving

Produces a Groove on

workpiece

Shape of tool shape of

groove

Carried out using Grooving

Tool A form tool

Also called Form Turning

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Grooving ..

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Shape produced

by form tool

Groove

Grooving

tool

Feed or

depth of cut

Form tool

rkm2003

Parting

Cutting workpiece into Two

Similar to grooving

Parting Tool

Hogging tool rides over at

slow feed

Coolant use

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Parting ..

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Feed

Parting tool

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Chamfering

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Chamfering tool

Feed

Chamfer

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Chamfering

Beveling sharp machined edges

Similar to form turning

Chamfering tool 45

To

Avoid Sharp Edges

Make Assembly Easier

Improve Aesthetics

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Taper Turning

Taper:

C

B

A

L

D

90

2

D

1

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L

D D

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tan

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rkm2003

Taper Turning..

Methods

Form Tool

Swiveling Compound Rest

Taper Turning Attachment

Simultaneous Longitudinal and

Cross Feeds

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Conicity

L

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2 1

rkm2003

Taper Turning ..

By Form Tool

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Taper

Workpiece

Straight

cutting edge

Direction

of feed

Form

tool

rkm2003

Taper Turning ,,

By Compound Rest

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Face plate

Dog

Tail stock

Mandrel

Direction of feed

Compound rest

Slide

Compound rest

Hand crank

Tool post &

Tool holder

Cross slide

rkm2003

Drilling

Drill cutting tool held in TS

feed from TS

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Feed

Drill

Quill

clamp

moving

quill

Tail stock clamp

Tail stock

rkm2003

Process Sequence

How to make job from raw

material 45 long x 30 dia.?

20 dia

40

15

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Steps:

Operations

Sequence

Tools

Process

rkm2003

Process Sequence ..

Possible Sequences

TURNING - FACING - KNURLING

TURNING - KNURLING - FACING

FACING - TURNING - KNURLING

FACING - KNURLING - TURNING

KNURLING - FACING - TURNING

KNURLING - TURNING FACING

What is an Optimal Sequence?

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X

X

X

X

rkm2003

Machining Time

Turning Time

Job length L

j

mm

Feed f mm/rev

Job speed N rpm

f N mm/min

min

N f

L

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Manufacturing Time

Manufacturing Time

= Machining Time

+ Setup Time

+ Moving Time

+ Waiting Time

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rkm2003

Example

A mild steel rod having 50 mm

diameter and 500 mm length is

to be turned on a lathe.

Determine the machining time

to reduce the rod to 45 mm in

one pass when cutting speed is

30 m/min and a feed of 0.7

mm/rev is used.

rkm2003

Example

calculate the required spindle

speed as: N = 191 rpm

m/min

1000

N D

v

j

= 500 mm

v = 30 m/min, f = 0.7 mm/rev

Substituting the values of v and D in

rkm2003

Example

Can a machine has speed of

191 rpm?

Machining time:

min

N f

L

t

j

t = 500 / (0.7191)

= 3.74 minutes

rkm2003

Example

Determine the angle at which the

compound rest would be swiveled

for cutting a taper on a workpiece

having a length of 150 mm and

outside diameter 80 mm. The

smallest diameter on the tapered

end of the rod should be 50 mm

and the required length of the

tapered portion is 80 mm.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: D1 = 80 mm, D2 = 50

mm, Lj = 80 mm (with usual

notations)

tan = (80-50) / 280

or = 10.620

The compound rest should be

swiveled at 10.62

o

rkm2003

Example

A 150 mm long 12 mm diameter

stainless steel rod is to be reduced

in diameter to 10 mm by turning on

a lathe in one pass. The spindle

rotates at 500 rpm, and the tool is

traveling at an axial speed of 200

mm/min. Calculate the cutting

speed, material removal rate and

the time required for machining the

steel rod.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: Lj = 150 mm, D1 = 12

mm, D2 = 10 mm, N = 500 rpm

Using Equation (1)

v = 12500 / 1000

= 18.85 m/min.

depth of cut = d = (12 10)/2 = 1

mm

rkm2003

Example

feed rate = 200 mm/min, we get

the feed f in mm/rev by dividing

feed rate by spindle rpm. That is

f = 200/500 = 0.4 mm/rev

From Equation (4),

MRR = 3.142120.41500 =

7538.4

mm3/min

from Equation (8),

t = 150/(0.4500) = 0.75 min.

rkm2003

Example

Calculate the time required to

machine a workpiece 170 mm long,

60 mm diameter to 165 mm long

50 mm diameter. The workpiece

rotates at 440 rpm, feed is

0.3 mm/rev and maximum depth of

cut is 2 mm. Assume total

approach and overtravel distance

as 5 mm for turning operation.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: Lj = 170 mm, D1 =

60 mm, D2 = 50 mm, N = 440

rpm, f = 0.3 mm/rev, d= 2 mm,

How to calculate the machining

time when there is more than one

operation?

rkm2003

Example

Time for Turning:

Total length of tool travel = job length + length

of approach and overtravel

L = 170 + 5 = 175 mm

Required depth to be cut = (60 50)/2 = 5

mm

Since maximum depth of cut is 2 mm, 5 mm

cannot be cut in one pass. Therefore, we

calculate number of cuts or passes required.

Number of cuts required = 5/2 = 2.5 or 3

(since cuts cannot be a fraction)

Machining time for one cut = L / (fN)

Total turning time = [L / (fN)] Number of

cuts

= [175/(0.3440)]

3= 3.97

min.

rkm2003

Example

Time for facing:

Now, the diameter of the job is

reduced to 50 mm. Recall that in

case of facing operations, length of

tool travel is equal to half the

diameter of the job. That is, l = 25

mm. Substituting in equation 8, we

get

t = 25/(0.3440)

= 0.18 min.

rkm2003

Example

Total time:

Total time for machining = Time

for Turning + Time for Facing

= 3.97 + 0.18

= 4.15 min.

The reader should find out the total

machining time if first facing is

done.

rkm2003

Example

From a raw material of 100 mm

length and 10 mm diameter, a

component having length 100 mm

and diameter 8 mm is to be

produced using a cutting speed of

31.41 m/min and a feed rate of 0.7

mm/revolution. How many times

we have to resharpen or regrind, if

1000 work-pieces are to be

produced. In the taylors expression

use constants as n = 1.2 and C =

180

rkm2003

Example

Given D =10 mm , N = 1000 rpm,

v = 31.41 m/minute

From Taylors tool life expression,

we have vT n = C

Substituting the values we get,

(31.40)(T)1.2 = 180

or T = 4.28 min

rkm2003

Example

Machining time/piece = L / (fN)

= 100 / (0.71000)

= 0.142 minute.

Machining time for 1000 work-pieces

= 1000 0.142 = 142.86 min

Number of resharpenings = 142.86/

4.28

= 33.37 or 33 resharpenings

rkm2003

Example

6: While turning a carbon steel

cylinder bar of length 3 m and diameter

0.2 m at a feed rate of 0.5

mm/revolution with an HSS tool, one of

the two available cutting speeds is to be

selected. These two cutting speeds are

100 m/min and 57 m/min. The tool life

corresponding to the speed of 100

m/min is known to be 16 minutes with

n=0.5. The cost of machining time,

setup time and unproductive time

together is Rs.1/sec. The cost of one

tool re-sharpening is Rs.20.

Which of the above two cutting

speeds should be selected from the

point of view of the total cost of

producing this part? Prove your

argument.

rkm2003

Example

Given T1 = 16 minute, v1 = 100

m/minute, v2 = 57 m/minute, D =

200mm, l = 300 mm, f = 0.5 mm/rev

Consider Speed of 100 m/minute

N1 = (1000 v) / ( D) =

(1000100) / (200) = 159.2 rpm

t1 = l / (fN) = 3000 / (0.5 159.2) =

37.7 minute

Tool life corresponding to speed of 100

m/minute is 16 minute.

Number of resharpening required = 37.7 /

16 = 2.35

or number of resharpenings = 2

rkm2003

Example

Total cost =

Machining cost + Cost of

resharpening Number of

resharpening

= 37.7601+ 202

= Rs.2302

rkm2003

Example

Consider Speed of 57 m/minute

Using Taylors expression T2 = T1

(v1 / v2)2 with usual notations

= 16 (100/57)2 =

49 minute

Repeating the same procedure we

get t2 = 66 minute, number of

reshparpening=1 and total cost =

Rs. 3980.

The cost is less when speed = 100

m/minute. Hence, select 100

m/minute.

rkm2003

Example

Write the process sequence to

be used for manufacturing the

component

from raw material of 175 mm length

and 60 mm diameter

rkm2003

Example

40 Dia

50

50

40

20

50

20 Dia

Threading

rkm2003

Example

To write the process sequence, first list

the operations to be performed. The

raw material is having size of 175 mm

length and 60 mm diameter. The

component shown in Figure 5.23 is

having major diameter of 50 mm, step

diameter of 40 mm, groove of 20 mm

and threading for a length of 50 mm.

The total length of job is 160 mm.

Hence, the list of operations to be

carried out on the job are turning,

facing, thread cutting, grooving and

step turning

rkm2003

Example

A possible sequence for producing

the component would be:

Turning (reducing completely to 50

mm)

Facing (to reduce the length to 160

mm)

Step turning (reducing from 50 mm

to 40 mm)

Thread cutting.

Grooving

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