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CHAPTER 6 : VOLTAGE STABILITY IN

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS


Ho Chi Minh City, 2008
TRANSIENT PROCESSES IN
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
CONTENTS
1. GENERAL CONCEPTION TO VOLTAGE
STABILITY
2. BASIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NETWORK
ELEMENTS
3. RELATION BETWEEN VOLTAGE, ACTIVE
POWER, AND REACTIVE POWER (P-U-Q)
4. CONCLUSION
PURPOSES
THE PURPOSE OF THE PRESENTATION
To present the general conceptions of
Voltage stability.
How does the basic characteristic of
network elements influence in voltage
stability ?
To consider the relation between (P-U-Q)
in voltage stability.
1. GENERAL CONCEPTION
Voltage stability is the ability of a power system to
maintain steady acceptable voltages at all buses in the
system under normal operating conditions and after being
subjected to disturbance.
A system enters a state of voltage instability :
A disturbance
Increase in load demand
Change in system condition causes a progressive
and uncontrollable decline in voltage
The main factor causing instability is inability of the
power system to meet the demand for reactive power

1. GENERAL CONCEPTION
A criterion for voltage stability is that, At a given
operating condition for every bus in the system, bus
voltage magnitude increase as reactive power injection at
the same bus increase.
Voltage instability is essentially a local phenomenon.

Voltage collapse is more complex than simple voltage
instability.
The heart of the problem is usually the voltage drop
that occurs when active power and reactive power flow
through inductive reactance associated with the
transmission network.
The following are some example about voltage instability
had been responsibility for several major network collapses:
Florida system disturbance of December 28, 1981

French system disturbances of December 19, 1978
and January 12, 1987

Northern Belgium system disturbance of August 4, 1982

Swedish system disturbance of December 27, 1983
1. GENERAL CONCEPTION
2. BAISIC CHARACTERISTIC OF NETWORK ELEMENTS
GENERATOR
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
LOAD
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristic of a simple radial system fo illustration of
voltage stability phenomenon
Constant voltage
Figure 1 Schematic diagram
The characteristics of interest are the relationships
among the transmitted power (PR ), receiving end voltage (VR)
and the reactive power injection (QC ).
The expression for Current I in figure1 is
When I and E are phasors
LD LN
E
I
Z Z
=
+
(1)
2 2
( cos cos ) ( sin sin )
s
LN LD LD LN
E
I
Z Z Z Z u | u |
=
+ + +
(2)
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 2 Receiving voltage current and power
as a function of load demand for The system in figure1
From figure2
Power transmitted is maximum when the voltage
drop in the line is equal in magnitude to V
R
, that is
when


As Z
LD
is decreased gradually, I increase and V
R

decrease, Initially, at high value of Z
LD
the
increase in I dominates over the decrease in V
R
and hence Pr increase rapidly with decrease in
Z
LD

( / ) 1
LN LD
Z Z =
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
From the view point of Voltage stability
The relationship between P
R
and V
R
is of interest.
This shown in figure3 for the system under
consideration when the load power factor is equal to
0.95 lag
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
(4)
| | cos cos . .
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
LD
S LD
R R
Z
E
F
Z
I V P
) cos( . 2 1
2
| u
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
LD
LD
LD
LD
Z
Z
Z
Z
F (5)
(3)
S
LN
LD
LD R
E
Z
Z
F
I Z V . .
1
. = =
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 3: V
R
-P
R
characteristics of the system
of figure1 with difference load-power factor
The principal causes of voltage instability
The load on transmission lines is too high
The voltage sources are too far from
the load centres
The source voltages are too low
There is insufficient load reactive compensation
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Generator AVRs are the most important means of
voltage control in EPS
Under normal conditions the terminal voltages of G maintained constant
During conditions of low - system voltages, the active power demand
on G may exceed their field current
When the active power out is limited, the terminal voltage
is nolonger maintained constant
The generator field current is automatically limited by
an overexcitation limiter (OXL)
V
R

Curve 1(V
i
regulated)

b) The V
R
P
R
characteristics
Curve 2 (excitation of G
1
at its limit)
A
C
B
P
A

P
MAX2

P
MAX1

V
CRT1

V
CRT
2

P
R

V
R
V
1

E
s

P
R
+ jQ
R

P
1

G
1

a) Schematic diagrams
2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 4 Impact of
loss of regulation of
intermediate
bus voltage

2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
These results demonstrate the importance of
maintaining the voltage control capability of generators.
They show that the degree of voltage stability cannot
be judged base only on how close the bus voltage is to
the normal voltage level
Load characteristics and distribution system voltage
control devices are among the key factor influencing
system voltage stability.
Loads whose active and reactive components vary with
voltage interact with the transmission characteristic by
changing the power flow through the system.
The system voltages settle at values determined by the
composite character of the transmission system and loads.
The industrial loads, with large components of
induction motors will change little.
The loads consist of resistance, inductance and
capacitance.
2.3 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
2.3 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
Therefore, representation of load characteristic
should consideration the effects of thermostats and
other load regulation devices.
Industrial and commercial motors are usually
controlled by contactor; so, the voltage drop will cause
many motors to drop out.
Distribution system voltage regulators and transformer
ULTCs attempt to hold constant voltage at the point of
consumption.
2.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING DEVICES
Here, we brietly describe how these devises influence voltage stability
Shunt capacitors
Shunt capacitor have a number of inherent limitations.
In heavily shunt capacitor compensated systems, the voltage
regulation tends to be poor.
Beyond a certain level of compensation, stable operation
unattainable with shunt capacitor.
The reactive power generated by shunt capacitor is proportional to
the square of voltage; during system conditions of low voltage the var
support drops thus compounding the problem.
The most inexpensive means of providing reactive power, voltage
support.
To extend the voltage stability limits by correcting the receiving end PF.
Regulated shunt compensation
Static var system (SVS) of finte size will regulate up to its maximum
capacitive output.
Synchronous condensor has an internal voltage source. It continues to
supply reactive power down to relatively low voltages and contributes
to a more stable voltage performance.
Series capacitors
The reactive power supplied by series capacitors is proportional to
square of line current and is independent of voltage bus.
Series capacitors reduce both the characteristic impedance ( Zc) and
The electrical length () of the line.
2.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING DEVICES
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ]
L L
EU U
P U Q U
X X
= + +
jIX
U
E
I


c. Voltage phasor diagram
1
2
P
L
+ jQ
L

X
U
b. System equivalent circuit
E
P
L
+ jQ
L

~
a. System schematic
X
Sin U E
X
Cos X I
U Cos I U U P
L
u |
|
. . . .
. . ) ( = = =
X
U
Cos
X
EU
X
Sin X I
U Sin I U U Q
L
2
. .
. . ) ( = = = u
|
|
As:
Cos
2
+ Sin
2
= 1
If P and Q are independent of U, P
L
(U)=P
n
, Q
L
(U)=Q
n

U
2
/X
Q
n

P
n

Figuire6:Relative P-Q corresponding to U
2 2
2
4 /
n
n
P E
Q
X E X
=
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ]
L L
EU U
P U Q U
X X
= + +
(3)
B
A
P
n

Figuire7: Relative P-Q when U change
Q
n

(4)
(

+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
X
U
Q P
X
U E
n n
2
2
2
.
If P and Q depend on U as quadratic function of U; P
n
and

Q
n
unlimited
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
n
n n
L n
n
P
p U
P G U
U
U
U
= = =
Load is shown as : Y=G
n
+jB
n
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
n
n n
L n
n
Q
Q U
Q B U
U
U
U
= = =
Any values of G
n
,B
n
;substitute P
L
,Q
L
into (3):
2 2
( ) ( 1)
n n
E
U
G X B X
=
+ +
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
Q
n

P
n

U
n

P
L
, Q
L

U
P
n

Q
n

3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
P
L
, Q
L

U
P
n

2
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
Q
n

P
n

3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
Q
n

P
n

P
L
, Q
L

U
2
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
2
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N L
U
U
P P
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
P
L
, Q
L

U
2
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
2
.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
N L
U
U
P P
Q
n

P
n

CONCLUSION
Three key concepts of voltage stability are the load
characteristics as seen from the bulk power network, the
available means for voltage control at generators and in the
network the ability of network to transfer power particularly
reactive power from the point of production to the point of
consumption.
Voltage stability depens on the relationship beween Q-U-P.
The network element characteristics have important influences on
system stability.
The fundamental causes of voltage instability is identified as
incapability of combined transmission and generation system to meet
excessive load demand in either real power or reactive power form.
THANKS
R
X
U
n

I
2 2
n
n
U
I
R X
-
-
=
+
2
.
n
Q I jX =
2
2 2
n
n
U
Q X
R X
=
+
(1)
2
2 2
( )
U
Q U X
R X
=
+
In general:
(2)
From (1) , (2) :
2
2
2
( )
n
n n
U
Q U
Q U U
U
| |
= =
|
\ .
2
( ) ( / )
n n
Q U U U Q =
2
( ) ( / )
n n
P U U U P =
As above:
Equivalent circuit
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT P-U-Q
2.3 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING POWER
2.3 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING POWER