\

= =
LD
S LD
R R
Z
E
F
Z
I V P
) cos( . 2 1
2
 u


.

\

+


.

\

+ =
LD
LD
LD
LD
Z
Z
Z
Z
F (5)
(3)
S
LN
LD
LD R
E
Z
Z
F
I Z V . .
1
. = =
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 3: V
R
P
R
characteristics of the system
of figure1 with difference loadpower factor
The principal causes of voltage instability
The load on transmission lines is too high
The voltage sources are too far from
the load centres
The source voltages are too low
There is insufficient load reactive compensation
2.1 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Generator AVRs are the most important means of
voltage control in EPS
Under normal conditions the terminal voltages of G maintained constant
During conditions of low  system voltages, the active power demand
on G may exceed their field current
When the active power out is limited, the terminal voltage
is nolonger maintained constant
The generator field current is automatically limited by
an overexcitation limiter (OXL)
V
R
Curve 1(V
i
regulated)
b) The V
R
P
R
characteristics
Curve 2 (excitation of G
1
at its limit)
A
C
B
P
A
P
MAX2
P
MAX1
V
CRT1
V
CRT
2
P
R
V
R
V
1
E
s
P
R
+ jQ
R
P
1
G
1
a) Schematic diagrams
2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 4 Impact of
loss of regulation of
intermediate
bus voltage
2.2 GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS
These results demonstrate the importance of
maintaining the voltage control capability of generators.
They show that the degree of voltage stability cannot
be judged base only on how close the bus voltage is to
the normal voltage level
Load characteristics and distribution system voltage
control devices are among the key factor influencing
system voltage stability.
Loads whose active and reactive components vary with
voltage interact with the transmission characteristic by
changing the power flow through the system.
The system voltages settle at values determined by the
composite character of the transmission system and loads.
The industrial loads, with large components of
induction motors will change little.
The loads consist of resistance, inductance and
capacitance.
2.3 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
2.3 LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
Therefore, representation of load characteristic
should consideration the effects of thermostats and
other load regulation devices.
Industrial and commercial motors are usually
controlled by contactor; so, the voltage drop will cause
many motors to drop out.
Distribution system voltage regulators and transformer
ULTCs attempt to hold constant voltage at the point of
consumption.
2.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING DEVICES
Here, we brietly describe how these devises influence voltage stability
Shunt capacitors
Shunt capacitor have a number of inherent limitations.
In heavily shunt capacitor compensated systems, the voltage
regulation tends to be poor.
Beyond a certain level of compensation, stable operation
unattainable with shunt capacitor.
The reactive power generated by shunt capacitor is proportional to
the square of voltage; during system conditions of low voltage the var
support drops thus compounding the problem.
The most inexpensive means of providing reactive power, voltage
support.
To extend the voltage stability limits by correcting the receiving end PF.
Regulated shunt compensation
Static var system (SVS) of finte size will regulate up to its maximum
capacitive output.
Synchronous condensor has an internal voltage source. It continues to
supply reactive power down to relatively low voltages and contributes
to a more stable voltage performance.
Series capacitors
The reactive power supplied by series capacitors is proportional to
square of line current and is independent of voltage bus.
Series capacitors reduce both the characteristic impedance ( Zc) and
The electrical length () of the line.
2.4 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING DEVICES
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ]
L L
EU U
P U Q U
X X
= + +
jIX
U
E
I
c. Voltage phasor diagram
1
2
P
L
+ jQ
L
X
U
b. System equivalent circuit
E
P
L
+ jQ
L
~
a. System schematic
X
Sin U E
X
Cos X I
U Cos I U U P
L
u 

. . . .
. . ) ( = = =
X
U
Cos
X
EU
X
Sin X I
U Sin I U U Q
L
2
. .
. . ) ( = = = u


As:
Cos
2
+ Sin
2
= 1
If P and Q are independent of U, P
L
(U)=P
n
, Q
L
(U)=Q
n
U
2
/X
Q
n
P
n
Figuire6:Relative PQ corresponding to U
2 2
2
4 /
n
n
P E
Q
X E X
=
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ]
L L
EU U
P U Q U
X X
= + +
(3)
B
A
P
n
Figuire7: Relative PQ when U change
Q
n
(4)
(
+ + =

.

\

X
U
Q P
X
U E
n n
2
2
2
.
If P and Q depend on U as quadratic function of U; P
n
and
Q
n
unlimited
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
n
n n
L n
n
P
p U
P G U
U
U
U
= = =
Load is shown as : Y=G
n
+jB
n
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
n
n n
L n
n
Q
Q U
Q B U
U
U
U
= = =
Any values of G
n
,B
n
;substitute P
L
,Q
L
into (3):
2 2
( ) ( 1)
n n
E
U
G X B X
=
+ +
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
Q
n
P
n
U
n
P
L
, Q
L
U
P
n
Q
n
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
P
L
, Q
L
U
P
n
2
.


.

\

=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
Q
n
P
n
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
Q
n
P
n
P
L
, Q
L
U
2
.


.

\

=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
2
.


.

\

=
N
N L
U
U
P P
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
Figure 6: Q
n
and P
n
when the load characteristic changes
P
L
, Q
L
U
2
.


.

\

=
N
N L
U
U
Q Q
2
.


.

\

=
N
N L
U
U
P P
Q
n
P
n
CONCLUSION
Three key concepts of voltage stability are the load
characteristics as seen from the bulk power network, the
available means for voltage control at generators and in the
network the ability of network to transfer power particularly
reactive power from the point of production to the point of
consumption.
Voltage stability depens on the relationship beween QUP.
The network element characteristics have important influences on
system stability.
The fundamental causes of voltage instability is identified as
incapability of combined transmission and generation system to meet
excessive load demand in either real power or reactive power form.
THANKS
R
X
U
n
I
2 2
n
n
U
I
R X


=
+
2
.
n
Q I jX =
2
2 2
n
n
U
Q X
R X
=
+
(1)
2
2 2
( )
U
Q U X
R X
=
+
In general:
(2)
From (1) , (2) :
2
2
2
( )
n
n n
U
Q U
Q U U
U
 
= =

\ .
2
( ) ( / )
n n
Q U U U Q =
2
( ) ( / )
n n
P U U U P =
As above:
Equivalent circuit
3. RELATIVE BEWEENT PUQ
2.3 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING POWER
2.3 CHARACTERISTIC OF REACTIVE
COMPENSATING POWER