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POLLUTION:- The mixing

of harmful things to our

Pollution of is
environment thecalled
“Pollution” is largely
unintended and
unwanted consequences
of human activities in
agriculture and waste
Pollution is harmful for
all living beings and
create problems
High levels of pollution are largely a consequence
of industrialization, urbanization and the rapid
increase of human population in modern times.

Pollutants commonly are

classified according to the part
of the environment primarily
effected by them either by air,
water or land .

Sub grouping depends on

characteristics of the pollutants
themselves: chemical,
physical, thermal and others.
Many pollutants affect more
than one resource.
Air is a mixture of gases comprising 78 %
nitrogen, 21% oxygen and a little less than
1 % argon, together with 0.03 % carbon
dioxide. These elements make up to 99.9
% of dry air.
As long as this composition is maintained,
the air is pure.
If this composition is altered, i.e. the
oxygen level gets reduces or other
harmful gases enter the atmosphere,
then the air is said to be polluted.

Finally we say, Air pollution is indication

of disturbances to the composition of
compounds in the atmosphere
Major pollutants occurring in the air:-
1.Gases Pollutants:
Sources: The sources of gaseous
pollutants are the vehicles, industries,
manufacturing processes and even
agricultural activities.
Combustion of fossil fuels release SO2 and
nitrogen. Carbon-monoxide is another
harmful gas released during combustion.
2.Particulate pollutants: The
particulate pollutants include dust from
crushing and grinding due to
construction work. fibers from textile mill
are other particulate pollutants, lead
particles are still other pollutants of this

3.Smog: The mixture of smoke and fog

together produced smog It is actually fog
carrying carbon particles. Smog is the
result of heavy traffic on the highways.
Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies
such as rivers, oceans ,ground-water & lacks.

The principle sources of water

pollution are sewage, industrial-
waste, toxic-metals ,garbage ,
agriculture -fertilizers,
pesticides and herbicides.
Noise is defined as unwanted sound & Noise pollution is
unwanted human-created sound that disrupts the environment
The major sources of noise pollution
are: -
•Loud speakers
•Construction works
•Projection of satellites into space
•Industry & Machinery.
Effect:-Noise pollution has ill effects not only on the
human beings but also on other living and non- living Permanent hearing loss, Mental stress,
Frustration, sleep-disorder, etc
Aparna kumari
Soil pollution mainly involves the
deposition on land of solid wastes &
toxic chemicals such as cans,
bottles, plastic containers,
pesticides,etc that cannot be broken
down quickly or, in some cases, at

Land pollution is the degradation of

Earth's land surfaces often caused by
human activities and their misuse of land
1.Increase Population & Urbanization
The increase in the concentration of
population in cities, along with the
internal combustion engine, led to
the increased number of roads and
all the infra structure that goes with
them. Roads cause
visual,noise,light,air and water
pollution, in addition to land pollution

As the demand for food has

grown very high, there is an
increase in field size and
mechanization. The increase in
field size makes it
:-2. Acid-Rain

Acid Rain is caused by air pollution.

The acidic water falls on the soil and
pollutes it by making the soil acidic.
3.Insecticides & Herbicides -
Insecticides and Herbicides are
poisonous chemicals which are
used to spray standing crops to
prevent them from harmful
insects and herbs

insecticides and
herbicides mix
with the soil and
pollute it.
The soil pollution caused by the
use of insecticides and
herbicides in agriculture is very
dangerous because these
chemicals can enter our food
chain and damage our health.
eg,DDT,BHC etc
5.Excessive use of Fertilisers :-
The use of excess fertilisers to
increase the crop yields makes the soil
either acidic or alkaline and pollutes it.
For example, excessive use of
ammonium sulphate fertilisers makes
the soil highly acidic .whereas the
excessive use of sodium nitrate
fertilisers makes the soil highly
5. Contamination of soil with man-made
chemicals, and
6.Improper land use and planning

Land Pollution caused by

acid rain reduce the fertility
of soil leading to reduction of
crop yields.
The solid wastes like garbage
destroy the natural beauty and
become a breeding ground for
mosquitoes which spread
diseases like malaria and
The pollution caused by
the excessive use of
fertilisers also reduces the
fertility of the soil and crop
yields by making the soil
either highly acidic or
highly alkaline.

The effects of land

pollution are numerous,
interrelated and of
adverse consequences
on the entire ecological
Modes of waste
a -disposal

Landfill Production of
s Bio-gas

Recycli Compost Incinerat

ng ing ion

Aparna Kumari
Most of the solid wastes in
urban areas are buried in low-
lying areas to level the uneven
ground. This is called Landfills.
It is the method of recovery and
processing of Biodegradable wastes or
materials after they have been used,
which enables them to be used. For
example, solid wastes like paper, plastics
and metals, etc., are recycled. Industrial
wastes are treated in special plants and
valuable wastes are recycled
In this method, the domestic waste like fruit and
vegetable waste, left-over food, leaves of potted
plants etc., can be converted into compost and
used as manure.

It means ‘reduction to ashes’.
The burning of a substance at
high temperature to form ash is
called Incineration. It is used to
destroy household waste,
chemical waste and biological
waste. Incineration is carried out
in incinerator.
5.Production of Biogas & Manure

In this method Cow dung is fed

into biogas plants to produce
Biogas and obtain manure.
Future of our planet
lies in our hands

Keep the

Thank You
By- Amit krishna