Grammar: The Basics

This or That ?

Which image do you see?

A vase or two faces?

A young girl’s face or an old woman’s face?

Sentences Construction
Objective

Understand the difference between SVO / SOV

Use the rule effectively for Sentence construction

Sentence Structure

Subject +Verb+Object I + eat + food

Subject +Object +Verb I + food + eat

Gamer Grammar
Objective

Identify the commonly made mistakes while speaking in English

To increase fluency in English

Building Blocks
un Prono Noun

on rjecti In t e

i on junct Con

of Parts ch Spee

Verb

io n posit Pre

rb Adve

ve djecti A

Parts Of Speech

Noun

Noun: is a word used as the name, animal, place, or thing. Person: man, woman, teacher, John, Mary Place: home, office, town, countryside Animal: dog, cat, horse, monkey Thing: book, pen, room, tree

   

Parts Of Speech

Noun
    

Types Of Nouns
Common Noun Proper Noun Collective Noun Abstract Noun Countable / Uncountable Nouns

Parts Of Speech

Noun

 Common

Noun

Is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. E.g.
City,

man, boat, and radio

Parts Of Speech

Noun

 Proper

Noun

Name of a specific person, place or thing. E.g.

Eiffel Tower, India, Mr. Will Smith, Nokia

Parts Of Speech

Noun

 Collective

Noun

Name of a number ( or collection) of persons or things taken together and spoken of as a whole. E.g.
 

A Crowd -a collection of people An Army - collection of soldiers

Parts Of Speech

Noun

 Abstract

Noun

Is usually the name of a quality, action, or state. E.g.
  

Quality - kindness, darkness, honesty Action - laughter, theft State - sleep, sickness

Parts Of Speech

Noun

 Countable

Noun

(or countables) are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count. E.g. book, pen, apple, boy
 Uncountable

noun

(or uncountables) are the names of things which cannot count. E.g. milk, sugar, gold, oil

Parts Of Speech

Noun

Lisa works as a programmer at Microsoft.

Let's have lunch at McDonalds.

Mc Donalds

Mc Donalds

Parts Of Speech

Noun

The sun sheds it’s beams on rich and poor alike. Edward was a great king. The rose smells sweet. A flock of sheep is passing by. George was a brave soldier.

   

Name, Place, Animal, Thing
 Fun

time
Common Noun Collective Noun Abstract Noun

Lets play Name, Place, Animal, Thing with a difference

Proper Noun

Peter

Postman

Poultry

Prayer

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
 Pronoun:

is a word used instead of a noun.

E.g.
   

Tim is absent, because he is ill. This book is mine. It is doubtful whether he will come for the party. Bob is a kind boy. He has lent his bicycle to Alice.

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
E.g.

Do you think Mary is pretty? I think Mary is beautiful. With pronouns, we can say:

Do you think Mary is pretty? I think she is beautiful.

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
 Personal

Pronoun:

I, we, you, he, (she, it), are called Personal Pronouns because they stand for three persons. E.g.
  

The person speaking –This is my book The person spoken to – Those are your books The person spoken of- That is her book

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
 Indefinite

Anybody Each

Pronoun

Refers to noun that are indefinite. E.g.

Either None Someone One Few

 

One evening a beggar came to my door. Somebody stole the mangoes.

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
 Relative

Pronoun- such as that, who,

This, That

which, whose and whom which give extra These, Those information about the subject. E.g.

Who, Whom

The woman who interviewed me was very Whose, Which friendly. I can't stand dogs that bark loudly. What

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
Myself
 Reflexive

Pronoun

Yourself Himself Ourselves Themselves

Pronouns combined with –self or –selves to emphasize the subject of the verb.

E.g. I hurt myself.

Parts Of Speech

Pronoun
Person and Number First Person Singular First Person Plural Second Person Singular Second Person Plural Third Person Singular Third Person Plural Subjective I We You You Possessive Mine Ours Yours Yours Subjective Me Us You You

He / she / it His / hers / its Him / her / it They Theirs They

Lie detector
 Lets

have some fun

I love scuba diving

I am born in New York

I love Chinese Food

Parts Of Speech

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun, pronoun or another adjective. An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun. Adjectives can be used before a noun or after certain verbs. We can often use two or more adjectives together. A big car I like Chinese food It is a tough decision A beautiful young French lady

E.g.
   

Parts Of Speech

Adjectives
Adjective Patterns:
 

Adjectives can come before noun: a new car Adjectives can come after verbs: such as be, become, seem, look, etc.: that car looks fast They can be modified by adverbs: a very expensive car

Name Chain
Hi! I’m Witty William

 Fun

Time
Hi! That’s Witty William, this is Energetic Esther and I am Helpful Henry

Hi! This is my friend Witty William And I am Energetic Esther

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Verb: is a word that tells something about a person or thing.
E.g.
 

The sun shines brightly. Harry laughs.

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Types of Verbs
   

Auxiliary Verbs Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs Modal Verbs

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Auxiliary Verb: ‘To Do’, ‘Be’ and ‘Have’ are the English auxiliary verbs / helping verbs used in a negative structure, a question or to show tenses. Modal Verb: Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, obligation and necessity.
E.g. Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Regular Verb: A regular verb is one that follows the pattern of taking -ed for the past simple and past participles. E.g. walk / walked / walked

Irregular Verb: An irregular verb is one that does not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past Simple forms. Some verbs do not change.

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Types of Verbs
 Irregular

Verbs
Past Tense
Shut Read Sat Built Knew Saw

Base Form
Shut Read Sit Build Know See

Past Participle
Shut Read Sat Built Known Seen

Parts Of Speech

Verb

Characteristics of Verbs Verbs usually come after the subject of the sentence. Chris paints well. E.g.

Verbs must agree in person (first, second, etc.) and number (singular and plural) with the subject of the sentence. She sings sweetly. They sing sweetly.

E.g.

Parts Of Speech

Adverb
 Adverb - An adverb is a word that tells us

more about a verb. An adverb "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb. But adverbs can also modify adjectives, or even other adverbs. E.g.
  

The man ran quickly. Tara is really beautiful. The Cell phone works very well.

Parts Of Speech

Adverb
Characteristics of Adverb
1.

Function The main job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. Modify a verb: - John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?) - Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?) - She never smokes. (When does she smoke?)
(In the following examples, the adverb is in red and the word that it modifies is in purple.)

Parts Of Speech

Adverb
2.

Form
Many adverbs end in -ly. E.g. quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly. But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. E.g. "Friendly", is an adjective. Some adverbs have no particular form. E.g. well, fast, very, never, always, often, still

Parts Of Speech

Adverb
3. Position Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence:

Front (before the subject): - Now we will study adverbs. Middle (between the subject and the main verb): - We often study adverbs. End (after the verb or object):

Dumbverb
 Lets

have some fun

Enact the given adverbs while the class guesses the same.

E.g.
Harry and Sally dance gracefully.

Parts Of Speech

Prepositions
 Prepositions:

are words that we can use to indicate time, place and space.
PREPOSITIONS

Period/Point of Time During Throughout At

Position In, Under, Over, Beside, Between, Opposite, Among, Between

Direction Towards Past Around

Parts Of Speech

Prepositions
Commonly used Prepositions
Aboard Against Before Between Except Of Within Towards About Along Behind Beyond For On In Under Above Among Below By From Over Up Until Across Around Beneath Down Into Since Over Upon After At Beside During Like To Off With

Parts Of Speech

Prepositions

We went to school on Monday.

My plane stopped at Washington and New Jersey and arrived in New York two hours late.

Lord of the Ad world
Fun Time
Identify slogans with Prepositions in them E.g. Lets go in an ALTO – Maruti
er sh fi ng Ki

King of good times - Kingfisher

Parts Of Speech

Conjunctions
 Coordinating

F – For A – And N – Nor B – But O – Or Y – Yet S - So

Conjunctions -

are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses. E.g.

Jack and Jill went up the hill. The water was warm but I didn't go swimming.

Parts Of Speech

Conjunctions
 Subordinating

conjunctions - Since, Because,
If, After, Until, Although, Before, As Though, Though, When, Unless As

A word or words used to connect unequal parts of a sentence. E.g. I went swimming, although it was cold.

Parts Of Speech

Conjunctions
 Correlative

Both-and Either-or Neither-nor Since-therefore If-then Not only-but also

Conjunctions –

A pair of conjunctions used to show a comparison. (They are also known as paired conjunctions) E.g. Not only is she rich, but also intelligent.

Conjingle

 Fun

time
So

For

But And

Nor

Also

Alas
Parts Of Speech

!

Interjection

Interjection: is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Hello!, Bravo!, Alas! or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.

Hi !
Parts Of Speech

What's new?

Interjection
E.g.

"Hey ! look at that!" (calling attention ) "Hi ! What's new?" (expressing greeting ) "Well ! what did he say?" (introducing a remark )
Well ! what did he say?

Subjects and Verbs
Objective

Identify the correct usage of Subject and Verb in a sentence Identify the correct usage of Subjects and Verbs while speaking in English

Subjects and Verbs
Verb: The part of speech that expresses action, or state
of being.

Subject: The part which names the person or thing we
are speaking about in a sentence.

Subjects and Verbs
Subject and Verb Agreement
The Verb agrees with the Subject in Number and Person E.g. Sam and Harry are friends.

Subjects and Verbs
Harry

Harry Potter is an interesting book.

Potter

Every boy and girl is ready to run for the marathon.

Articles
Objective

Identify the mechanisms to use articles appropriately.

Articles
 Articles:

are Determiners.

Types Of Articles

Indefinite – A / AN Definite – THE

Articles
 Indefinite

Article (A)

A dog is a faithful animal.

A man is known by the company he keeps

Articles
 Indefinite

Article (AN)

An Apple

An Honest Man

Articles
 Definite

Article ( THE)

Lets go to the Golf Club.

The Solar System.

Articles
Lets have fun
Identify articles in the songs (Clips to be added)

Tenses
Objective

Identify the correct usage of Tense in a sentence Identify the correct usage of Tense while speaking in English

Tenses
The Tense of a verb shows the time of action or event. Verb tenses are tools that English speakers use to express time in language.

 

Tenses
 

There are three main Tenses: Present Tense: a verb that refers to the present time. E.g. I write a letter. Past Tense: a verb that refers to the past time. E.g. I wrote a letter.

Future Tense: a verb that refers to the future time. E.g. I will write a letter.

Tenses
Simple Present
I study English everyday.

Simple Past
Two years ago, I studied English in England.

Simple Future
I will be studying English next year.

Present Continuous
IS / AM / ARE + verb in ING I am studying English now.

Past Continuous WAS / WERE + verb in ING
I was studying English when you called yesterday.

Future Continuous SHALL / WILL + BE + verb in ING
I will be studying English when you arrive tonight.

Present Perfect HAS / HAVE + P.P
I have studied English in several different countries.

Past Perfect HAD + P.P.
I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.S.

Future Perfect SHALL / WILL + BE + verb in ING
I will be studying English when you arrive tonight.

Present Perfect Continuous HAS / HAVE + BEEN + verb in ING
I have been studying English for five years.

Past Perfect Continuous HAD + BEEN + verb in ING
I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U.S.

Future Perfect Continuous
SHALL / WILL + HAS / HAVE + BEEN + verb in ING I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.

Tense Tenses
 Fun

Time

Group A write a story in the Present

Group B write a story in the Past

Group C write a story in the Future

Question Tags
Objective

To aid formulating appropriate questions. To learn to convert ideas or sentences into questions.

Question Tags

Question tags are a grammatical structure in which a statement or idea is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment ( tag ).

Their pattern is ‘auxiliary + n’t + subject’, if the statement is ‘positive’ and ‘auxiliary + subject’, if the statement is ‘negative’.

Question Tags
E.g. Positive Sentence
 

He has left already, hasn’t he? Andrew came to school yesterday, didn’t he?

Negative Sentence
 

He doesn’t like tea, does he? John can’t speak English fluently, can he?

Question Tags
Peanut Butter

 Lets

have some fun

Madonna New York

Direct And Indirect Speech
Objective

To understand the two ways of relating and quoting what someone has said.

Direct And Indirect Speech

In Direct Speech the original speaker’s exact words are given and indicated by quotation marks (“ ”) E.g. “I don’t know what to do,” said Dean. In Indirect Speech the exact meaning of the speaker’s words are given, but the exact words are not directly quoted. E.g. Dean said that he didn’t know what to do.

 

Direct And Indirect Speech
Some pointers to convert Direct Speech into Indirect Speech and vice – versa.

If the main verb is in the past tense, the present tense verbs in that sentence must be changed to past tense. First and second person pronouns must be changed to third person pronouns.

Direct And Indirect Speech

Voice

 Objective
To create awareness that using the Passive Voice sounds more objective.

Voice
Active Voice: The verb is active, when the subject
(agent) does the action (verb) to something (object).

E.g. The doctor wrote a prescription.

Passive Voice: The verb is passive,
when the subject takes the action upon itself.

E.g. The prescription was written by the doctor.

Voice

Creativity Unlimited
 Sell

a refrigerator to an Eskimo

News Time

Charles and Camilla's wedding day Aftermath of 9/11 gets film focus

Joseph Ratzinger is the new Pope Beckham family affairs are fair game for the public

Movie Time

Thank You