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Human Resource Development

Tejashree Talpade

Definition of HRD

 A set of systematic and planned activities designed
by an organization to provide its members with the
necessary skills to meet current and future job

Emergence of HRD

 Employee needs extend beyond the training
 Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving
 Need for basic employee development
 Need for structured career development

Relationship Between HRM and HRD

 Human resource management (HRM) encompasses
many functions
 Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
the functions within HRM

Primary Functions of HRM

 Human resource planning
 Equal employment opportunity
 Staffing (recruitment and selection)
 Compensation and benefits
 Employee and labor relations
 Health, safety, and security
 Human resource development

Secondary HRM Functions

 Organization and job design
 Performance management/ performance appraisal
 Research and information systems

HRD Functions

 Training and development (T&D)
 Organizational development
 Career development

Training and Development (T&D)

 Training – improving the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of employees for the short-term,
particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,
 Employee orientation
 Skills & technical training
 Coaching
 Counseling

Training and Development (T&D)

 Development – preparing for future responsibilities,
while increasing the capacity to perform at a
current job
 Management training
 Supervisor development

Organizational Development

 The process of improving an organization’s
effectiveness and member’s well-being through the
application of behavioral science concepts

 Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels

 HRD plays the role of a change agent

Career Development

 Ongoing process by which individuals progress
through series of changes until they achieve their
personal level of maximum achievement.
 Career planning
 Career management

Learning & Performance

Critical HRD Issues

 Strategic management and HRD
 The supervisor’s role in HRD
 Organizational structure of HRD

Strategic Management & HRD

 Strategic management aims to ensure
organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5
 HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for
new products, procedures, and materials

Supervisor’s Role in HRD

 Implements HRD programs and procedures
 On-the-job training (OJT)
 Coaching/mentoring/counseling
 Career and employee development
 A “front-line participant” in HRD

Organizational Structure of HRD
 Depends on company size, industry and maturity
 No single structure used
 Depends in large part on how well the HRD
manager becomes an institutional part of the
company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a
revenue user

Sample HRD Jobs/Roles

 Executive/Manager
 HR Strategic Advisor
 HR Systems Designer/Developer
 Organization Change Agent
 Organization Design Consultant
 Learning Program Specialist
 Instructor/Facilitator
 Individual Development and Career Counselor
 Performance Consultant (Coach)
 Researcher

HR’s strategic role

 Employees as organisation’s assets
 Driving business strategy
 Spanning organizational functions
 HRD Deliverables:
 Performance
 Capacity Building
 Problem solving/consulting
 Org. change and development

Strategic HRD

 Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and
 Long-term view of HR policy
 Horizontal integration among HR functions
 Vertical integration with corporate strategy
 SHR as core competitive advantage

Firm Capitals

 Human Capital
 Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals
 Social Capital
 Relationships in social networks
 Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions
 Intellectual capital
 Knowledge and knowing capability of social
 Procedural/declarative; tacit/explicit; individual/social
 Value and Uniqueness of capitals

Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997)

Future/Strategic Focus

Mgmt of SHR Mgmt of Trans-
Processes People
Mgmt of Firm Mgmt of Employee
Infrastructure Contributions

Day-to-day/Operational Focus

Definition of HR Roles

Role/Cell Deliverable/ Metaphor Core Activity

Mgmt of SHR Executing corp. Strategic Partner Aligning HR and bus.
strategy Strategy
Mgmt of Firm Building an efficient Administrative Expert Reengineering org.
Infrastructure infrastructure Processes

Mgmt of Employee Increasing employee Employee Champion Providing resources to
Contributions commitment and employees
Mgmt of Organizational Change Agent Managing
Transformation/Chang renewal transformation and
e change,

Importance of Human Resources

 Human resources are an important part of the
value chain
 They can be unique, and thus a source of core
competence in an organization
 If a core competence is related to HR, then HR can
contribute to competitive advantage

Strategic Analysis of HR: Purpose

 People related strategies may be important to new
strategy (for example, a change in the way the
organization does business)
 In today’s technologically complex business world,
analysis of existing human resources is important in
order to determine what options are available
 The network of people within an organization and
their relationships with people can be an important
part of strategy

HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

 In some industries, people are the most important
factor in success
- advertising and creative development
- leisure and tourism
- management consulting
- hospitals and medical professions
 The adaptability of people to changing environments
is an important skill
 “The ability to learn faster than your competitors
may be the only sustainable advantage” – Arie De
Geus, former head of planning at Royal Dutch Shell

Challenges for HRD

 Changing workforce demographics
 Competing in global economy
 Eliminating the skills gap
 Need for lifelong learning
 Need for organizational learning

Competing in the Global Economy

 New technologies
 Need for more skilled and educated workers
 Cultural sensitivity required
 Team involvement
 Problem solving
 Better communications skills

Need for Lifelong Learning

 Organizations change
 Technologies change
 Products change
 Processes change
 PEOPLE must change!!

Creating a learning organisation

Need for Organizational Learning

 Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and
 Principles:
 Systems thinking
 Personal mastery
 Mental models
 Shared visions
 Team learning

Creating a Learning Organization

 Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning:

 Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to
create and explore.

 Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to
perform a task.

 Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since most
decisions are made in groups.

 Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of the
firm to evaluate opportunities.

 Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all

A Framework for the HRD Process

HRD efforts should use the following four phases
(or stages):
 Needs assessment
 Design
 Implementation
 Evaluation

Training & HRD Process Model

Needs Assessment Phase

 Establishing HRD priorities
 Defining specific training and objectives
 Establishing evaluation criteria

Design Phase

 Selecting who delivers program
 Selecting and developing program content
 Scheduling the training program

Implementation Phase

 Implementing or delivering the program

Evaluation Phase

Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
 Keep or change providers?
 Offer it again?
 What are the true costs?
 Can we do it another way?

Motivation, Reward and
Recognition System Management


The force within us that activates our behavior.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, Direction, and Persistence.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Intensity

Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Direction

The extent to which an individual determines
and chooses efforts focused on a particular


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation - Persistence

The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.


Intensity Direction Persistence

Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic

 Intrinsic  Extrinsic
When rewards such as pay
When doing the job is
and formal recognition
inherently motivating
act as motivators

Two Basic Categories of Rewards

Compensation Rewards:
Those given in return for acceptable performance
or effort. They can include nonfinancial

Non-Compensation Rewards:
Those beneficial factors related to the work
situation and well-being of each person.

Types of Rewards

Intrinsic Extrinsic

Sense of Pay
Job Promotion
Personal Growth security

Financial Compensation: Straight Salary

- Salaries are simple to administer
- Planned earnings are easy to project.
- Salaries are useful when substantial
development work is required.

- Salaries offer little incentive for better
- Salaries represent fixed overhead.

Financial Compensation: Pay for Performance

Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent
with other HR systems.
The Reward System is a key driver of:
 HR Strategy

 Business Strategy

 Organization Culture

Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems

Skill-based pay

Training Culture
pay rules Merit pay
contract Labor
Rewards reinforces
Relations culture

Sign-on Bonus
Merit Pay

Financial Compensation: Performance Bonuses

- Organization can direct emphasis to what it
considers important.
- Bonuses are particularly useful for tying rewards
to accomplishment of objectives.

- It may be difficult to determine a formula for
calculating bonus achievement if the objective
is expressed in subjective terms.

Non-financial Compensation

Opportunity for Promotion:
 The ability to move up in an organization along

one or more career paths

Sense of Accomplishment:
 The internal sense of satisfaction from

successful performance

Non-financial Compensation

Opportunity for Personal Growth:
 Access to programs that allow for personal
development (e.g., tuition reimbursement,
leadership development seminars)
 The informal or formal acknowledgement of a
desired accomplishment
Job Security:
 A sense of being a desired employee that comes
from consistent exceptional performance

Understanding Reward & Recognition
 A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that
is provided for a desired behavior or performance, often
with accompanying recognition
 Recognition is a positive consequence provided to a person
for a behavior or a result in the form of acknowledgement,
approval or the expression of gratitude
 “Recognition” is more of an activity or an association (a
social or interpersonal activity) while a “Reward” is more of
a thing (Money, Merchandise, Trophy, Travel etc)

Why Reward & Recognise employees
 By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power
of motivation, which is the single most powerful strategy
used to promote performance and positive behaviors

 Drives Stretch in Performance
 Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation
 Feeling Valued
 Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging
 Improves Individual Attitudes

Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift…..

Rewards at work Recognition

 Direct Financial (pay)  Praise
 Indirect Financial (benefits)  Time
 Work Content (work)  Toys, Trophies & Trinkets
 Careers (development)  Fun, Freedom & Food
 Affiliation (feeling of  Small Money
belonging)  Others
 Study results: Surprisingly,
all 5 types of rewards were
 Common thread – Genuine,
considered equally positive, emotion

* Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000):1-11
What is Recognition?

“Recognition is any thought, word, or deed towards making
someone feel appreciated for who they are and recognized
for what they do.” 1

“Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping behavior and
moving an organization in a desired direction.” 2

“Recognition is something a manager should be doing all the
time—it’s a running dialogue with people.” 3

“Making Recognition a Daily Event” by Roy Saunderson, Recognition Management Institute
“A Culture of Recognition; Building a System to Celebrate Great Performance” by Rhonda
Sunnarborg, BI Business Improvement Series
Ron Zemke, Training magazine 55
Why Focus on Recognition?

 Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective motivators1
 Even small increases in supportive practices are associated with decreased

turnover and increased sales/profitability2
 Employees who feel that their organization values them are more likely to value

their customers2
 Appreciation and/or praise are among the top three drivers of employee

motivation and engagement across a variety of industries and companies3

The Conference Board, 1999 HR Executive Review:
Employee Recognition Programs
Pfeffer 2001 study
Hewitt Associates

 You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation
which has 400 employees at their HO.
 You have been asked to develop an R&R program
for your organisation to keep employees engaged
and motivation levels high.
 A separate budget would be provided for the R&R
 You and you team has to design a program and
present it to your leadership team.

Differentiation between Reward and
Reward Monetary
A reward is given by an “organization” to value
something it already has or it ascribes a value to a
particular job / event

Recognition Feelings
A recognition is just an expression of feeling. It happens
when a person is impacted by another person and he /
she expresses it openly

Diversity @ workplace

What is Diversity?

 In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those
human qualities that are different from our own
and outside the groups in which we belong. There
are various qualities that differentiate one
individual from the next.

Elements of Diversity
 Age  Income
 Gender  Education
 Ethnicity  Marital Status
 Race
 Religious Beliefs
 Physical Ability
 Geographic Location
 Sexual Orientation
 Parental Status
 Physical Characteristics
 Personality Type


The uniqueness of all individuals;
includes everyone.

Principles of Diversity Management
 Establish a business strategy for effectively
managing a diverse workforce
 Create a positive work environment
 Promote personal and professional development
 Empower all people to reach their full potential
 Remove barriers that hinder progress
 Ensure equal opportunities and prevent

Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity

 Organizational vision
 Top management commitment
 Auditing and assessment of needs
 Clarity of objectives
 Clear accountability
 Effective communication
 Coordination of activity
 Evaluation

Techniques for Managing Diversity

 Managing diversity training programs
 Core groups
 Multicultural teams
 Senior managers of diversity
 Targeted recruitment and selection programs

Techniques for Managing Diversity

 Compensation and reward programs tied to
achieving diversity goals
 Language training
 Mentoring programs
 Cultural advisory groups
 Corporate social activities that celebrate

Managing diversity effectively

 Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and
 Better problem definition, generation of
alternatives, and decisions.
 Greater potential of developing a high
performance team.
 Greater resilience in dealing with escalating

Mismanaging diversity

 Disrupts development of trust, constructive
working relationships, arriving at consensus &
 Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping
along cultural lines.
 Misunderstanding and disruptive communication.
 Low levels of efficiency, effectiveness &

Unintended Results of Managing Diversity

 Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups
may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in
 Giving preferential treatment to certain groups may
stigmatize their members
 Increasing diversity without recognition and
rewards for the new members can create
organizational tension

Convergence or Divergence?

 Increasing domestic  Homogeneous
multiculturalism populations may see
 Increasing managing diversity as
globalization of unimportant or
organizations irrelevant

Implications for Managers

 Managing a diverse workforce is an important
part of an international manager’s job
 Must understand the impact of diversity and
know how to utilize
 Realize different cultures view diversity
differently and consider impact on manager

Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Management Program

 Improve organizational performance
 Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents
 Improve workplace relations
 Build more effective work teams
 Improve organizational problem solving
 Improve customer service
 Enhanced recruitment efforts

Making heads count is more important
than counting heads

Possible barriers in the organization that
prevent a more balanced workforce?
 Limiting area of consideration
 Lack of diversity at the senior ranks
 Categorizing people into certain positions
 Always recruiting from same source
 Grooming/developing only one person

Strategies for Inclusion

The Value of Mentoring
 Without regard to race, gender, religion,
national origin ….
 Inconvenience yourself to show someone
else the way
 Unleash someone else’s potential

Professional Development

 Identify training and development needs for all
 Utilize Individual Development Plans
 Rotational & Developmental Assignments
 Rotate “acting” supervisor

 Diversity management is about full utilization of
people with different backgrounds and

 Effective diversity management strategy has a
positive effect on cost reduction, creativity,
problem solving, and organizational flexibility

Human Resource Audit

How is Human Resource Analysis Done?

 Human Resource Audit
 Purpose:
 To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding
current employees and
 to identify future human resource needs of the
 Question Answered:
Are the human resources a strength or a

The Audit: Principles

 Obtain some basic information on the people and
policies involved in the organization

 Explore in detail the role and contribution of the
human resources management function in the
development of strategy

The Audit: Contents

 People in the Organization
 Role and Contribution of HR strategy

HR Audit: People in the organization

 Employee numbers and turnover  Selection, training and
 Organization structure
 Staffing levels
 Structures for controlling the
 Capital investment/employee
 Use of special teams, e.g. for
Innovation  Role of quality and personal service
in delivering the products or
 Level of skills and capabilities services

 Morale and rewards
 of the organization

 Employee and industrial  Role of professional advice in
relations delivering the product or service

Role & Contribution of HR Strategy
 Relationship with strategy
 Key characteristics of HR strategy
 Consistency of strategy across different levels
 Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in
the organization
 Role of HR strategy in leading change in the
 Monitoring and review of HR strategy
 Time horizon for operation of HR strategy

What the Audit Achieves

 Provides information that is useful in deciding how
feasible a strategy is
 Identifies any human resource “gaps” (human
resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus
the current state of human resources)
 Allows the organization to “benchmark” their
performance against other organizations
(benchmark is a process of comparison)

Human Resources as a CSF

 Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one
organization is superior to another

 HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills

Coaching and Mentoring

Coaching and Mentoring

 These definitions indicate some overlap and
some differences between Mentoring and
Coaching. Mentoring is often seen as a longer
term process, for example offering support
during a career change such as induction or
becoming a senior manager.


 Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting
practitioners whilst they make a significant career

 Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the
individual and occurs ‘at need’. Here the emphasis
is on ready and confidential access to a ‘critical
friend’ who can be used as a sounding board and
who offers a free form of advice.


 Coaching is normally used to support the process of
reviewing established or emerging practices. It is
focused on innovation, change or specific skills.

 Coaching is conceived as a more structured
learning process aimed at explicit professional
development in an agreed area of performance.

Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and their overlap

The learner (the personal dimension)

If writers are more aware of their own writing
processes and what helps and hinders their writing then
they are more likely both to become more confident
writers and are able to support others in their writing
too. The same principles apply to leaders and
managers. The Mentor/Coach needs to be aware of the
ways in which Mentees/Coachees can focus on
themselves as learners.

The learning (the transformational dimension)

In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or change comes about
through the learning conversation. The conversation enables the
process of Mentoring/Coaching in which there needs to be an explicit
focus on learning. Dennison and Kirk’s cycle of learning (1990) is
useful for this purpose.

This model can be
applied to developing
leaders and
managers ie:
themselves before

What Mentoring and Coaching is not

Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling although some
counseling skills may be used by the Mentor/Coach.
Learning conversations do not focus on personal problems.

Neither is the learning conversation therapy although the
outcome of the conversation may leave the person feeling
up-lifted and may feel their emotions have changed. But
learning is always the focus.

Competency Modeling

 It is derived from the Latin word
‘Competere’, which means to be suitable.
 The concept was originally developed in
Psychology denoting Individual’s ability to
respond to demand placed on them by the
 Any underlying characteristic required
performing a given task, activity, or role
successfully can be considered as

Competencies defined
 A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge
and self-concept, traits, behaviour, motivation, etc.),
that enables us to successfully complete a given task.

Skills Knowledge


Iceberg Model of Competencies

•Skills = a learned ability
•Knowledge = acquiring
information in a particular field

•Self-Image = attitudes and
•Traits = why and how we
behave a certain way
•Motives = what drives us, i.e.,
the need to seek achievement,
power/influence, affliliation

Competencies in the Corporate World

 Communication – without offending others
 Critical Thinking – Seeing the Big picture
 Ethics / Social Responsibility – Ethical behaviour
 Information Technology – creativity optimization
 Interpersonal Diversity – Being non-judgmental
 Leadership
 Managing Change
 Self-managed Learning – self motivated
 Teamwork – collaboration & impact of self
 Technical know-how

Emotional Competency Framework

Personal Competence Social Competence

Self Awareness: Empathy:
Knowledge of one’s self- Awareness of others’
concept and values feelings and emotions

Self Regulation: Social Skills:
Management of one’s Adeptness at inducing
impulses and emotions desired responses in others

Self-guidance and direction

* from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman
Competency Classification

Individual Organisation

Social Behavioural Organisational
Leadership Cultural
Generic competencies

Technical Functional / operational Core competencies
knowledge Corporate competencies
Skill knowledge Distinctive competencies
Threshold competencies

Why use competencies

 Competencies
 help individuals and organisations to improve
their performance and deliver results
 can be quantified and communicated
 can be taught, learned, measured and monitored

Benefits of competency-modeling

 Integrates fragmented management and practices
 Links individual or group performance to strategic
 Helps develop high value activities for the
 Focusing on what people do, not what they are
 Leads to organisational flexibility and stability
 Leads to competitive advantage
 Is participatory and involving
 Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible
change in business future and to ensure relevance

Benefits of competency-modeling – HR Delivery

 Matching of Individuals and Jobs
 Employee Selection
 Training and Development
 Professional and Personal Development
 Performance Measurement
 Succession Planning

Who Identifies competencies?
 Competencies can be identified by one of more of the
following category of people:
 Experts
 HR Specialists
 Job analysts
 Psychologists
 Industrial Engineers etc.
in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role
holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing
Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role
holders and Other role set members of the role (those who
have expectations from the role holder and who interact
with him/her).

What Methodology is used?

 The following methods are used in combination for
competency mapping:
 Interviews
 Group work
 Task Forces
 Task Analysis workshops
 Questionnaire
 Use of Job descriptions
 Performance Appraisal Formats etc.

How are they Identified?
 The process of identification is not very complex.
One of the methods is given below:
 1. Simply ask each person who is currently
performing the role to list the tasks to be
performed by him one by one, and identify the
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to
perform each of these.
 Consolidate the list.
 Present it to a role set group or a special task force
constituted for that role.
 Edit and Finalize.

What Language to Use?
 Use Technical language for technical
competencies. For example: knowledge of
 Use business language for business competencies.
Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business
or Strategic thinking.
 Use your own language or standard terms for
Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to
Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales
techniques. Too technical and conceptual
knowledge align to the organization and people
may create more problems than help
Assessment Centers

Assessment Centre

 Assessment centers typically involve the
participants completing a range of exercises which
simulate the activities carried out in the target

 Various combinations of these exercises and
sometimes other assessment methods like
psychometric testing and interviews are used to
assess particular competencies in individuals.

 The theory behind this is that if one wishes to predict
future job performance then the best way of doing
this is to get the individual to carry out a set of tasks
which accurately sample those required in the job
and are as similar to them as possible.

 The particular competencies used will depend upon
the target job but one will often find competencies
such as relating to people; resistance to stress;
planning and organising; motivation; adaptability and
flexibility; problem solving; leadership;
communication; decision making and initiative.

Assessment centres usually – Development centres usually –

 have a pass/fail criteria  do not have a pass/fail criteria
 are geared towards filing a job vacancy  are geared towards developing the
 address an immediate organisational need individual
 have fewer assessors and more participants  address a longer term need
 involve line managers as assessors  have a 1:1 ratio of assessor to participant
 have less emphasis placed on self-  do not have line managers as assessors
assessment  have a greater emphasis placed on self-
 focus on what the candidate can do now assessment
 are geared to meet the needs of the  focus on potential
organisation  are geared to meet needs of the individual
 assign the role of judge to assessors as well as the organisation
 place emphasis on selection with little or  assign the role of facilitator to assessors
no developmental feedback and follow up  place emphasis on developmental feedback
 give feedback at a later date and follow up with little or no selection
 involve the organisation having control over
the information obtained  give feedback immediately
 have very little pre-centre briefing  involve the individual having control over
the information obtained
 tend to be used with external candidates
 have a substantial pre-centre briefing
 tend to be used with internal candidates

Types of Exercises
Group Discussions
 In these, candidates are brought together as a
committee or project team with one or a number of
items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may
be assigned specific roles to play in the group or it may
be structured in such a way that all the candidates have
the same basic information. With this type of exercise,
and in common with other types of exercise, it is of
great benefit to ensure that you understand and follow
the instructions for the exercise.

Types of Exercises
In Tray
 This type of exercise is normally undertaken by candidates
individually. The materials comprise a bundle of
correspondence and the candidate is placed in the role of
somebody, generally, who assumed a new position or replaced
their predecessor at short notice and have been asked to deal
with their accumulated correspondence. Generally the only
evidence that the assessors have to work with are the
annotations which the candidates have made on the articles of
mail. It is important when undertaking such an exercise to
make sure that the items are not just dealt with, but that
clearly mark on the items any thoughts that you have about
them or any other actions that you would wish to put in train.

Interview Simulations / Role Plays
 In these exercises candidates meet individually with a role player or
resource person.
 Their brief is either to gather information to form a view and make a
decision, or alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource
person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute.
 Typically, candidates will be allowed 15 -30 minutes to prepare for
such a meeting and will be given a short, general brief on the
objective for the meeting.
 In undertaking such an exercise you should consider carefully how you
want to spend the time in the meeting and plan accordingly. Although
the assessment is made mainly on the conduct of the meeting itself,
consideration will also be given to preparatory notes, thus it is useful
for any meeting plan or objectives that you set yourself for the
meeting to be clearly set out in your preparatory notes.

Case Studies / Analysis Exercises

 In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the
task of making a decision about a particular business case.
They are provided with a large amount of factual
information which is generally ambiguous and, in some
cases, contradictory.
 Candidates generally work independently on such an
exercise and their recommendation or decision is usually to
be communicated in the form of a brief written report
and/or a presentation made to the assessors. As with the
other exercises it is important with this kind of exercise to
ensure that your thought processes are clearly articulated
and available for the scrutiny of the assessors. Of
paramount importance, if the brief requires a decision to
be made, ensure that a decision is made and articulated.

 The above is meant as an illustrated list of the types of
exercises that may be encountered in an assessment centre.
Variations and permutations are almost infinite.

 It is, however, worth remembering that there is a large body of
academic research which suggests that the assessment centre is
probably one of the most valid predictors of performance in a
job and, if correctly structured, is probably one of the fairest
and most objective means of gathering information upon which
a selection decision can be based. From the candidate's
perspective it is important to be natural and to be oneself when
faced with an assessment centre, remembering always that you
can only be assessed on what you have done and what the
assessors can observe

Exercise categorisation

 Level 1: Administrative - suitable for a wide range of roles
including: secretarial and clerical staff, call centre staff,
frontline customer service roles
 Level 2: Graduate - ideal for roles where there is no requirement
for significant organisational experience
 Level 3: First line manager - primarily for new or junior
managers, or managers with little experience of people
 Level 4: Middle manager - for experienced managers, including
familiarity with people management
 Level 5: Executive - targeted at senior managers with significant

Design an Assessment Centre

 Design of an assessment centre should reflect:
 the ethos of the organisation
 the actual skills required to carry out the job
 potential sources of recruits
 the extent to which recruitment is devolved to line
 the HR strategy.

Design Criteria

 The essential design criteria should include:
 duration of the centre (one day might be insufficient for
more senior posts)
 location (reality or ideal surroundings and accessibility for
candidates with disabilities)
 number of candidates brought together (five may be too
few for comfort under observation and more than eight
gives problems in sharing the assessed time)
 candidate background and comparability of past experience
 number, mix, and experience of assessors.

Design Criteria

 Essential and desired skills /competencies to be
matched to the techniques and tasks which test
 Group exercises should be as real as possible
 The tasks might need to encourage competitiveness


 There should be a number of senior observers/selectors
to ensure greater objectivity through a range of views.
 Selectors must be trained to observe, record, classify
and rate behaviour and seek evidence accurately and
objectively against the job description and person
 Selectors preferably should also have had some training
on interviewing skills and in managing diversity, and
have good listening skills.
 Assessors might also be used to observe and comment
on behaviour although they do not necessarlity take
part in final selection decisions

Performance Management

Objective Setting

 An objective is a simple statement of an end result
to be achieved within a specified time frame.
 It should be short, clear and specific.
 It can also be in the form of an activity as it may
not always be possible to quantify the end results.

Why Objective setting ?

 Gives direction to job.
 Helps focus on important job areas.
 Assists review and change in job emphasis.
 Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
 Increases mutual job understanding with superior.


 Are significantly important areas of job.
 When performed well, improves overall results.
 Are maximum payoff job areas.
 Represent the work which account for 80% of


 Targets – are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when

 Activities – action steps which lead to the end
results / used when targets are not quantifiable /
indicate what by when

Process of goal setting

 What is the job ?
 What are the end results expected ?
 What policies / procedures / work methods are
impeding performance ?
 What changes are needed for better results ?
 How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to
improve schedule ?
 What problems need to be overcome next year ?

Objectives v/s Targets

 Focus on imp. Areas  Measures imp. Results
 Related to job description  Related to objectives
 Signposts
 Direction of work  Milestones/Pathways
 Optimum number 6  Specific condition
 One or more for each

Criteria for objectives
 Observable
 Basis for appraisal
 Jointly evolved
 Extra effort
 Clear/consistent with dept. objective
 Time bound
 Initiative
 Verifiable
 End result- emphasis on
 Satisfying

Objectives should be

 S - Specific
 M - Measurable
 A - Attainable
 R - Relevant
 T - Time-bound


 Establishing specific goals to support stated
 Determining the importance of these goals.
 Making plans for action.
 Arriving at performance standards and
measurement criteria.
 Stating anticipated problems.


 Weighing the resources required to carry out the
planned action.
 Providing for interaction of organization and
individual goals.
 Following up with actual performance
measurement and evaluation.

HRs role in Performance Management

 Delivering time-lines
 Ensuring timely adherence
 Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers
 Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational
 Requesting modification if required

Thank you

High Performance Organizations

 High Performance Organizations
  Traditional
Components Organizations  Multi-skilled team players
 People  Narrow expertise  Dispersed
 Decision Systems  Rugged individuals  Open
 Human Resources  Centralized  Realistic job interviews
 Structure  Closed  Continuous learning
 Values & Culture  Performance-based pay
 Standardized selection
 Routine training  Enriched jobs
 Job-based pay  Flat, flexible hierarchies
 Narrow, repetitive jobs  Self-contained businesses
 Tall rigid hierarchies  Promote involvement
 Functional departments  Innovation and cooperation
 Promote compliance
 Routine behaviors