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Historical Perspective
Classification Of Computers
Elements Of Computing Process
Characteristics of Computer
Advantages and Limitations of Computers

 Computer is an electronic device which can
compute and process data.
 Computer can store, process and retrieve data
whenever required.
 Computers can do computations with not only
all kinds of numbers but also with alphabets,
pictures, sound, images and voice (multimedia)
 It is capable of producing accurate results from
the inputs given and is very reliable.
Historical Perspective
Generatio Years Circuitry Characterized By
First 1951 to Vacuum Magnetic drum and
1959 tubes Magnetic tape
Second 1959 to Transistor Magnetic cores and
1963 s magnetic disk
Third 1963 to Integrated Mini computers
1975 Circuit accessible by
multiple users
Fourth 1975 to VLSI PC and user
present friendly micro
Classification Of Computers

 Supercomputers
 Mainframes
 Minicomputers
 Workstations and Microcomputers
 Computers on the move – portable
computers (laptop, notebook, etc)
 Docking station
 Palmtop computers
 Smart cards
 Embedded computers
Classification of Computers
According to Technology
 Analog
 Digital
 Hybrid
According to Size and Capacity
 Micro Computer
 Mini Computer
 Mainframe Computer
 Super Computer
Elements Of Computing
 Hardware – the physical parts of the computer
 Software – the programmers that tell the
computer what to do.
 Data
 People
 Procedures

All the above are necessary for the computer
to perform a useful task.
Characteristics of Computer
They are fast.
They are reliable
They are accurate
They can store massive amounts of
They can move information very
quickly from one place to another
Advantages and Limitations of
Advantages Limitations
Speed – computations Incapability to take
can happen very fast decisions on their own,
like human beings
Versatility in terms of Capability to distinguish
taking inputs – it can valid from invalid data
process multiple types
of data
Accuracy – results Requires regular
generated by a maintenance
computer are very
Parts of a Computer
 Input Devices
 Keyboard
 Mouse
 Scanner
 Output Devices
 Printers
Input Devices

The keyboard is very much like a
standard typewriter with few additional
keys. When any key is pressed it sends
electronic signal with unique
identification to the computer. There are
101 keys in standard keyboard but
nowadays keyboards with more than
101 keys are also available.
Input Devices
It is an input device that controls the movement of
the cursor on a display screen. A mouse is a small
object that can be rolled along a hard flat surface.
The name is derived from its shape, which looks a
bit like a mouse. As the mouse is moved, the
pointer on the display screen moves in the same
direction. Mouse contains at least one button and
sometimes as many as three, which have different
functions depending on what program is running.
Input Devices

It is one of the device, mostly used in
designing etc and provides input to computers.
These inputs are used for processing and
manipulation, there are some specific
scanners built for special purposes like OCR,
Output Devices
Visual Display Unit (VDU)

It is a device looks like TV – this is used to
display output, termed as monitor. It uses
cathode ray tube (CRT) to display text,
images, drawings etc when a key is pressed
Control Unit (CU) gets intimated and sends
instructions for drawing that character on the
monitor, this is example of VDU functionality.
Output Devices
Printers : A printer is a device that prints text or
illustrations on paper and in many cases on
transparencies and other media. There are many
different kinds of printers:
a. Daisy-wheel printer
b. Dot-matrix printer
c. Ink-jet printer
d. Laser printer
e. WD and LED printers
f. Line printer
g. Thermal printer
Parts of a Computer Cont’d..
Characteristics of Printers:
 Quality of type
 Speed
 Impact or Non impact
 Graphics
 Fonts

Other parts :
 Plotter
 Sound cards and Speakers
 3D audio
Computer Networks
A network is a group of two or more computer
systems linked together. A network consists of
five basic components:

1. Terminals
2. Telecommunication Processors
3. Telecommunications Channels and Media
4. Computer
5. Telecommunication Software
Computer Networks
A network is a group of two or more computer systems
linked together. A network consists of five basic
1. Terminals – include video display terminals and other
end user workstations. Any input/output device that uses
a network to transmit or receive data is a terminal.
2. Telecommunication Processors These are devices
which support data transmission and reception between
terminals and computers. These devices such as
modems, multiplexers and front-end processors perform
a variety of control and support functions in a network.
Computer Networks Cont’d
3. Telecommunications Channels and Media : The
media over which data are transmitted and received are
called telecommunication channels. They use
combinations of media such as copper wires, coaxial
cables, fiber option cables, microwave systems to
interconnect the other components of a network.
4. Computer : Networks interconnect computers of all
sizes and types so that they can carry out their
information processing assignments.
5. Telecommunication Software : These are
programmers that reside in host computer systems,
communication control computers and end user
Types of Computer
From end user’s point of view, there are two basic
types :
Local Area Networks (LAN) : This spans a relatively
small area and are confined to a single building or
group of buildings. Number of LANs connected by
telephone lines or radio waves is called WAN.
Wide Area Networks (WAN) : This spans a relatively
large geographical area and typically a WAN consists
of two or more local area networks.
Types of Networks Cont’d
Internet : Internet is made up of millions of
computers linked together around the world in
such a way that information can be sent from any
computer to any other 24 hours a day. It is a
loose amalgam of thousands of computer
Intranets: Networks used within an organization is
an intranet or an internal web.
Extranets: This network connects the organization's
intranet through the internet gateway and would
be able to use the intranet.
Computer viruses
A computer virus is an actively
infectious computer program that
place copies of itself into other
applications and programs but not
into data files.
A virus is a manmade program or
piece of code that causes an
unexpected, usually negative, event.
Anti Virus Programs (AVP)
Cleaning a disk from file viruses involves
deleting the virus code from the infected
file. While cleaning a disk of boot sector /
partition table viruses, involves deleting the
virus code from the respective sectors and
copying the boot programs back to their
original space.
Examples Of Famous AVP’s :
Norton, Mcfee.
Operating Systems
Operating Systems are devised to optimize the man-
machine capabilities. Programs are held permanently
in the computer memory freeing thereby the operator
from inputting a program for each application.
An operating system can be defined as an integrated
system of program which supervises the operations of
the CPU, controls the input/output system of
programs which supervises and translates the
programming languages into machine languages and
provides various support services. The operating
systems are base on the concept of modularity.
Operating Systems
All the working details are taken care
by the operating system. It takes
care of all the intermediate activities
required in accomplishing the task

E.g. Microsoft Windows, DOS, XENIX,
Mac OS, OS/2, UNIX, MIVS, etc
Functions of Operating
There are six basic functions that an operating system can
perform :

1. Schedule Jobs
2. Manage Hardware and Software Resources
3. Maintain System Security
4. Enable Multiple User Resources Sharing
5. Handle Interrupts
6. Maintain Usage Records

For large systems, the operating system has even
greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic
policeman ; it makes sure that different programs and
users running at the same time do not interfere with
each other.
Classification of Operating
Operating Systems can be classified as :
• Multi-user/Time sharing
• Multi-processing
• Multi-tasking
• Multi-threading
• Foreground/background processing
• Real-time
Introduction to MS Word
MS Word is word processing software
where text could be manipulated to
produce documents such as memos,
class notes, letters, term papers and
other written text. Not only could
computers process numbers – they could
also process words. Nowadays word
processing has become one of the
principal applications used on personal
Introduction to MS-Excel
Excel is known as a spreadsheet application. A
spreadsheet still uses the idea of a large sheet of
paper into which numbers are entered. A
spreadsheet is a highly interactive computer program
that consists of a collection of rows and columns that
are displayed on screen in a scrollable window. A
workbook is an excel file where the data is stored and
it consists of many worksheets.
Worksheet is a grid made up of horizontal rows and
vertical columns.
Macros is a very small program that allows you to
customize Excel so that it makes tasks easier.
Introduction to MS-Power
Power Point helps to easily create presentations for
many purposes, including lectures, research reports,
meeting handouts and agendas, speaker
introductions and flyers. Presentations can be used
to display diverse information in a clear and concise
It helps to:
• Create presentations with the AutoContent Wizard
• Add and delete slide from presentations
• Customize a slide layout
• Add Notes
• User the Web to view presentations
Accounting Packages
Accounting, in simplest terms is keeping track of our
Income, Expenses, Assets and Liabilities. This is true
for a business, for a household and for an individual.
Some basic documents used in financial accounting system
1. Voucher
2. Journal
3. Ledger
Some main reports prepared in the financial accounting
system are :
1. Trial Balance
2. Profit and Loss Report
3. Balance Sheet
Tally is a versatile accounting package and is also based
on a windowing interface.
All screens in Tally are viewed as windows processing
the following :
- A title bar that displays the name of the application
- A tally icon to the left (of the user) that pulls down a
menu comprising restore, move, size, minimize and
maximize menu items
- Three small buttons to the right (of the user) that
activates minimize, maximize and closure of the
- These menu items and buttons are invoked through
the usual short cut keys and hot keys as any other
window based application.
TALLY EES Cont’d….
The edition of the package is Tally ees 6.3 ; ees
stands for extended enterprise system
version 6.3. It is licensed for unlimited users
connected to a single computer or network
server over a local area network.
The visible advantages of the package are
simplicity, flexibility, speed, scalability and
real time access to data across locations and
even with other applications.
TALLY EES Cont’d…..
Other features of Tally:
Backup Provisions : Tally provides excellent
backup facilities
Easy exit to Operating System : Tally allows
users to migrate to the operating system by
just typing Esc key.
Unencrypted files
Inadequate controls on automatic entries
Inflexibility of document formats
Inability to add/rename field
E.X. Next Generation
E-X (Everything else is Complex) is a very user
friendly Business Accounting Software from
Tata Consultancy Services. Launch in 1991 it
was one of the first packaged applications
launched in India. Soon the wings of E-X
spread across other countries. E-X follows a
simple front-end structure and seamlessly
integrates all the transactions into primary
and secondary Accounting Books as also the
Final Reports.
E.X. Next Generation
All accounting entries in E-X have been classified into the
following groups :

• Receipts
• Payments
• Purchase
• Sales
• Purchase Return
• Sales Return
• Journal
• Debit Note
• Credit Note
• Cash and Bank Transfers (Contra)
• Withdrawals / Deposits
E.X. Next Generation
Analysis Parameters – Analysis of
financial data helps to find out the
details about business sensitive
information. Analysis information in
E-X is just like adding a slip or a tag
on a voucher giving details of a
specific nature like the name of the
person who has made the expense or
Computer Aided Audit
Controls and Auditing in Computer Environment
- General Controls : controls create a framework of overall
control over the computer based activities of the firm.
These controls are categorized into four : organizational
and management controls, application systems
development and maintenance controls, access controls,
other controls
- Application Controls : are designed to provide reasonable
assurance that the recording, processing and reporting of
data through computer systems are properly performed
for specific applications. These controls are broken into
three groups – Input controls, processing controls, output
Computer Aided Audit
Some of the techniques available are:
1. Audit Software
2. Core Image Comparison
3. Database Analyzers
4. Embedded Code
5. Log Analyzers
6. Mapping
7. Modeling
8. On-line Testing
9. Program Code Analysis
10. Program Library Analyzers
11. Snapshots
12. Source Comparison
13. Test data
14. Tracing
Computer Aided Audit
Using all these tools and techniques, it is necessary to
monitor access, investigate apparent security violations
and take appropriate remedial action. There are three
kinds of auditing :
Statement Auditing – based on SQL statement presented
Privilege Auditing – based on auditing actions connected to
certain privileges
Object Auditing – It is possible to audit all actions taken
against specific objects. Key tables aren’t changed very
often could for instance be audited for changes.

An auditor should evaluate a wide range of controls when
conducting an audit of a database system.
Database Design
MS Access is a powerful multi-user DBMS
developed by Microsoft Corp. It can be
used to store and manipulate large amount
of information and automate repetitive
task, such as maintaining an inventory,
e.g. generating invoices.
Database Management System (DBMS)
A DBMS is a set of systems software
programs that manages the database files.
Database is a collection of related and ordered
information, organized in such a way that
information can be accessed quickly and easily..
In a database, data are integrated and related
so that software programs provide access to all
the data. A database system comprises of five
major parts namely :
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. People
4. Procedures
5. Data

A single user DBMS supports only one user at a time. A
multi-user DBMS supports multiple users at the same

A DBMS that supports a database located at a single site
is called a centralized DBMS.
A DBMS that supports a database distributed across
several different sites is called a distributed DBMS.
Types of Database
Implementation Models
• Hierarchical
• Network Database Model
• Relational Database Model – e.g. Oracle,
Sybase, Informix, CA-INGRES

Some basic terminologies
Types of Database
Implementation Models
Structured Query Language (SQL) – is the most
widely accepted query language for almost
all RDBMS. A computer language designed to
organize and simplify the process of getting
information out of database in a usable form,
and also used to reorganize data within
databases. SQL is most often used on larger
databases on minicomputers, mainframes
and corporate servers. The three basic data
functions provided by SQL are :
Data Definition Language
Data Management Language
Data Control Language
FOXPRO comes under the category of Relational
Database Management Systems
It offers all the features of a programming language
and power tools for designing such as customized
menus, screens and reports.
FoxPro is very popular mainly due to its menu driven
interface and interactive environment.
It is available for both DOS and WINDOWS
MS Access 2000
Microsoft Access 2000 for Windows is a
database management system, or DBMS
which helps us, manage data stored in a
computer database. MS Access 2000 is a
DBMS package from Microsoft. The latest
version of Access 2000 provides a
plethora of new features designed to help
us use the Internet and develop World
Wide Web applications.
E-Commerce is defined as buying and selling of
products and services over the Internet, but there are
many more aspects to it. E-commerce is a system
that includes not only the transactions that center on
buying and selling goods and services to directly
generate revenue, but also those transactions that
support revenue generation, such as generating
demand by those goods and services, offering sales
support and customer service or facilitating business
From a communication perspective, electronic commerce is
the delivery of information, products, services or payments via
telephone lines, networks or any other means
From a business process perspective, electronic commerce is
the application of technology towards the automation of
business transactions and workflows.
From a service perspective, electronic commerce is a tool that
addresses the desire of firms, consumers and management to
cut service costs while improving the quality of goods and
increasing the speed of service delivery.
From an online perspective, electronic commerce provides the
capability of buying and selling products and information on the
Internet and other online services.
E-commerce endeavors to improve the execution of
business transactions over various networks. These
improvements may result in more effective
performance and greater economic efficiency.
E-Commerce enables the execution of information laden
transactions between two or more parties using
interconnected networks.
E-Commerce can be viewed as a production process that
converts digital inputs into value added outputs through
a set of intermediaries.
Web Commerce
• Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – is a
“transfer of structured data for processing
from computer to computer using agreed
formats and protocols.
• Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT)
• Value Added Networks (VAN)
Internet is the world’s largest network. It is not a single
network but a global interconnected network of
networks providing free exchange of information.
The data is transmitted in the form of digital signals.
These signals are converted into a form suitable for
analog transmission. The process is called
modulation. The process of transforming the analog
signal into digital representation at the receiving end
is called demodulation. Thus the modification of
frequency to carry data is called modulation. The
device used for this purpose is called a modem.
Internet Cont’d
Connections : These are basically two ways of
getting connected to the internet
1. Dedicated Access – helps to access the
internet directly and throughout the day
2. Dial up Access – the computer can be
connected to the net by dial up access by
means of a modem.
Other ways
Bulletin boards
Mail call
Wireless Systems
Internet Services
E-Mail or Electronic Mail is an electronic
form of regular mail. The Internet Service
Provider (ESP) delivers the message
conveyed in the email to the recipient.
One of the major advantages of email is
that it is very easy to use, very fast and
much cheaper than sending regular mail.
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the
net is a collection of web pages. It contains
information that can be a combination of text,
pictures and hyperlinks. The web is a graphic
medium and most of the web pages have an
image. The web browser is the software with
which we can use the different aspects of the
Internet like Usenet newsgroup, file libraries
and so on.
• Hyperlinks are also known as links. Each link in
a web page refers to another web page. When
we click on a link, the browser fetches the page
connected to the link which in turn can contain
more links to other places over the net. A
hyperlink can be a word, a group of words, a
picture of a part of a picture. It helps in retrieving
information from different places and is easy in
retracing paths as each page having a link
contains a reference to the previous page. In this
system, all the related information can be listed
under the main topic. The system of interlinked
documents is known as Hypertext.
Hypertext is the method of
presenting information through
highlighted items. Hypertext
system allows creation of links from
two topics to the same document
effecting connections between the
pieces of information
Search Engines
Search engines and directories are web searching features.
A directory is meant for browsing. It is organized in a
particular manner for easy and productive browsing. The
bigger directories have built in search engines which are
more convenient as both browsing through the directory
and using the search engine are possible. The directories
that come with the built-in engines are Yahoo!, Lycos and
Excite. On the other side, the search engines alike Alta
Vista, Open Text, Inktomi and WWW worm do not have a
Internet Opportunities
Cryptography : Cryptography is the science of
securing data. It is the process of transforming
plain text or original information into an
unintelligible form so that it may be sent over
unsafe channels of communication.
Encryption : covers all techniques to encipher or
encode a transmission of information. Replacing
the letters in a message with a corresponding
number or by the next letter in the alphabet is a
form of encryption.
Front page 98
Introduction to Front Page 98 – In the front page
editor you create, design and edit World Wide
Web pages. As text, images, tables, form fields
and other elements are created to the page the
Front Page Editor displays them as they would
appear in the Web browser. FrontPage Editor
creates all the HTML code so it is not necessary to
learn how to create Hypertext Markup Language
Enterprise Resource
ERP covers the techniques and concepts
employed for the integrated
management of businesses as a whole,
from the viewpoint of the effective use of
management resources, to improve the
efficiency of an enterprises. ERP
packages are integrated software
packages that support the above ERP
Utilities of MS- Office and
Outlook 2000
Calendar : The Outlook 2000
calendar is an electronic scheduler
used to organize your day.
Scheduler : This features requires
Microsoft Exchange. This procedure
works only if you have been given
permission to schedule this resource.
Outlook 2000
Microsoft Outlook 2000 is the Windows
messaging system. It includes
customizable email, scheduling, task and
contact tracking tools to help you
efficiently manage your office activities.
Outlook 2000 also includes a group called
Other Shortcuts. The most common
shortcut bar (Outlook Shortcuts) are :
Outlook Today, Inbox, Calendar, Contacts,
Tasks, Journal, Notes, Deleted Items