You are on page 1of 28

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

C H A P T E R

14 INPUT
DESIGN AND
PROTOTYPING

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Fourteen Input Design & Prototyping

• Define the appropriate format and media for a computer
input.
• Explain the difference between data capture, data entry,
and data input.
• Identify and describe several automatic data collection
technologies.
• Apply human factors to the design of computer inputs.
• Design internal controls for computer inputs.
• Select proper screen-based controls for input attributes
that are to appear on a GUI input screen.
• Design a web-based input interface.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Map

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Taxonomy for Computer Inputs
Process Data Capture Data Entry Data Processing
Method
Data usually captured on a Data entered via OLD: Data can be
Keyboard business form that keyboard. This is the most collected into batch files
becomes the source common input method, (disk) for processing as a
document for input. but also the most prone to batch.
errors.
Data can be collected real- NEW: Data processed as
time (over the phone). soon as it has been keyed.

Mouse Same as above. Used in conjunction with Same as above, but the
keyboard to simplify data use of a mouse is most
entry. commonly associated with
on-line and real-time
Mouse serves as a processing.
pointing device for a
screen. Can be with
graphical user interfaces
to reduce errors through
point-and-click choices.

Touch Screen Same as above. Data entered on a touch On PCs, touch screen
screen display or handheld choices are processed
device. same as above.

Data entry users either On handheld computers,
touch commands and data data is stored on the
choices, or enter data handheld for later
using handwriting processing as a remote
recognition. batch.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Taxonomy for Computer Inputs (continued)
Process Data Capture Data Entry Data Processing
Method

Point of Sale Data is captured as close Data is often entered Data is almost always
to the point of sale (or directly by the customer processed immediately as
transaction) as humanly (e.g., ATM) or by an a transaction or inquiry.
possible. No source employee directly
documents. interacting with the
customer (e.g., retail cash
register).
Input requires specialized,
dedicated terminals
that utilize some
combination of the other
techniques in this table.
Sound Data is captured as close Data is entered using Data is almost always
to the source as possible, touch-tones (typically processed immediately as
even when the customer is from a telephone). a transaction or inquiry.
remotely located (e.g., at
home or their place of Usually requires fairly
employment). rigid command menu
structure and limited input
options.
Speech Same as sound. Data (and commands) are Data is almost always
spoken. This technology processed immediately as
is not as mature and much a transaction or inquiry.
less reliable and common
than other techniques.
Optical Mark Data is recorded on Eliminates the need for Data is almost always
optical scan sheets as data entry, processed as a batch.
marks or precisely formed
letters, numbers, and (Very commonly used in
punctuation. education for test scoring,
course evaluations, and
This is the oldest form of surveys.)
automatic data capture.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Taxonomy for Computer Inputs (concluded)
Process Data Capture Data Entry Data Processing
Method

Magnetic Ink Data is usually pre- A magnetic ink reader Data is almost always
recorded on forms that are reads the magnetized processed as a batch.
subsequently completed data.
by the customer.
The customer-added
- data
The customer records must be entered using
additional data on the another input method.
form.
This technique is used in
applications requiring
high accuracy and
security, the most
common of which is bank
checks (for check
number, account number,
bank id).
Electromagnetic Data is recorded directly Data is transmitted by Data is almost always
on the object to be radio frequency. processed immediately.
described by data.
Smartcard Data is recorded directly Data is read by smartcard Data is almost always
on a device to be carried readers. processed immediately.
by the customer,
employee, or other
individual that is
described by that data.
Biometric Unique human character- Data is read by biometric Data is processed
istics become data. sensors. immediately.
Primary applications are
security and medical
monitoring.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Capture, Entry, and Processing

Data capture is the identification and acquisition of new
data (at its source).
– Source documents are forms used to record business
transactions in terms of data that describe those transactions.
Data entry is the process of translating the source data or
document (above) into a computer readable format.
Data processing is all processing that occurs on the data
after it is input from a machine readable form.
– In batch processing, the entered data is collected into files
called batches and processed as a complete batch.
– In on-line processing, the captured data is processed
immediately
– In remote batch processing, data is entered and edited on-
line, but collected into batches for subsequent processing.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Implementation Methods

• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Point-of-sale terminals
• Sound and speech
• Automatic data capture
– Optical mark recognition (OMR)
• Bar codes
– Optical character recognition (OCR)
– Magnetic Ink
– Electromagnetic transmission
– Smart cards
– Biometric

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Automatic Identification: Bar Codes

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Design Guidelines

• Capture only variable data.
• Do not capture data that can calculated or stored in
computer programs as constants.
• Use business codes for appropriate attributes.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Source Document / Form Design Guidelines

• Include instructions for completing the form.
• Minimize the amount of handwriting.
• Data to be entered (keyed) should be sequenced so that
it can be read like a book, that is, top-to-bottom and
left-to-right.
• When possible, based input design on known
metaphors.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Bad Flow in a Form

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Good Flow in a Form

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Metaphoric Screen Design

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Internal Controls for Inputs

• Each input, and the total number of inputs should be
monitored (to minimize the risk of lost transactions).
– For batch processing
• Use batch control slips
• Use one-for-one checks against post-processing detail reports
– For on-line systems
• Log each transaction as it occurs
• Assign each transaction a confirmation number (common in
web-based systems)
• Validate all data
– Existence checks
– Data type checks
– Domain checks
– Combination checks
– Self-checking digits
– Format checks
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Repository-Based Prototyping and Development

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Repository-Based Prototyping and Development

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

GUI Components (or Controls)
• Common GUI controls (for both Windows and Web interfaces)
– Text boxes
– Radio buttons
– Check boxes
– List boxes
– Drop down lists
– Combination boxes
– Spin boxes
– Buttons
– Hyperlinks (yes, also for Windows applications—see Quicken
2000)

• Advanced controls (mostly for Windows interfaces)
– Drop down calendars
– Slider edit controls
– Masked edit controls
– Ellipsis controls
– Alternate numerical spinners
– Check list boxes
– Check tree boxes

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Common GUI Components

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Advanced GUI Components

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Advanced GUI Components (continued)

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Design Process

1. Identify system inputs and review logical
requirements.
2. Select appropriate input components/controls.
3. As necessary, design any source documents.
4. Design, validate and test inputs using some
combination of:
1. Layout tools (e.g., hand sketches, spacing charts, or
CASE tools.
2. Prototyping tools (e.g., spreadsheet, PC DBMS, 4GL)

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

A Logical Data Structure for Input Requirements
ORDER = ORDER NUMBER
+ ORDER DATE
+ CUSTOMER NUMBER
+ CUSTOMER NAME
+ CUSTOMER SHIPPING ADDRESS = ADDRESS >
+ ( CUSTOMER BILLING ADDRESS = ADDRESS > )
+ 1 { PRODUCT NUMBER +
QUANTITY ORDERED } n
+ ( DEFAULT CREDIT CARD NUMBER )

ADDRESS = ( POST OFFICE BOX NUMBER )
+ STREET ADDRESS
+ CITY
+ STATE
+ POSTAL ZONE
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Prototype for Data Maintenance

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Prototype for Transaction

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Prototype for Data Maintenance

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Prototype for Web Interface

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman

Input Prototype for Web Interface

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res