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Gray Code K-Map History Introduction Use Of K-Map Gate Level Minimization 2-variable K-map 3-variable K-map 4-variable K-map 5-variable K-map

GRAY CODE

Invented by Frank Gray..

Binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one bit.

2-bit Gray code

00 01 11 10

3-bit Gray code

000 001 011 010 110 111 101 100

Source: wikipedia.org

4-bit Gray code

0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000

Source: wikipedia.org

**BINARY TO GRAY CODE CONVERSION
**

Modulo 2 Arithmetic

• Step 1: 101101 first write the MSB as it is i.e, darken bit i.e, 1 Step 2: add MSB and bit next to the MSB i.e, 1+0=1 Step 3: again add 0 and 1 we get i.e, 0+1=1 Step 4: again add 1 and 1 we get 1+1=0 Step 5: in previous step carry is occurred so neglect that carry . note that don't add carry to next add numbers then again add 1+0 1+0=1 step 6: add 0+1 0+1= 1 Answer: Gray Code is : 111011

Source: Notes from University of Colorado

KARNAUGH MAP

HISTORY

The Karnaugh map was invented in 1952 by Edward W. Veitch and developed further 1953 by Maurice Karnaugh. Edward W. Veitch was an American mathematician. He invented in 1952 a graphical procedure for the optimization of digital circuits. Maurice Karnaugh, a telecommunications engineer, redefined the Karnaugh map at Bell Labs in 1953.

Source: wikipedia.org

INTRODUCTION

Systematic method to obtain simplified sum-of-products (SOPs)

Boolean expressions.

** Objective: Fewest possible terms/literals. Diagrammatic technique based on a special form organised as a
**

matrix of squares.

Easy with visual aid.

Source: Online Notes from Georgia Institute of Technology.

WHY USE K-MAP??

• FOR GATE LEVEL MINIMIZATION..

WHAT IS GLM??

K-Map is also known as Reduction Map because it reduces the use of Algebraic expressions.. This is what the logic behind the use of K-Map is the Gate Level Minimization.. Gate level Minimization means that it reduces the number of gates use in our final practical and theoratical calculations and circuits.. In short it reduces the use of Logic gates..

Will give you some examples to understand this core concept..

2-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Each square represents a minterm.

Adjacent squares always differ by just one literal (so that the

**unifying theorem may apply: a + a' = 1)
**

For 2-variable K-maps there will be four minters > 2^2=4.

** For 2-variable case (e.g.: variables a,b), the map can be drawn as:
**

b a'b ' a ab' a'b ab a b m0 m2 m1 m3

OR

Source: Morris Mano 4th e

2-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Truth table coresponding values of minterms..

A 0 0 1 1

B 1 1

m interm A ’B = m 1 A B = m3

A 0 1 0 A’B’ AB’

B 1 A’B AB

0 A ’B’ = m 0 0 A B’ = m 2

Source: ebooks from Google. scribd.com

3-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 8 minterms for 3 variables (a, b, c). Therefore, there

are 8 cells in a 3-variable K-map.

b a bc

b bc a

00 0

a'b'c ' ab'c'

01

a'b'c ab'c c

11

a'bc abc

10

a'bc' abc'

00 0

m0 m4

01

m1 m5 c

11

m3 m7

10

m2 m6

OR

a

1

a

1

graycode sequence

Source: Diagram from California State University’s Notes.

3-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There is wrap-around in the K-map: a'b'c' (m0) is adjacent to a'bc' (m2) ab'c' (m4) is adjacent to abc' (m6)

a bc

00 0 1

m0 m4

01

m1 m5

11

m3 m7

10

m2 m6

Each cell in a 3-variable K-map has 3 adjacent neighbours. In general, each cell in an n-variable K-map has n adjacent neighbours. For example, m0 has 3 adjacent neighbours: m1, m2 and m4.

Source: Diagram from California State University’s Notes.

4-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 16 cells in a 4-variable (w, x, y, z) K-map.

y yz wx

00 00 01

m0 m4 m1 2 m8

01

m1 m5 m1 3 m9 z

11

m3 m7 m1 5 m1 1

10

m2 m6 x m1 4 m1 0

w

11 10

Source: Diagram from California State University’s Notes.

4-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 2 wrap-arounds: a horizontal wrap-around and a vertical

wrap-around.

** Every cell thus has 4 neighbours. For example, the cell
**

corresponding to minterm m0 has neighbours m1, m2, m4 and m8.

wx

yz

m0 m4 m1 2 m8 m1 m5 m1 3 m9 m3 m7 m1 5 m1 1

y

m2 m6 m1 4 m1 0

x

w

z

Source: Diagram from California State University’s Notes.

5-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Maps of more than 4 variables are more difficult to use because

the geometry (hyper-cube configurations) for combining adjacent squares becomes more involved.

For 5 variables, e.g. vwxyz, need 25 = 32 squares.

Source: Morris Mano 4th e

5-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Organised as two 4-variable K-maps:

v'

yz wx y yz

v

y

00 00 01

m0 m4 m1 2 m8

01

m1 m5 m1 3 m9 z

11

m3 m7 m1 5 m1 1

10

m2 m6 x m1 4 m1 0 w

wx

00 00 01 11 10

m1 6 m2 0 m2 8 m2 4

01

m1 7 m2 1 m2 9 m2 5 z

11

m1 9 m2 3 m3 1 m2 7

10

m1 8 m2 2 m3 0 m2 6 x

w

11 10

Source: Diagram from California State University’s Notes.

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