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Gray Code

K-Map

History

Introduction

Use Of K-Map

Gate Level Minimization

2-variable K-map

3-variable K-map

4-variable K-map

5-variable K-map

GRAY CODE

Invented by Frank Gray..

** Binary numeral system where two
**

successive values differ in only one bit.

2-bit Gray code

000

00 001

01 3-bit Gray code 011

11 010

10 110

111

101

100

**Source: wikipedia.org
**

0000

0001

0011

**4-bit Gray code 0010
**

0110

0111

0101

0100

1100

1101

1111

1110

1010

1011

1001

1000

**Source: wikipedia.org
**

BINARY TO GRAY CODE

CONVERSION

Modulo 2 Arithmetic

• Step 1: 101101 first write the MSB as it is i.e,

darken bit i.e, 1

Step 2: add MSB and bit next to the MSB i.e,

1+0=1

Step 3: again add 0 and 1 we get i.e, 0+1=1

Step 4: again add 1 and 1 we get 1+1=0

Step 5: in previous step carry is occurred so

neglect that carry . note that don't add carry to

next add numbers

then again add 1+0 1+0=1

step 6: add 0+1 0+1= 1

**Answer: Gray Code is : 111011
**

Source: Notes from

University of Colorado

KARNAUGH MAP

HISTORY

The Karnaugh map was invented in 1952 by

Edward W. Veitch and developed further 1953

by Maurice Karnaugh.

Edward W. Veitch was an American

mathematician. He invented in 1952 a graphical

procedure for the optimization of digital circuits.

Maurice Karnaugh, a telecommunications

engineer, redefined the Karnaugh map at Bell

Labs in 1953.

**Source: wikipedia.org
**

INTRODUCTION

Systematic method to obtain simplified sum-of-products (SOPs)

Boolean expressions.

Objective: Fewest possible terms/literals.

Diagrammatic technique based on a special form organised as a

matrix of squares.

Easy with visual aid.

**Source: Online Notes from
**

Georgia Institute of

Technology.

WHY USE K-MAP??

**• FOR GATE LEVEL MINIMIZATION..
**

WHAT IS GLM??

K-Map is also known as Reduction Map because it reduces the use of

Algebraic expressions..

This is what the logic behind the use of K-Map is the Gate Level

Minimization..

Gate level Minimization means that it reduces the number of gates use in

our final practical and theoratical calculations and circuits..

In short it reduces the use of Logic gates..

** Will give you some examples to understand this core concept..
**

2-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Each square represents a minterm.

Adjacent squares always differ by just one literal (so that the

unifying theorem may apply: a + a' = 1)

For 2-variable K-maps there will be four minters > 2^2=4.

** For 2-variable case (e.g.: variables a,b), the map can be drawn
**

as:

b b

OR

a'b a'b m0 m1

'

a ab' ab a m2 m3

**Source: Morris Mano 4th e
**

2-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Truth table coresponding

values of minterms..

A B m interm B

0 0 A ’B’ = m 0 0 1

0 1 A ’B = m 1 0 A’B’ A’B

A

1 0 A B’ = m 2 1 AB’ AB

1 1 A B = m3

**Source: ebooks from Google.
**

scribd.com

3-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 8 minterms for 3 variables (a, b, c). Therefore, there

are 8 cells in a 3-variable K-map.

b

b

bc

bc

a a 00 01 11 10

00 01 11 10

0 m0 m1 m3 m2

0 a'b'c a'b'c a'bc a'bc'

' OR

a m4 m5 m7 m6

a

1 ab'c' ab'c abc abc' 1

c

c

graycode sequence

**Source: Diagram from
**

California State University’s

Notes.

3-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There is wrap-around in the K-map:

a'b'c' (m0) is adjacent to a'bc' (m2)

ab'c' (m4) is adjacent to abc' (m6)

bc

a

00 01 11 10

0 m0 m1 m3 m2

m4 m5 m7 m6

1

**Each cell in a 3-variable K-map has 3 adjacent neighbours.
**

In general, each cell in an n-variable K-map has n adjacent neighbours.

For example, m0 has 3 adjacent neighbours: m1, m2 and m4.

Source: Diagram from

California State University’s

Notes.

4-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 16 cells in a 4-variable (w, x, y, z) K-map.

y

yz

wx 00 01 11 10

00 m0 m1 m3 m2

m4 m5 m7 m6

01

x

m1 m1 m1 m1

11 2 3 5 4

w

m8 m9 m1 m1

10 1 0

z

**Source: Diagram from
**

California State University’s

Notes.

4-VARIABLE K-MAPS

There are 2 wrap-arounds: a horizontal wrap-around and a vertical

wrap-around.

Every cell thus has 4 neighbours. For example, the cell

corresponding to minterm m0 has neighbours m1, m2, m4 and

m8.

yz y

wx

m0 m1 m3 m2

m4 m5 m7 m6

x

m1 m1 m1 m1

w 2 3 5 4

m8 m9 m1 m1

1 0

z

**Source: Diagram from
**

California State University’s

Notes.

5-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Maps of more than 4 variables are more difficult to use because

the geometry (hyper-cube configurations) for combining adjacent

squares becomes more involved.

For 5 variables, e.g. vwxyz, need 25 = 32 squares.

**Source: Morris Mano 4th e
**

5-VARIABLE K-MAPS

Organised as two 4-variable K-maps:

v' v

y y

yz yz

wx 00 01 11 10 wx 00 01 11 10

00 m0 m1 m3 m2 00 m1 m1 m1 m1

6 7 9 8

m4 m5 m7 m6 m2 m2 m2 m2

01 01

x 0 1 3 2 x

m1 m1 m1 m1 m2 m2 m3 m3

11 2 3 5 4 11 8 9 1 0

w w

m8 m9 m1 m1 m2 m2 m2 m2

10 1 0 10 4 5 7 6

z z

**Source: Diagram from
**

California State University’s

Notes.

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