Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

By L D Poyyara
• Fusion Welding Process
• Arc Between Non-Consumable Tungsten
Rod And Work
• Arc & Weld Pool Shielded By Argon
• Filler Wire Separately Added To Weld Pool
• Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod Cooled by
Flow OF Argon / Cooling Water
Shielding Gas
• Inert Gas - Argon , Helium
• Common Shielding Gas – Argon
• When Helium Is Used – Called Heli – Arc Welding
• When Argon Is Used – Called Argon Arc Welding
• Inert Gas Prevents Contamination Of Molten Metal
• It Prevents Oxidation Of Tungsten Rod
• It Ionizes Air Gap and Stabilizes Arc
• It Cools Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod

Equipment & Accessories
– +
Argon Gas In
Flow Meter
Welding Cable & Cooling
Water In Tube
HF Unit &
Water Cooling
Argon Cylinder
Pressure Regulator
Cooling Water In
Cooling Water Out
Argon Shielding
Tungsten Rod
Power Source
High Frequency
Ceramic Cup
Pedal Switch
GTAW Equipment &
• Power Source – Inverter, Thyrester,Rectifier,
• High Frequency Unit
• Water Cooling System
• Welding Torch- (Ceramic Cup, Tungsten Rod,
Collet, Gas-lense)
• Petal Switch
• Argon Gas Cylinder
• Pressure Gauge, Regulator, Flow Meter
• Earthing Cable With Clamp

Types Of GTAW Power Source
• Inverter- DC

• Thyrester – DC

• Motor Generator – DC

• Rectifier – DC

• Transformer – AC (For Aluminium Welding Only)

Power Source
• Provides Electric Energy – Arc – Heat

• Drooping Characteristic

• OCV – Appx. 90V,

• Current Range 40 A to 300 A ( Capacity Of M/s)

• Arc Voltage 18V to 26V
Characteristic Of GTAW
Power Source

A1 A2
Drooping – Constant Current
High Frequency Unit
• Provides High Voltage Electric Energy With
Very high Frequency – 10000 Cycles / Sec.

• Initiates low energy Arc & ionize Air Gap.

• Electrically charges Air Gap For welding
Current to Jump Across the Tungsten Tip &
BM to Form An Arc.

• HF Gets Cut Off, Once Welding Arc Struck.
Water Cooling System

• Provides Cooling Water To Welding Torch.

• Cools Tungsten Rod, Torch handle & Welding

• Cooling Water Returns through Flexible Tube
Which Carries welding cable within.
Tungsten Rod
Ceramic Cup
Argon Gas Inlet
Cooling Water Outlet
Cooling Water Inlet Tube with cable
Base Metal
Torch Handle
Cap with collet For
Holding Tungsten
Argon Shielding Gas
Earthing Cable
Petal Switch
Switches system
on And off in
When Petal Pressed
• Solenoid valve opens, Argon gas
• High Frequency starts jumping from
tungsten rod
• Welding current flows generating an
arc across tungsten rod and work.
• High frequency gets cut off from the
system & welding continues.
When Petal Released
1 Current gets cut off, Arc extinguishes
2 Gas flow remains for few more
seconds before it stops.
Argon Gas Cylinder- Pressure
Regulator + Flow Meter
• Cylinder Stores Argon
At High Pressure

• Regulator Regulates
Cylinder Pressure to
Working Pressure

• Flow Meter Controls
Flow Rate
Argon Cylinder
Flow Meter
Pressure Regulator
Flow Regulator
Pressure gauges
Cylinder Valve
Connection To Torch
Shielding Gas
• Argon - Purity 99.95%

• Impure Argon Results In Porosities

• Purity Verified by Fusing BQ CS plate

• Leakage of Argon in Torch Results in

• Check Leakage by Closing the Ceramic
Cup With Thump

Argon Gas Cylinder
• Light Blue In Colour

• Full Cylinder Pressure: 1800 psi ( 130 Kgs / Cm2 )

• Volume Of Argon In Full Cylinder: 7.3 M3

• Commercial Argon (99.99%) Cost: Rs 70/- Per M3

• High Purity Argon (99.999) Cost: Rs 87/- Per M3

Back Purging
Purging Gas Commercial
Argon or Nitrogen
• Applicable to Single
Sided full penetration
• Prevents oxidation of
root pass from opposite
side of weld
• Essential for high alloy
steels, nonferrous
metals and alloys
• Desirable For All
Welding Torch
Root Pass
Purging Gas In
Gas Out
Filler Wire
Tools For GTAW

• Head Screen

• Hand gloves

• Chipping Hammer

• Wire Brush

• Spanner Set
Tungsten Rod

• Non Consumable Electrode.

• Maintains Stable Arc

• Tip to be Ground to a cone Shape of 60º
to 30º angle

• Thoriated Tungsten for General
Application, Zerconiated Tungsten for
Aluminium Welding

• Sizes :- 2, 2.4 & 3 mm Ø
Tungsten Rod
Ground to
50º ankle
Filler Wire

• Added Separately to the weld pool.

• Compatible to base metal

• Used in cut length for manual welding.

• Used from layer wound spool for
automatic welding.

• Sizes :- 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4 & 3 mm
ASME Classification Of Filler Wire
SS Filler Wire:
SFA-5.9, ER 308, 308L, 316, 316L, 347, 309
LAS Filler Wire:
SFA 5.28, ER 70S A1, ER 80S B2, ER90S D2,
ER 80S Ni2
CS Filler Wire:
SFA- 5.18 , ER 70S2
C = 0.07%, Mn = 0.9% – 1.4%, Si = 0.4 – 0.7%, P = 0.025%, S = 0.035%

Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
• Always Connect
Electrode – Ve
• Keep Always Flow
Meter Vertical
• Check & Confirm
Argon Purity
• Clean Groove & Filler
wire With Acetone
• Grind Tungsten Tip to
• Don’t Strike Arc With
Electrode + Ve
• Don’t strike Arc Without
Argon Flow
• Don’t Strike Arc By
touching Tungsten Rod
• Don’t Touch Weld Pool
With Tungsten Rod
• Don’t Lift and break Arc

Dos Don’ts
Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
• Break The Arc Only By
Pedal Switch
• Lift The Torch only After
5 Sec Of Arc Break.
• Ensure Pre Purging &
Post Purging of 5Sec
• Ensure Argon Flow &
Water Circulation To
• When Arc is Stopped
Don’t Lift Torch
• Don’t Weld With Blend
Tungsten Rod
• Don’t Weld With Argon
Leaking Torch
• Don’t Weld Without
Water Circulation
Dos Don’ts
Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
• Provide Back Purging
For Single Sided Full
Penetration Welds
• Use N2 or Argon as
Back Purging Gas For
• Use Argon As Back
Purging Gas For SS &
Non Ferrous Alloys
• Don’t Weld Single Sided
Full Penetration Welds
Without Back Purging
• Don’t Use N2 As Back
Purging Gas For Non
Ferrous Alloys
• Don’t Empty Ag
Cylinders Fully

Dos Don’ts
Defects In GTAW
1. Cracks 2. Lack Of Fusion
3. Porosity 4. Undercut
5.Lack Of Penetration 6. Excess Penetration
7.Overlap 8. Suck Back
9. Under Flush 10. Burn Through
11. Tungsten Inclusion 11.Stray Arcing

Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Consumable
2) Wrong Procedure
3) Improper Preheat
4) Inadequate Thickness
In Root Pass
1) Use Right Filler Wire
2) Qualify Procedure
3) Preheat Uniformly
4) Add More Filler Wire
in root Pass
Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Current
2) Wrong Torch angle
3) Improper bead placement
1) Use Right Current
2) Train /Qualify welder
3) Train/Qualify Welder

Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Impure Argon Gas
2) Argon Leak Within Torch
3) Defective Filler Wire
4) Wet surface of BM
5) Rusted / Pitted Filler wire
6) Improper Flow Of Argon
1) Replace Argon Cylinder
2) Replace Leaking Torch
3) Replace Filler Wire
4) Clean & Warm BM
5) Clean Filler Wire
6) Provide Gas lense

. .
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current
2) Excess Voltage
3) Improper Torch angle
1) Reduce the Current
2) Reduce Arc length
3) Train & Qualify the Welder
Under cut
Lack Of Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Root Face
2) Inadequate Root opening
3) Over size Filler Wire
4) Wrong Direction of Arc
5) Improper bead placement
6) Improper weaving technique
1) Reduce Root Face
2) Increase Root Opening
3) Reduce Filler Wire size
4) Train / Qualify Welder
5) Train / Qualify Welder
6) Train & Qualify Welder
* Applicable to SSFPW
Excess Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1)Excess root opening
2) Excess Current
3) Inadequate root face
4) Excess Weaving
5) Wrong Direction Of Arc
1) Reduce root gap
2) Reduce Current
3) Increase Root face
4) Train Welder
5) Train Welder
Excess Penetration
* Applicable to SSFPW
Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Direction Of Arc
2) Inadequate Current
3) Excess Filler Wire
1) Train & Qualify Welder
2) Increase Current
3) Reduce Filler Metal

Suck Back*
Cause Remedy

1) Excess weaving in root
2) Excess Current
3) Inadequate root face
4) Wrong Electrode angle

1) Reduce weaving
2) Reduce Current
3) Increase root face
4) Train / Qualify Welder
Suck Back
* Applicable to SSFPW in 4G, 3G & 2G
Under flush
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate weld beads in
final layer
2) Inadequate understanding on
weld reinforcement
3) Wrong selection of filler wire

1) Weld some more beads
in final layer
2) Train / Qualify welder

3) Train / Qualify Welder

Under flush
Burn through*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current
2) Excess Root opening
3) Inadequate Root face
4) Improper weaving
1) Reduce the Current
2) Reduce root opening
3) Increase root face
4) Train / Qualify Welder

Burn trough
*Applicable to root pass
Tungsten Inclusion
Cause Remedy
1) Ineffective HF
2) Improper Starting of Arc

3) Tungsten Tip Comes in
Contact With Weld
1) Rectify HF Unit
2) Never Touch Weld
With Tungsten Rod
3) Train / Qualify welder

Tungsten Inclusion
Stray Arcing
Cause Remedy
1) HF Not In Operation
2) Inadequate Skill of Welder
1) Rectify HF Unit
2) Train the Welder
Arc Strikes


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