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Computer Hardware

Pentium IV
Processor Characteristics

• Speed
• Pin configuration
• Cache sizes
• Base clock
• Enhanced clock
• E/B ratio
• Mother boards FSB speed
• RAM support
• Virtual memory support
• Sockets
Processors

• 4004 • 80486
• Pentium I,II,III,IV
• 8008
• Xeon
• 8085 • Itanium
• 8086 • AMD Athlon
• 8088 • AMD Duron
• Cyrix
• 80186
• Sun Sparc
• 80286
• 80386
Intel x86 versions
Version Arch Speed L1 RAM FSB Trans

80186 16 bit 12.5Mhz --- 1MB 3 MHz 0.5

80286 16 bit 12.5MHz --- 16MB 3 MHz 1.34

80386 32 bit 33MHz --- 4 GB 8 MHz 2.75

80486 32 bit 100Mhz 8KB 4GB 16 6


Intel Processors
Version Arch Speed L2 RAM FSB Trans

I 32 bit 300 MHz 16 KB > 4 GB 60 MHz 3.21 m

II 32 bit 600 MHz 128, 256 > 4 GB 100 MHz 7.5 mil

Celeron 32bit 1.3 GHz 128 KB > 4 GB 133 MHz 9.5 mil

III 32 bit 1.7 GHz 128 KB > 4 GB 133 MHz 28 mil

Xeon 32 bit 2.0 GHz 256,512 > 4 GB 266 MHz 32 mil

IV 32 bit 3 GHz 256 KB > 4 GB 400 MHz 42 mil

Itanium 64 bit 3 + GHz 2,4 MB > 8GB 800 GHz 50 mil


Different Categories of same CPU
Motherboard
• Significance of Motherboard

• Chipsets & I/O processors

• Voltage levels

• Form factors AT and ATX

• Bus Architecture
Bus Architectures

Bus type ISA PCI AGP

No of pins 62 188 132

Speed 4.77 MHz 33 MHz 66 MHz

DTR 5 MBps 132 MBps 264 MBps


Integrated Bus Support
Random-access Memory
• Structure of RAM
• Pin configuration
• SPD Processor
• Flip-Flop and Capacitor
Architecture
• Refresh rates
• SIMM & DIMM slots
• DRAMS, SDRAM,
RAMBUS, ECC-RAM,
NV-RAM,DDR-RAM,
SRAMS differences and
access times
SIMM RAM
Read-Only Memory
• ROM or BIOS or CMOS

• PROM

• EPROM

• EEPROM

• Flash ROM
Cache memory
• Location in a PC

• Access times

• Levels of Cache

• Why Levels?
Cables
Hard Disk
Floppy Disk Drives

External

Internal
CD Drives
• Speeds ranging from
upto 52X

• Also magneto optical


drives and

• DVD
Ports

• Female and male ports

• Parallel,Serial & PS/2

• USB ports
Internal modem Cable modem
Modems

• Used to access remote


data

• Connects through the


telephone line or a leased
line

• Both external and internal


modems are available

• Speed range from


upto 256 kbps
AGP card AGP slot
Network Interface Card
SCSI Controller
EIDE SCSI
• Onboard as well as external are available
• Onboard
• Average access time = 7 ms
• Average access time = 15 ms
• 15000 RPM
• 5400 RPM
• 18 GB costs Rs 15,000

• 40 GB costs Rs 4500
• Upto 15 drives

• Maximun 4 drives
• Produce more heat

• Produces less heat


• Internal as well as external HARD DISK
DRIVES
• All drives are internal
• Hardware level RAID
• No RAID
Insertion of a card in your PC
SMPS
• Switched Mode Power
Supply

• Phase,neutral & earth


sockets

• Power Supply control


UPS
• Types

• Differences
Online UPS

Off line UPS


Server Side Hardware
Main vendors

• IBM
• SUN
• HP
• Intel
Workstation Server
• Usually 1 CPU • Scalable to any number of
cpu’s normally upto 64
cpu’s.
• Onboard cards such as
NIC/SCSI controllers are • Comes with every thing built in
usually not available and provides many extra slots
for further enhancements.
• 1 to 4 HDD’s
• Can support upto 126 HDD’s

• Chasis = Rs 750 – Rs 2000


• chasis Rs 40,000
• NIC is 10Mbps or 100 Mbps
• NIC is 1Gbps or 10 Gbps
Hardware Characteristics of a Server

• Multi Processor

• SCSI storage

• Disk Arrays

• Itelligent Storage Arrays

• Fail Safe
Directly Attached Storage

Server

Storage Array
Hub

Clients
Network Attached Storage

ISA
Server
Hub

Clients
Cluster setup using Storage Area Network
Intelligent Storage Array
Any questions ??????????
Thank you