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ARITIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN

POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION

Department Of Information Technology


Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute Of Technology
By:
VANYAGUPTA
(35/EEE/2006)
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EN.NO.0761324906
CONTENT

 Introduction
Objective Of PSR
What Is Neural Network(NW)
Uses of NW
Architecture of NW
Network Layers
Perceptrons
Criteria for Restoration
Stages in Restoration Process
Guideline Of PSR
Restoration Studies
ANN Research Paper
Principle of PSR
Proposed Scheme
Proposed Scheme
Conclusion 2

OBJECTIVE OF POWER SYSTEM
RESTORATION

Minimize power system outages, maintain load flow


analysis between load and generation

To reduce operating and maintenance cost, to maximize


profit and to work equipment harder and longer.

Power system behavior under emergency conditions

The restoration process is also a function of pre-


disturbance conditions, post-disturbance status and post-
disturbance target systems.

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INTRODUCTION

The question
'What is a neural network?‘
is ill-posed.

A method of computing, based on the interaction of


multiple connected
processing elements

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WHAT IS A NEURAL NETWORK?

A Neural Network generally maps a set of inputs to a set


of outputs
Number of inputs/outputs is variable. The Network itself
is composed of an arbitrary number of nodes with an
arbitrary topology
Input 0 Input 1 ... Input n

Neural Network

Output 0 Output 1 ... Output m

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Example for Neural Network

 An ANN is configured for a specific


application, such as pattern
recognition or data classification,
through a learning process.

Learning in biological systems


involves adjustments to the synaptic
connections that exist between the
neurons. This is true of ANNs as well.

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ARCHITECTURE OF NEURAL
NETWORKS

FEED-FORWARD
NETWORKS

Feed-forward ANNs (figure 1)


allow signals to travel one way
only; from input to output.
There is no feedback (loops)
i.e. the output of any layer
does not affect that same
layer.
Feed-forward ANNs tend to
be straight forward networks
that associate inputs with
outputs.
They are extensively used in
pattern recognition. This type
of organisation is also referred
to as bottom-up or top-down.

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FEEDBACK NETWORKS
Feedback networks (figure 2) can
have signals travelling in both
directions by introducing loops in
the network.

Feedback networks are very


powerful and can get extremely
complicated.

Feedback networks are dynamic;


their 'state' is changing
continuously until they reach an
equilibrium point.

They remain at the equilibrium


point until the input changes and
a new equilibrium needs to be
found.

Feedback architectures are also


referred to as interactive or
recurrent, although the latter
term is often used to denote
feedback connections in single-
layer organisations 9
NETWORK LAYERS

The commonest type of artificial neural network consists


of three groups, or layers, of units: a layer of "input"
units is connected to a layer of "hidden" units, which is
connected to a layer of "output" units

The activity of the input units represents the raw


information that is fed into the network.

The activity of each hidden unit is determined by the


activities of the input units and the weights on the
connections between the input and the hidden units.

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Ep = 1/2

Mathematical Analysis Of ANN in PSR


The input patterns are represented by a vector
Xp=(xp1, xp2,… xpN ) simply redistributes them to the following
hidden layer.

Each neuron of the following layer receives the


weighted signals (signal multiplied by a weight) and
generates an output signal to the following layer.

This process is repeated until the output layer is


reached, where the neurons will generate the output of
the ANN for the given input vector.

 With the output of the ANN obtained, the weight


adjustment of the connections will begin in the direction
from output layer to input layer.

The weight adjustments are realized in order to


minimize the error functionfor a certain pattern.
Equation (1) illustrates the error function where dp is the
desired output for input pattern p and y p is the actual
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output pattern.
PERCEPTRONS
The most influential work on neural
nets in the 60's went under the
heading of 'Perceptrons' a term
coined by Frank Rosenblatt.

The Perceptrons turns out to be an


MLP model
(neuron with weighted inputs ) with
some additional, fixed, pre--
processing.

Units labelled A1, A2, Aj , Ap are


called association units and their
task is to extract specific, localised
featured from the input images.

Perceptrons mimic the basic idea


behind the mammalian visual system.

They were mainly used in pattern


recognition even though their
capabilities extended a lot more.
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CRITERIA FOR RESTORATION

1. RESTORATION
Restoration processes deal with a broad range of
phenomena involving from load flow to electromagnetic
and electromechanical transients analysis.

 Therefore, a large variety of programs and models is


needed and an extensive analysis is demanded to provide
a set of viable solutions to restore the power after an
outage.

In the industrial region the total amount of interrupted


load is above 10,000 MW. The disturbances, caused by
them can lead to some frequent such as :

Congestion of communication links,

Difficulties in identifying the post disturbance


configuration
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2. GEO-ELECTRICAL AREAS

The concept of the geo-electrical areas is not much


different from the power restoration line where there is a
predefined partitioning of the network.

Geo-electrical areas are minimum grid configurations


containing one or more generating units allowing the
restoration of priority loads in the fastest and safest way.

They represent the minimum of island configuration


where the power supply is still attained within the normal
limits.

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3. RELIABILITY DEGREE

This index is used to define a geo-electrical area, This


degree can be classified in the following way:

High Reliability: units capable of black start


independently of any external supply and can start from
standstill.

Medium Reliability: capable of supplying their auxiliary


systems with terminal voltage in the generating units

Low Reliability: units that require an external supply


from auxiliary system
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GUIDELINES FOR POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION
The national and regional operating centers coordinate
the load shedding and closing of loops or parallelling of
systems in distinct geo-electrical areas that were
restored during the fluent restoration.

The geo-electrical areas are first restored in a


practically independent manner during the fluent phase.

 There are restoration procedures that involve, in the


beginning, only fluent process and later on, start the
coordinated one, while there can be a procedure where
even the first steps in restoration are taken in a
coordinated manner.

 The restoration can also be coordinated when there is


any sort of impediment that requires the action of a
group of distinct operating centers or a higher 16
RESTORATION STUDIES

1. Power Availability
The first criteria is the availability of generating units
equipped with black start
The amount of pickup load cannot exceed the initial
active power capability for each region.
The second criteria is the minimum amount of
generating units that can be considered, taking into
account maintenance and electrical parameters.
 If on the one hand, the number of generating units
must be such that overload or self-excitation are avoided;
on the other hand, the overall restoration time has to be
less than the maximum operating time that any machine
can operate unloaded.
 Therefore, for (n-1) generating units or the minimum
number of generating units available, equipped with
blackstart, the initial power availability for a geo-
electrical area is defined by
Pint=0.8(n-1)Pdisp (1) 17
2. Voltage Control in Geo-Electrical Areas During
Fluent Restoration

Shunt reactors are used together with the reactive


power of the generating units to provide a reasonable
voltage profile and avoid high overvoltage due to Ferranti
effects in the transmission paths.

 The reactive power supply provided by the generating


units must comply with the machine capability curve.

The amount of priority load to be picked up in any geo-


electrical area is from the total available active and
reactive power delivery by the generating units.

 During all of the stages of the restoration process, the


voltage control is such that the maximum allowed
overvoltage is 110% of nominal voltage and the minimum
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is 90%.
Restoration Studies

To analyze the behavior of frequency and voltage


oscillations during load pickup and load rejection

Frequency deviations from 55 up to 65 Hz can be


accepted as minimum and maximum limits

This limitation is a question of design, the units


nowadays operating in INDIA are not capable of large
frequency excursions.

Besides the frequency oscillation, there is another issue


related to the reactive power capability of thermal units.

 Typically, a thermal unit could energize around 150 to


200 km of a 500-kV transmission line. 19
4. Electromagnetic Transients
Define maximum voltage for equipment energization and if it is
possible to energize the equipment without any risk considering
transient over voltages or system resonance.

They are used to verify short-term conditions such as line,


transformer energization, and load rejection.

 For the transmission lines, the studies contemplate the line


energization with or without a fault at the receiving end of the
transmission line.

The load-flow results represent a prior to fault scenario for the


transient case.

 A statistical case is done to obtain which is the worst case


scenario.

The load rejection studies define the levels of maximum load


pickup during the restoration process as well as the minimum 20
configuration of reactors for the system under study.
PRINCIPLES FOR POWER SYSTEM
RESTORATION

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THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF
RESTORATION

Communication IMPLEMENTING
THE PLAN
SYSTEM COMPUTER
AND/OR
OPERATOR
Communication

Communication PLANNING
DATA BASE FUTURE STEPS
SCADA/EMS AND/OR
OPERATOR

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AUTOMATED RESTORATION

In this restoration technique, computer programs are


responsible for the PSR plan development and
implementation.

 The PSR techniques based on this principle acquire


system data from the supervisory control and data
acquisition system (SCADA) and the energy management
system (EMS).

 Under a wide area disturbance, a PSR program installed


in the EMS system will use the acquired system data to
develop a restoration plan for the transmission system.

 After developing the restoration plan, a switching


sequence program, which is also a part of the EMS, will
be responsible for the transmission of control signals
through SCADA to circuit breakers and switches to
implement the plan. In this technique, the system 23
operator plays the role of a supervisor.
COMPUTER AIDED RESTORATION

Operator action
SYSTEM
communication
Communication
OPERATOR Inquiring COMPUTER
DATA BASE FOLLOWING
INTERFACNG
SCADA/EMS PROCEDURE
ALGORITHMS
S
Response

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COOPERATIVE RESTORATION

Implemenation
through RESTORATION
SYSTEM
communication SCHEDULEPLAN
NED ON LINE
Communication

DATA BASE
SCADA/EMS COMPUTER

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PROPOSED SCHEME
Each IRS is composed of two ANNs
and a switching sequence program
(SSP).

Input to 1st ANN will be a


normalized vector composed of the
predisturbance load. Responsible for
load forecast.

The second ANN of each IRS is


responsible for the determination of
the final island configuration and the
associated forecast restoration load
pick up percentage that will generate
a feasible operational condition.

The final element of each IRS is the


SSP. The SSP will determine the
energizing sequence of transmission
paths that will lead to the final
configuration chosen by the second
ANN.

The energizing sequence database


of each IRS is composed of
transmission path sequences
connecting island generators to 26
Study System

The transmission system chosen for the application of


the technique is the IEEE 162-bus 17-generator system.

The operating conditions of a transmission system can


vary significantly during a year and even during a week.

Therefore, more than one operating condition was


simulated to train the IRSs. Due to the size of the
transmission system, it was assumed that up to ten
islands could be formed following the occurrence of a
wide area disturbance.

 Each islandwas predetermined based upon offline


studies satisfying the requirement of approximate load
generation balance within each island.

The all open switching strategy was assumed to be in 27


Restoration Constraints

In order to generate a feasible restoration plan to be


used as a training pattern by the IRSs, certain operational
constraints must be considered.

Thermal limits of transmission lines, stability limits,


number of lines used in the restoration plan, allowable
over and under voltages, and recognition of locked-out
circuit breakers are some of the constraints considered.

The thermal rating of normally designed transmission


lines depends mainly on the voltage level at which they
operate, the line lengths, and reactances. Power system
stability is a subject of major concern in PSR .
 
The restored system generated by the PSR scheme has
to be able to allow for sufficiently large load and
generation variations without encountering undesirable 28
Tests

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Control of overvoltage during the early stage of
power system restoration

However, sustained power frequency over-voltage is


caused during this process by charging currents of
unloaded or lightly loaded transmission lines .
 If excessive and not controlled, sustained over-voltage
can overexcite transformers, cause transformer
overheating, more severe switching transients, and even
generator self excitation and runaway voltage rise that
may make the system collapse again.
 Therefore, sustained over-voltage is of great concern
during the early stages of power system restoration
A simple and approximate approach was presented for
evaluating the sending- and receiving- sustained and
transient over-voltages in [5]
The system is weaker; therefore, adjustments to control
variables for one target bus should not cause new voltage
violations
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HIERARCHAL TIME EXTENDED
PETRI NET SCHEME

In recent years, the Petri Net technique has received


extensive attention in generic restoration schedule of
power system.

The graphical and mathematical modeling tool PN is a


powerful inference mechanism and has been
successfully applied in the areas of service restoration
scheduling.

 PN simulates the operations of a system with visual


representations. In order to improve the limitation of
classical PNs, Hierarchical Time-Extended Petri Net (H-
EPN) has been proposed .

 H-EPN is a reasoning tool for modeling of discrete


event systems. It has a superior performance in terms
of modeling and decision power 31
CONCLUSION

transmission distance is high, over 400 km, careful analysis of


the performance concerning not only steady-state and stability
but also electromagnetic transient studies.
The load shedding was defined as a function of safety of the
voltage and the level of reactive compensation in the LIGHT
area.
 An alternative restoration process can only be chosen if it
presents a minimum interference with the other processes.
The load pickup capability in power station does not increase
with a higher amount of generation nor does this imply a faster
restoration procedure for this area.
The fastest restoration procedure is the one carried out only by
the Marimbondo power station with five machines without
interference from any other geo-electrical area
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REFERENCES

www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/cs11/​
report.html
[2] Teo, C.Y.; Wei Shen,” Development of an interactive rule-
based system for bulk power system restoration”, Power
Systems, IEEE Transactions on , Vol.15, Issue:2 , May 2000 ,
pp.646 – 653.
[3] Bretas, A.S.; Phadke, A.G.; “Artificial neural networks in
power system restoration” Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions
on , Volume: 18 , Issue: 4,pp.1181 - 1186 , Oct. 2003.
[4] Authorized licensed use limited to: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY DELHI. Downloaded on September 24, 2009 at
06:40 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
[5] Backtracking Based Algorithm in Hierarchical Time-
extended Petri Net Model for Power System Restoration Dong
Liu , Yunping Chen, Rongxiang Yuan, Guang Shen, School of
Electric Engineering, Wuhan University,IEEE Transactions On
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Vol.15,August 2004.
QUESTIONS
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THANK YOU

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