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Review of Literature

in Science Reports.
1. SETTING THE STAGE:
The Intel INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING FAIR (ISEF)
2006 2000
Indianapolis, IN Detroit, MI

2004
Portland, OR

2009
2001
Reno, NV
San Jose, CA
2010 1999
Philadelphia, PA
2007
Albuquerque, NM
2005
2008
Phoenix, AZ Atlanta, GA
1998
Fort Worth, TX

1997 & 2002


Louisville, KY

ISEF Sites 1997-2010


An overview of ISEF 2009 ...
35
428

38

20 2
OTHERS –
American Samoa 8
Guam 3
Puerto Rico 15
Virgin Islands 2

555 ISEF-affiliated fairs.


Affiliated Fairs - 38
Israel 1
Jordan 3
Kazakhstan 1
Lebanon 1
Saudi Arabia 3

China 8
Chinese Taipei 3
Hong Kong 2
India 2
Japan 2
Malaysia 2
Pakistan 1
Philippines 2
Singapore 1
South Korea 2
Sri Lanka 1
Thailand 2
Vietnam 1

Asia
 850132. Intel Basic Philippine Science Fair

 850332. Intel Philippine Applied Science Fair

Director: Dr. Lolita M. Andrada


Bureau of Secondary Education
Department of Education
Pasig City

Sponsors: Department of Education &


Intel Technology Philippines, Inc.

Philippine ISEF-Affiliated Fairs


Photo by LFRamos
 Intel BEST OF CATEGORY AWARDS. $5,000 scholarship
and an Intel® CentrinoTM notebook computer. Plus, a
$1,000 grant to the school & the Intel ISEF Affiliated fair.

 GRAND AWARDS. Presented in each of 17 categories:

1st Place $3,000 cash award


2nd Place $1,500 cash award
3rd Place $1,000 cash award
4th Place $500 cash award

 SPECIAL AWARDS. Grants, scholarships, internships,


and scientific field trips from governmental, industrial and
educational institutions representing a wide variety of
scientific disciplines, which are affiliated with the Intel ISEF
as Special Awards.

Awards at the Intel ISEF


Intel Foundation Young Scientist Award.
A $50,000 scholarship for the top three student winners.

Li Boynton, 17, of Houston, TX;


Tara Adiseshan, 14, of Charlottesville, VA; and
Olivia Schwob, 16, of Boston, MA

2009 BEST of the Best.


Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners
Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners
 2009

Fourth Award (Team, Microbiology).


Screening for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from
Surface-Associated Bacteria of Halymenia
durvillaei.
Kevin David & Orven Dumaong, PSHS-Main, QC

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


2007

Fourth Award (Behavioral & Social Sciences).


Ethnomathematics in the Geometric Patterns in Woven
Fabrics of the Indigenous Kalingas of the Philippines.
Hester Umayam, PSHS-Cagayan Valley

Fourth Award (Microbiology).


Fish Mucus: Its Potential Antimicrobial Effects on
Human Pathogens and Possible Role in Innate
Immunity. Melvyn Barroa, Capiz NHS

Fourth Award (Team, Biochemistry).


Screening, Isolation, and Characterization of
Fluorescent Proteins from Nudibranchs.
Razel Ventura, Janine Santiago & Mara Villaverde, PSHS-Main

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


2006

Third Award (Zoology).


Biofuel and Soaps from Janitor Fish
(Pterygoplichthys pardalis) Oil.
Raymond Amurao, Marikina Science HS

Third Award (Team, Physics).


Elastomeric Grating for Wavelength Switching in
Optical Communication Systems.
Katrina Guevara, Ace Palabrica & Nicole Yazon, PSHS-
Main QC

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


2005

Fourth Award (Botany).


Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir (Pandakaki)
as Rice Bug (Leptocorisa acuta) Eradicator.
Daisy P Galapia, Sinait Natl High School

Third Award (Microbiology).


Biologically Potent Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
Obtained from Tetrodotoxin-Rich Organs of
Puffer Fishes (Arathron hispidus, Arathron
manillensis, Chelenodon patoca).
Joey D Mangadlao, Agusan del Sur NHS

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


 2004

Fourth Award (Medicine & Health).


Biologically-Guided Isolation of the Antimicrobial Component on
the Sea-Snake Laticauda colubrina Schneider Venom.
Joy Anne Aquino, E Rodriguez Junior High School

Third Award (Team, Chemistry).


Development of a Chemically Modified Carbon Paste Electrode
from Green Mussels (Perna viridis) for the Analysis of Lead (II)
Through Voltammetry.
Anne Velasquez, Katrina Rivera & Alan Gonzales, Manila Science HS

Fourth Award (Team, Environmental Sciences).


Lumos: A Simple, Rapid, and Inexpensive Dissolved Oxygen
Determination of Wastewater Samples Using the Tube
Bioluminescence Extinction Method of Vibrio fischeri USTCMS
1063.
Jayson Obos, Trina Napasindayao & Melanie Melchor, QC Science HS

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


 2002

First Award (Microbiology).


Antibiotic Substance Obtained from the
Parotid Gland Secretions of the Toad (Bufo
marinus).
Prem Rara, Integrated Dev Sch – MSU-IIT

First Award (Team, Physics)


A Novel Application of Locally Formulated
Cholestric Liquid Crystals in Dosimetry.
Allan Estrella, Jeric Macalintal & Richard
Manapat, Manila Science HS

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


 2000

Fourth Award (Team, Botany)


Histochemical Tests and Antibacterial Effect of Oak-Leaf
Fern ( Drynaria quercifolia (Linn.) J.Sm) Extracts. Osmund
Amoroso, Ray Oco & Leo Carrillo, Central Mindanao Univ
Laboratory HS

Our ISEF GRAND AWARD winners


Our ISEF SPECIAL AWARD winners
 2009
2nd Award, American Assn for Clinical Chemistry
Study of the Cytotoxicity against Human Lung (A549) and Colon
(HCT 116) Carcinomas, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of
Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) Bile.
Angeli Joyce Dy, Capiz Natl HS

2nd Award, American Statistical Association


Mathematical Models for the Gender Determination of Philippine
Eagles (Pithecophaga jefferyi).
Jovani Tomale, Davao City Natl HS

Our ISEF SPECIAL AWARD winners


 2008
Distinguished Achievement Award of $1,500 & Trip to the SEG International
Exposition and Annual Meeting. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Construction of a Mechanical Prototype of a Microtremor Recorder
Based on Electromagnetic Induction.
Adrian Patacsil, Marvin Ambrosio & Rachel Cahilog, PSHS-Main

 2007
Scholarship Award of $1,000. National Collegiate Inventors & Innovators
Alliance/The Lemuelson Foundation.
The Potential of Marine Bioluminescent Bacteria as Antibacterial
Agents Against Two Major Rice Diseases Caused by Xanthomonas
oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.
Luiji Suarez, Dona Hortencia Salas Benedicto Natl HS

 2006
Scholarship Award of $1,000. National Collegiate Inventors & Innovators
Alliance/The Lemuelson Foundation.
Elastomeric Grating for Wavelength Switching in Optical
Communication Systems.
Katrina Guevara, Ace Palabrica & Nicole Yazon, PSHS-Main QC

Our ISEF SPECIAL AWARD winners


 2004

1st Award of $1,000. American Veterinary Medical Association.


Biologically-Guided Isolation of the Antimicrobial Component on
the Sea-Snake Laticauda colubrina Schneider Venom.
Joy Anne Aquino, E Rodriguez Junior High School

 2003

2nd Award of $250 & Certificate. American Intellectual Property


Law Association.
Antibacterial Agent Obtained from the Midgut of Cattle Leeches
(Hirudinaria manilensis).
Efrellene Galula, Agusan del Sur Natl HS

Our ISEF SPECIAL AWARD winners


 2001

Special Award. Patent & Trademark Office. US Dept of


Commerce.
Phytoplankton Productivity Forecasting in the South China
Sea Using Neutral Networks.
Reinabelle Reyes, PSHS-Main QC

 2000

Honorable Mention of $100. Eastman Kodak Company.


Histochemical Tests and Antibacterial Effect of Oak-Leaf Fern
( Drynaria quercifolia (Linn.) J.Sm) Extracts.
Osmund Amoroso, Ray Oco & Leo Carrillo, Central Mindanao Univ
Laboratory HS

Our ISEF SPECIAL AWARD winners


2. MOVING FORWARD.
IPSF: VISION-MISSION

Vision: Each Philippine school has a


culture of excellence in science &
technology and research

Mission: To produce students imbued


with knowledge, skills and attitudes who
are globally competitive in science and
technology for national development.
DepEd curricular requirement?
Interest in current issues: potential
treatments/cures for diseases,
alternative energy sources, environment
Curiosity. Want to find answers.
Quest for inventions/new discoveries.
Fun. Inspired by sci-fi movies.
Tool to social-network, travel.
Honors.
Money?

WHY do a science project?


 PEOPLE
- Students
- Adults (Teachers, Parents,
Community of mentors/experts, and
Qualified Scientists)

 FACILITIES / RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS


- Non-Regulated (Home, School Labs, Zoos, etc.)
- Regulated (Universities, Agencies, etc)

 TIME
- 12 continuous months between
January 2009 and May Next 2010

 RESEARCH RULES/GUIDELINES

 OTHERS

Needs to Complete a Science Project.


In Grades 9-12 or equivalent.
Has not reached 21 yrs of age on or before May 2010.

Students.
 May be the Adult Sponsor (Sci Research Adviser).

 Give encouragement, support, and guidance.

 Make sure that the project is primarily the work of the child.

 Help the child use and strengthen the skills he or she has learned
and develop higher-level skills. The main goal should not be the
ribbon or prize.

 Help the child design a project that is safe and properly


supervised.

 Help the child plan to prevent a last minute project. Some


projects may take 6 to 10 months.

From http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/

Parents.
• Maybe a teacher, parent, university professor or
scientist in whose lab the student is working.

 Has solid science background & in close contact


with student during the course of the project.

 Works with student to assess possible risks to


ensure health & safety of the student.

 MUST know the rules esp. of potentially dangerous


research.

 OVERSEES THE PROJECT.

From http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/

Adult Sponsor
Qualified Scientist(s)

Designated Supervisor(s)

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Scientific Review Committee (SRC)

Mentor(s)

Community.
Jan 2009

• TOPIC SELECTION /
INFORMATION RESEARCH.
• RESEARCH PLAN.
• SRC/IRB BEFORE EXPERIMENTATION.

• EXPERIMENTATION. Apr-May . Vacation


• REPORT WRITING.
• SRC REVIEW BEFORE THE FAIRS.

• PROJECT DISPLAY.

Division SciFair Sept 2009

Regional SciFair Oct-Nov 2009

New Year
National IPSF Feb 2010

ISEF May 2010

Timeline.
 Ethical Statement
 Responsibilities

 SRC/IRB review & approval before


experimentation begins.
 Restrictions
regarding research using
human subjects, vertebrate animals.
PHBAs, & hazardous chemicals & devices.
 Risk assessments as needed.

* Copy of ISEF 2010 Rules & Forms in CD.

ISEF Rules & Guidelines.


SCIENTIFIC-METHOD-BASED
RESEARCH

NON-INQUIRY-BASED RESEARCH

Science Project
SCIENTIFIC-METHOD-BASED
RESEARCH

LIFE SCIENCES.

APPLIED SCIENCES.
NON-INQUIRY-BASED RESEARCH

ENGINEERING PROJECTS.
Engineering goals, development process, evaluation of
improvements.

COMPUTER SCIENCE PROJECTS.


New or improved algorithms, simulations, modeling,
‘virtual reality’, etc.

MATHEMATICS PROJECTS.
NEW proofs, solving equations, etc.

THEORETICAL PROJECTS. Thought experiment,


math modeling, new theories, concept formation, etc.
17 CATEGORIES
 ANIMAL SCIENCES

 BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

 BIOCHEMISTRY

 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

 CHEMISTRY

 COMPUTER SCIENCE

 EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCE

 ENGINEERING: Electrical & Mechanical


17 CATEGORIES
 ENGINEERING: Mat’ls & Bioengineering

 ENERGY & TRANSPORTATION

 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

 MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

 MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

 MICROBIOLOGY

 PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

 PLANT SCIENCES
ISEF Categories & Subcategories
http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/students/research_categories.asp
COMPLETED SCIENCE PROJECT is “an
amalgam of reading, writing, spelling, grammar,
math, statistics, ethics, logic, critical thinking,
computer science, graphic arts, scientific
methodology, self-learning of one or more
technical or specialty fields, and (if the project
qualifies for formal competition) public speaking
and defense in front of expert judges.”

A Definition: Science Project


3. INFORMATION
RESEARCH.
AVAILABLE SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

 Traditional Print Sources/Publications.

 Internet-only Sources.

Caution: The internet may be the most convenient starting point for
information research but it is not always the best.

Reading.
TRADITIONAL PRINT SOURCES.

 Books & Textbooks. Dated/takes time to publish.


 Newspapers. Up-to-date, factual/opinionated.

 Academic & Trade Journals. Most up-to-date info and research in industry,
business and academe. Gives overview of current & past research, theories &
history, specific processes & research.

 Govt Reports & Legal Documents. Useful info.


 Press Releases & Ads. Special interest group.
 Flyers, Pamphlets, Leaflets. Reputable sources?
 Multimedia. Radio, TV, etc.

Reading.
INTERNET-ONLY SOURCES.

 Websites. Vary in quality of info & validity of sources.


Solid academic resources including on-line journals & sites of universities &
scholarly or scientific organizations.

 Weblogs/Blogs. Credibility of sources/bloggers?

 Message boards, discussion lists, & chat rooms. Plenty of boards that are
unhelpful and poorly researched.

 Multimedia. Online broadcasts and news, images, audio files, and interactive
websites.

Reading.
 Authority. Author [given?]? Qualifications?
Any link to her or her position?

 Affiliation. Website sponsor? Author


affiliated with reliable institution?

 Audience Level. Don’t use sites intended


for elementary pupils or too technical for you.

 Currency. Current? Dated? Info up-to-date?

 Content Reliability/Accuracy.

What to look for in a Web site.


 Content Reliability/Accuracy.
◦ Material on the Web site reliable & accurate?
◦ Information factual, not an opinion?
◦ Information verifiable in print sources?
◦ Source of information clearly stated, whether original
or secondary research material?
◦ How valid is the research source?
◦ Does the material presented have substance & depth?
◦ Arguments based on strong evidence and good logic?
◦ Author’s view impartial & objective?
◦ Author’s language free of emotion & bias?
◦ Site free of errors in spelling & grammar – signs of
carelessness of presentation?
◦ Additional electronic & print sources provided to
complement/support Web site materials?

What to look for in a Web site.


Often one of the first results listed

Check for school policies

Can be useful for:


◦ getting an overview
◦ generating new ideas
◦ pointing to other sources

Wikipedia Articles
Example of sources and further reading in
the Wikipedia Henry VIII article:

Evaluating Sources: Using Wikipedia


 Know what kind of ideas you need to record.
[Relevant ideas, facts and theories that help
answer your question]

 Do NOT write down too much. Compress ideas in


your own words. You may quote ideas that are
memorably phrased.

 Label notes intelligently. Take notes that allows


for later use (i.e., when you write your report).

Taking notes from research reading.


Research Plan.
The results of your information
research should enable you to map
out your experimental design or
research plan.

Research Report.
You can now write your Review of
Literature.

The Writing Jobs.


 SECTIONS (ISEF)  SECTIONS (I-SWEEP)

Title Page & Table of Cover Page


Contents. Table of Contents.
Abstract.
Introduction. Introduction.
Materials & Methods. Materials & Methods.
Results. Results.
Discussion. Discussion.
Conclusions. Acknowledgment.
References/Bibliography. References/Bibliography.

Science Project Report.


 Literature Review accounts for what has been published on a topic by
accredited scholars and researches; provides the ‘meaningful context’
of the project within the ‘universe of already existing research’
[knowledge already established].

 It presents the justification of the project – why it needs to be done,


how different it is from others, how it fits within current knowledge,
and what it is expected to contribute

 IT IS PART OF THE INTRODUCTION TO A RESEARCH REPORT OR


THESIS.

Whether or not you write a section called “Literature Review”, you


are expected to present the research with knowledge of existing
research.

Review of Literature / Literature Review?


SETS THE SCENE FOR THE PROJECT REPORT.

 Includes the PURPOSE, the HYPOTHESIS, PROBLEM


or ENGINEERING GOALS;

 Explanation of what prompted the research, and is hoped to


be achieved;

 Which are all consolidated with the body of the literature


review.

IT IS NOT AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

What else in the INTRODUCTION?


In-Text Citations & Bibliography Format.

 APA (American Pyschological Association) Style

 MLA (Modern Language Association of America)


Style

 Other Styles. (Chicago, ASA).

Citation Styles: APA or MLA?


The Literature Review
--i.e. the summary of what the scientific
literature says about the topic of your
research -- includes title page, introduction,
list of references

 The Project Report


-- the description of your experimental
research-- includes title page, abstract,
introduction, method, results, discussion,
references, appendices, tables & figures

Types of APA Papers


“SCIENTIFIC FRAUD AND MISCONDUCT ARE
NOT CONDONED AT ANY LEVEL OF RESEARCH
OR COMPETITION.

“SUCH PRACTICES INCLUDE PLAGIARISM,


FORGERY, USE OR PRESENTATION OF OTHER
RESEARCHER’S WORK AS ONE’S OWN AND
FABRICATION OF DATA.

“FRAUDULENT PROJECTS WILL FAIL TO


QUALIFY FOR COMPETITION IN AFFILIATED
FAIRS OR THE INTEL ISEF.”

Ethical Statement.
 Outright theft
Passing off an engineering thesis as one’s own.

 Fraud
Refashioning a previous year project as done during the current year

Selecting data points to create target results

 Plagiarism
Cut-and-paste method of writing the review of literature

Unethical Examples.
Buying,stealing, or borrowing a paper /
Copying an entire paper or article from the Web [the cut-
and-paste syndrome].

Hiring someone to write your paper.

Copying large sections of text from a source without


quotation marks or proper citation.

 Exemptions:
your own experiences, test results, photographs,
common knowledge.

Some Acts of Plagiarism.


PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION
HOW TO USE IDEAS OF OTHER PEOPLE.

 SUMMARIZING.
Summarize major point or argument of the
author(s). Reference to the work is acceptable.

 PARAPHRASING.
Use the author’s ideas and put them in your own
words. Changing just a few words is PLAGIARISM.

 QUOTING DIRECTLY.
Using author’s exact words. Use quotation marks, or
indent if more than 3 lines.

Avoiding Plagiarism.
Examples to Compare.
 The original passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they
overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your
final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive
to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

 A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material
down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is
essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

Paraphrasing, Summarizing.
Examples to Compare (cont’d).
 An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help
minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

 A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting
in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about
10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is
important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

Paraphrasing, Summarizing.
PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION
In-text Citations, APA Style
“Pozzolanic materials are utilized essentially as active addition to the clinker of cement
primarily for echnological, economical and environmental reasons. [-xxx-] These reasons
alone fully justify the utilization of active addition of pozzolan to cement in construction,
cement and concrete industries (Talero, 1990).

----

“These pyroclastic and lahar deposits are currently being studied and developed for
various applications in agriculture, ceramics, foundry works, entomology, soil engineering,
and civil engineering works (Bernardo, 1994; Almeniana, 1992; Pagbilao et al., 1992;
Mendoza et al;, 1992; Acda et al., 1992; Metra et al., 1992). Lahar and volcanic ash are
basically pumiceous material consisting of feldspar, quartz, and amphiboles which are
essentially silicate materials rich in aluminum, calcium, potassium and sodium (Shimizu et
al., 1993). Initial study presented by Shimizu and Jorillo (1992) at the International
Scientific Conference on Mt Pinatubo showed that the lahar material is highly siliceous
material with relatively good degree of amorphousness …”

Source:
Jorillo, P. A. and Verdejo, B. D. (1995, June). Pozzolanic Behavior of Mt Pinatubo Ejecta Under Natural
and Accelerated Curing Condition. Philippine Engineering Journal. 16(1). pp. 49-72.
HighWire Press. Stanford University
 http://highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl

American Journal of Botany


 http://www.amjbot.org/collected/geneticsandmolecularbiology.shtml

Amer Soc for Microbiology. Molecular & Cellular Biology.


 http://mcb.asm.org/

The Royal Society of Mathematical, Physical and


Engineering Sciences
 http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/461/2064/3785.full.pd

Free Articles Online.


Works by a Single Author
The last name of the author and the year of publication
are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.
from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the


narrative cite only missing information in parentheses.

Simon (1945) posited that

In 1945 Simon posited that

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Works by Multiple Authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names
every time the reference occurs in the text. In
parenthetical material join the names with an
ampersand (&).
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Works by Multiple Authors
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the
first time the reference occurs.

Kahneman, Knetsch, & Thaler (1991) found

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the
first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of
publication.

Kahneman et al. (1991) found

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Works by Associations, Corporations,
Government Agencies, etc.
The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are
usually written out each time they appear in a text reference.

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)

When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out
in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations.

(NIMH, 2007)

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Works with No Author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the
work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference,
capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers
to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it
refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.

on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)

Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma


and the date.

on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Specific Parts of a Source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include
the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text
citation.

(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)

De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted


that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of
philosophers" (p. 218).

If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based


journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation
"para." or the heading and following paragraph.

(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008 para. 9)

In-text Citations – APA Style.


Information Needed to Identify/Retrieve a Source
 ORDER. Alphabetical by authors’ last names. Alphabetically within the same list using
the title for sources with no authors

 AUTHORS. Write out last name and initials for all authors of a particular work, using an
ampersand (&) when listing them. Example: Smith, J.D., & Jones, M.

 TITLES. Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are
part of a title.

 PAGINATION. Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from
periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations
are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.

Reference List – APA Style.


Information Needed to Identify/Retrieve
a Source
 Indentation. The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin,
and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a
"hanging indent".

 Underlining vs. Italics. It is appropriate to use italics instead of


underlining for titles of books and journals.

Reference List – APA Style.


Information Needed to Identify/ Retrieve a Source
Accessed Online.
 Internet Address. A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the
reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier
(DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not
stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based
databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.

 Date. If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal
article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is
not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article,
include the date that you retrieved the information.

Reference List – APA Style.


Examples. Sources Accessed Online.
Article from an Internet-only journal.

Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty
of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008- hirtle

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)

Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved
from Business Source Complete, EBSCO.

Reference List – APA Style.


American Psychological Association (APA) STYLE
SOURCE - BOOKS
Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of Book. Place of
Publication: Publisher.
Book by single author:
Pratt, A. (1994). Dancing with goddesses: archetypes, poetry, and
empowerment. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Book by two or more persons:
Dutton, W.H., Kahin, B., O’Callaghan, R., and Wickoff, A.W. (Eds.),
(2005). Transforming enterprise. Cambridge: MIT Press.

SOURCE – Articles in Newspapers/Periodicals


Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of Article. Title of Periodical.
Volume#(Issue#). p.#/pages.
Newspaper article with an author:
Hefferman, V. (2006, April 14) The evil screen’s plot to take over the 2-
and-under world. The New York Times. p. E1.
Article from a magazine/scholarly journal:
Appadurai, A. (2000). Grassroots globalization and the research
imagination. Public Culture. 12(1). 1-19
American Psychological Association (APA) STYLE
SOURCE – Web sites
Document title, a date (of publication or update), a date of retrieval, and an
URL. URL is critical for corroboration.
A Web page:
Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace. (2006, August 10). RN papers
and artifacts arriving in Yorba Linda. Retrieved August 18, 2006,
from http://www.nixonfoundation.org/

Entire Web site:


New York Public Library Schomburg Center for Research in Black
Culture. In motion: the African-American migration experience.
Retrieved July 26, 2006, from http:/www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm

Online Subscription Sources:


1. Newspaper Article from Lexis Nexis
X versus Y. (2006, June 20). The Toronto Star, p. C01. Retrieved
August 18, 2006, from Lexis Nexis database.

2. Scholarly Journal from JSTOR


Escobar, A.J. (1993). The dialectics of repression: the Los Angeles police department
and the Chicano movement, 1968-1971. The Journal of American History.
79(4). 1483-1514. Retrieved August 18, 2006, from JSTOR database.
Modern Language Assn of America (MLA) STYLE
SOURCE - BOOKS
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.
Book by single author:
Malavet, Pedro A. America’s Colony: The Political and Cultural
Conflict Between the US and Puerto Rico. New York: New York
University Press, 2004.
Book by two or more persons:
Butler, Judith, Laclau, Ernesto, and Zizek, Slavoj. Contingency,
Hegemony, Universality. London: Verso, 2000.

SOURCE – Articles in Newspapers/Periodicals


Last Name, First Name. “ Title of Article.” Publication Info (varies depending
on type of publication).
Newspaper article with an author:
Steele, Alan. “Redlands a Key Stop for Riders.” Riverside Press
Enterprise 25 July 2005: C01.
Article from a magazine/scholarly journal:
Sullivan, Robert. “Global Shopping.” Vogue March 2006: 303.
Modern Language Assn of America (MLA) STYLE
SOURCE – Web sites
Last Name, First Name. “Web page.” Web site. Date of Creation. Date of Access
<</>address</>>.

A Web page:
“Stephen Colbert.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 14 Aug 2006
<</>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Colbert</>>.

An Entire Web site.


Seti @ home. 14 Aug 2006 <</>http://setiahome.berkeley.edu</>>.

Online Subscription Sources:


Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Date of Publication. Database
Title. Place of Access. Date of Access <</>address</>>.

1. Newspaper Article from Lexis Nexis


Bugeja, Michael J. “Facing the Facebook.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 27
January 2006. Lexis Nexis. Armacost Library. 14 Aug 2006 <</>http://web.lexis-
nexis.com/universe</>>.

2. Scholarly Article from JSTOR


Burton, Julianne. “The Camera as Gun.” Latin American Perspectives 5.1 (1978).
JSTOR. 14 Aug 2006 <</>http://www.jstor.org/research</>>.
Modern Language Assn of America (MLA) STYLE
In-Text Citations

Document sources in the paper by citing author & publication date.


This helps reader locate information source in the bibliography.
Basic format for a quotation.
Malavet suggests that the “danza is part of a long construction of Puerto Rican
art as being white because it was made for whites” (109).

Basic format for summary or paraphrase.


Puerto Ricans have used their difference from “real Americans” to empower
themselves, creating a cohesive cultural identity (Malavet 101).

A work with more than one author.


Despite misconception of “Aboriginal customary economic relations of and
between Aboriginal groupings are markedly distinct from, and yet not
incommensurable with … market” (Langton, Mazel and Palmer 307).

In subsequent citations, you may list all authors as above OR use first
author’s name followed by “et al”.

Source: University of Redlands – MLA Style Guide at http://www.redlands.edu


APA & MLA2009 Posters.
APA & MLA2009 Posters.
PROJECT DATA BOOK (JOURNAL)

RESEARCH PAPER

ABSTRACT

Elements of a Successful Science Project ..


Should contain the following with
ALL ENTRIES DATED, ALL PAGES SEQUENTIALLY NUMBERED –

 Information research records


 Research activities (diary/journal)
 Approved Research Plan
 Data tables (with appropriate units)
 Print-outs from analytical equipment and the like
 Pictures taken by researchers

There are rules regarding errors in record keeping.


- Cross-out instead of erasing, correction initialled/dated
- Tearing off pages not allowed
- Blank/Empty page sections crossed out with notation “no entry”.

Accurate & detailed notes are essential in writing a logical and winning
project.

Good notes show consistency and thoroughness to judges

Research Data Book.


4. Abstract Writing.
Source:
John Cole, Intel ISEF D & S Chair.
“Mastering the Abstract Writing Process”
A brief, written explanation of the research
project, consisting of a succinct description of
the project’s purpose, the procedures
followed, the data collected, and the
conclusions reached.
A clear and simple summary statement of the
main points of the experiment
An abstract gives the essence of the project
in a brief but complete form to judges and
the public viewing the project.
NO MORE THAN 250 WORDS.

What Is an Abstract?
FOR CONTINUATION PROJECTS:

The abstract must focus on the


current year's research and give only
minimal reference to previous work.
Title
Name
School
Purpose of project / experiment:
An introductory statement of the reason for investigating the topic of the project.
A statement of the problem or hypothesis being studied.

Summarize procedures, emphasizing the key points or steps:


A summarization of the key points and an overview of how the investigation was
conducted.
Omit details about the materials used unless it greatly influenced the procedure or
had to be developed to do the investigation.
An abstract should only include procedures done by the student. Work done
by a mentor (such as surgical procedures) or work done prior to student
involvement must not be included.

Detail succinctly observations/data/results:


This section should provide key results that lead directly to the conclusions you
have drawn.
It should not give too many details about the results nor include charts or graphs.

State conclusions/applications.

Sample Abstract Template


Effects of Marine Engine Exhaust Water on Algae
Mary E. Jones
Hometown High School, Hometown, PA Purpose
This project in its present form is the result of bioassay experimentation on
the effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on certain green algae.
The initial idea was to determine the toxicity of outboard engine lubricant.
Some success with lubricants eventually led to the formulation of "synthetic"
exhaust water which, in turn, led to the use of actual two-cycle engine
exhaust water as the test substance.

Toxicity was determined by means of the standard bottle or "batch" bioassay


Methods
technique. Scenedesmus quadricauda and Ankistrodesmus sp. were used as
the test organisms.
organisms. Toxicity was measured in terms of a decrease in the
maximum standing crop. The effective concentration - 50% (EC 50) for
Scenedesmus quadricauda was found to be 3.75% exhaust water; for
Ankistrodesmus sp. 3.1% exhaust water using the bottle technique.
technique.

Anomalies in growth curves raised the suspicion that evaporation was


Data
affecting the results; therefore, a flow-through system was improvised utilizing
the characteristics of a device called a Biomonitor. Use of the Biomonitor
lessened the influence of evaporation, and the EC 50 was found to be 1.4%
Observations
exhaust water using Ankistrodesmus sp. as the test organism. Mixed
populations of various algae gave an EC 50 of 1.28% exhaust water.

The contributions of this project are twofold. First, the toxicity of two-cycle
Conclusions
marine engine exhaust was found to be considerably greater than reported in
the literature (1.4% vs. 4.2%). Secondly, the benefits of a flow-through Applications
bioassay technique utilizing the Biomonitor was demonstrated.

Sample Abstract
BEFORE AFTER
EXPERIMENTATION. EXPERIMENTATION

RESEARCH RESEARCH
PLAN PAPER.

ABSTRACT.

DISPLAY.

PROJECT DATA BOOK / JOURNAL

Product list.
COMPLETED SCIENCE PROJECT is “an
amalgam of reading, writing, spelling, grammar,
math, statistics, ethics, logic, critical thinking,
computer science, graphic arts, scientific
methodology, self-learning of one or more
technical or specialty fields, and (if the project
qualifies for formal competition) public speaking
and defense in front of expert judges.”

A Definition: Science Project


5. PROJECT DISPLAY
What a Well-Designed Project
Board Should Accomplish
Provides judges and the public with an
overview of your project when you are
not there to explain
Emphasizes succinctly the scope of the
project, the nature of the research, and
the results
Demonstrates the authority of the
researcher in the neatness and
correctness of the information presented
11/15/09 98
Examples of
Freestanding Displays

11/15/09 99
Tabletop Displays

11/15/09 100
Dimensions of Project Display

 The permitted height


(floor to top) from
the floor to the top of
the project is
108”/274 cm.

11/15/09 101
Keep the display simple. Avoid clutter.
Judges and the public viewing the board
must be able to comprehend quickly what
your research involved.

Use no more than two or three colors, and


choose colors appropriate to your subject.

Arrange the information logically.

Labelall data tables, charts, graphs, or


photographs you use.

A Few Rules to Follow 11/15/09 102


What the Board Should Display

Purpose Title Results


(Keep it simple) Conclusion
Hypothesis Graphs Abstract

Materials Pictures Other


Required
Procedure Data Paperwork

11/15/09 103
The Project Title
 Again,keep it simple
and short. It should
be readable from a
minimum of six feet.

 Tryto develop a
phrasing that captures
attention but
succinctly represents
your research.

11/15/09 109
Examples of Items Not
Allowed
The example on
right illustrates
soil or waste
materials not
properly sealed
in acrylic.
The example at left
illustrates plant
and soil materials
properly encased
in acrylic.
11/15/09 111
Photographs of
vertebrate animals in
lab procedures,
unnatural
environments, or stress
situations not allowed.
allowed Containers of
plants and dirt
not allowed.

Glass items not


allowed.
11/15/09 112
Sharp objects,
such as this
needle, are not
allowed.

Plant and other


dried
materials scattered
for
decoration are not 11/15/09 113

allowed.
How to Credit Photos/Images
Any photos, images,
and graphs used in
the display must be
credited. If the
finalist created all
photos/images, a
single credit is
sufficient.

11/15/09
 If your display
includes an electrical
or engineering
design , make
certain that there is
no exposed wiring
and connections
without non-
conducting shielding
or a grounded metal
box or cage.

 The project to the


right illustrates a
Examples of Typical Violations

Unofficial abstracts Inappropriate pictures


displayed of animals

No Photo Credits
Correct Display
Using Table

Tri-fold board does not


extend over edges of the
provided table, which is
30” by 48”.
Required paperwork is
properly displayed on front
of table.
All images properly
credited
 ISEF Rules Wizard
http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/students/wizard/index.asp
The Rules Wizard has been designed as a first step to help you determine
what forms and approvals are necessary before beginning a science fair
project intended for competition at an ISEF-affiliated fair or the Intel
International Science and Engineering Fair.

 D & S Inspectors Manual:


http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/document/hubman.asp
This site contains a training PPt. for Host Committee D & S Inspectors that
provides additional information on appropriate displays.

 SRC PowerPoint: http://www.societyforscience.org/isef/


The Scientific Review PowerPoint reviews regulations for projects.
Reviews role of supervisors, etc., and all required paperwork.

References 11/15/09 118


See You at IPSF/ISEF 2011!