You are on page 1of 51

Automation Module

7th May 2008

EFC,Pune
Who are We?

Steven Laycock is Unilever’s Technology Leader for process control and


automation. Steve has worked within Unilever since 1996, initially in the Leeds
sourcing unit and now in the Unilever Europe and Global engineering teams.

Stuart Dow has been with Haden Freeman Ltd, an engineering design and
consultancy company, for 13 years as an EC&I engineer, manager and now
systems development manager working on projects in a variety of industry
sectors.

Karam Rehani is with Hindustan Unilever for the last 27 years .First 13
years with factories mfg soaps,detergents,personal products & chemicals.For
last 14 years as Head of Instrumentation & Controls with corporate
engineering.supporting businesses & projects on C & Automation.
Befor joining Unilever, worked for 9 Yrs with Leading fertiliser co’s in India
Agenda

Module 1:

Basic building blocks used in control & automation

Module 2:

Automation Lifecycles and Industry Standards

Case Studies :

Automation of Tooth Paste Plant at HUL


Low Cost Batching Solution

Multiple Choice Questionnaire.


Introduction

What are we going to cover today

3 key areas

-Understanding the cause and use of control systems


Innovation Projects Marketing led
Maintaining equipment

-Reasons to choose from the control options available

-Understand the bits necessary to manage an


automation project
Fundamentals
Pitfalls
Automation

“automation: A system or method in which


many or all of the processes of production
movement and inspection of parts and
materials are automatically performed or
controlled by self-operating machinery,
electronic devices etc.”

Webster’s Dictionary
Basics

How Do We Control?

Information

Monitor Evaluate Action


EFFLUENT & ENVIRONMENT
MGMT

RAW PRODUCT
MATERIA MANUFACTURIN
L
G WASTE
ENERGY

-PROCESS
MANAGEMENT.
- QUALITY
- SAFETY
- PRODUCTIVITY / YIELD
- ASSET MANAGEMENT
Basics

An Everyday Example

We monitor the temperature.

Is it too cold or too hot?

If so we adjust the tap to correct.

Wait for a bit (system dynamics)

If temperature OK then have shower

Else if temperature not OK adjust again


(but with benefit of knowing impact of last
adjustment)

Goto ‘Wait for a bit’ and repeat.


Measurement

Flow

There are 3 main types of flowmeter types

1. Velocity: measure the velocity flowrate and multiplying by the


area

2. Inferential: determine flow by measuring some other physical


property

3. Mass: measure the mass flowrate


Theory of Electromagnetic Flowmeters

A voltage is induced in an electric The direction of the induced


conductor moved through a voltage depends on the direction
magnetic field. of movement and the magnetic
field.

U F Q= Electric charge
+ →
B= Magnetic field

v = Fluid velocity

F = Force

Q U = Voltage

v →
B Lorenz Force FL
→ → →
FL = Q · B · v
-
Measurement

Velocity Flow - Magnetic

Magnetic flowmeters generate a magnetic


field at right angles to the flow stream.
Two opposing electrodes them measure the
voltage produced by the fluid moving
through a conductor.
Measurement

Velocity Flow – Turbine/Paddlewheel


A rotor (like a propeller) is supported by bearings to allow free
rotation in the fluid flow.

As the blades spin in the moving flow a pickup device counts the
passing rotor blades and generates a frequency.

As this frequency is
proportional to the
rate of flow and we
know how much
quantity each pulse
represents we can
calculate the
volumetric flow.
Measurement

Inferential Flow – dP Orifice Plate

The orifice plate consists of a flat piece of metal


with a hole bored in it.

When the plate is mounted in


the line a dP (differential
pressure) is created across
the plate.

An instrument that can measure dP


is connected by pipework (called
impulse lines) to a tapping point on
either side of the plate.

The square root of the dP measured is proportional


to the flow. (This is normally accounted for in the
electronics of the measuring instrument.)
● ORIFICE METERS

● FLOW IS PROPORTIONAL TO √ DP
● WIDELY USED
● GOOD REPEATABILITY
● EASY TROUBLE SHOOTING AND CALIBRATION
● COST EFFECTIVE

● LIMITATIONS

● RANGEABILITY 3:1
● INACCURACY INCREASES AT LOWER RANGE
● RELATIVE PRESSURE LOSS
Flow measurement with primary devices
ISO 5167: Orifice plate with corner, flange or D and D/2 pressure tapping

∆ p = p+ - p-

p+ Pressure tapping via


p-
carrier ring and
annular slot
qm(v) = K(β ) 2 ∆ p
ρ (−1)

p+
p- Individual
tappings
D d

Diameter ratio of d
β =
orifice plate: D
Measurement

Inferential Flow – dP Orifice Plate


Measurement

Inferential Flow – dP Various

Pitot Tube

Elbow Taps

Venturi Tube

Flow Nozzle
Measurement

Mass Flow – Coriolis Effect

Tube(s) are forced to oscillate at their


natural frequencies perpendicular to
the flow direction.

The resulting Coriolis forces induce a


twist movement in the tubes which is
measured and is related to the mass
flow.
Two most common types are the

straight tube curved tube


Coriolis Force
v=
0

Fc
v>
0

Fc

m = mass v = Radial velocity


Fc = -2m · v ·
Fc = Coriolis force
w = Angular velocity w
Measurement Signal

ω = Angular velocity
A,B = Sensors
·
∆ ϕ = Phase shift y = Amplitude ∆ϕ ~ Fc ~
m
Fc = Coriolis force t = Time
Measurement

Flow – Other Methods


There are many other methods of measuring flow each with their advantages and
disadvantages

Mass: Thermal

Vortex Shedding

Variable Area Flowmeter

Ultrasonic: Transit Time

Ultrasonic: Doppler

Weir & Flume

Target
FLOW MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS

 Qn = A x V VOLUME / TIME

Qm = Qn x d MASS / TIME

 DISPLACEMENT
METER : HYDRO CARBON, WATER, VEG OIL

 VENTURY TUBES : AIR DUCTS

 PITOT TUBES : AIR DUCTS / WATER PIPES > 6”

 DP Tx : WATER, OIL, STEAM, ACID, CAUSTIC


MAG FLOW METER : WATER, SORBITOL, SOAP SLURRY

 MASS FLOW METERS : OIL, PERFUME, CAUSTIC, WATER


Measurement

Level

Level instruments can be classified into 3 main


categories that measure:

1. The position (height) of the surface

2. The pressure head

3. The weight of the material through load cells.


Measurement

Level – Pressure/Position of Surface

Pressure/Static Head: This type of measurement also


known as hydrostatic is based on the height of the liquid
head and the density of the liquid. To calculate the liquid
level accurately the density must be known and be
constant.

Positon: These instruments detect the


surface of the liquid and include types
such as
Radar
Ultrasonic
Float
Displacer
Nuclear
Capacitance
Conductivity
Tuning Fork
Measurement

Level – Load Cells


Many forms of load cell exist but most
use a strain gauge (either foil or
semiconductor) to measure the stress
which is introduced into a metal
element when it is subjected
to a tensile or compressive force.

A bending beam type design


uses strain gauges to monitor the
stress in the sensing element
when subjected to a bending force.
Measurement

Temperature
Temperature is probably the most widely used measurement.

Temperature instruments can be classified into 3 main types

1. Thermocouples

2. Resistance (RTD’s)

3. Optical
Measurement

Temperature - Thermocouples
A thermocouple consists of two dissimilar metals,
joined together at one end. When the junction of the
two metals is heated or cooled a voltage is produced
that can be correlated back to the temperature.
Measurement

Temperature - RTD
RTD’s are sensors used to measure temperature by correlating
the resistance of the RTD element with temperature.

The RTD element is made from a pure material whose resistance


at various temperatures has been documented. The material has a
predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes; it is
this predictable change that is used to determine temperature.
Measurement

Temperature - Optical
The most basic design consists of a lens to focus the infrared (IR) energy
on to a detector, which converts the energy to an electrical signal that can
be displayed in units of temperature after being compensated for ambient
temperature variation.

Infrared pyrometers allow users to measure temperature in applications


where conventional sensors cannot be employed. Specifically, in cases
dealing with moving objects ( i.e., rollers, moving machinery, or a
conveyor belt),
WHAT WILL MAKE A GOOD INSTRUMENT ?

● SENSOR

 SMALL IN SIZE / FAST RESPONSE.

 RELIABLE, REPEATABLE, STABLE

 DURABLE

 GOOD DISPLAY CHARACTERISTICS

 LOW COST.
TYPE OF INSTUMENTS AND APPLICATIONS

1 BIMETALLIC LOCAL GAUGES


- PIPES, VESSELS

2 FILLED THERMAL ELEMENTS TEMP SWTCHES


- REMOTE DISPLAY

3 THERMISTORS LOW RANGE


- FAST RESPONSE SWITCHES

4 THERMOCOUPLES REMOTE DISPLAY / CONTROL


- MOST RUGGED
-- WIDE RANGE > 400C

5 RTD’s INDUSTRY PREFERRED.


FAST, EASY

6 RADIATION PYROMETERS NON CONTACT APPLICATIONS


Measurement

Pressure
A typical pressure transmitter consists of two parts: the primary element
and the secondary element.

The primary element converts the pressure into an electrical or


mechanical or electrical value to be read by the secondary value.

The secondary element is the electronics that output from the primary
element to a readable signal.
Measurement

Position

Position and distance sensors detect the


presence or not of items on the move. This can
be used to identify when an item arrives, count
how many items have passed or when an item
has left.

Position technologies include photoelectric,


laser, mechanical switches, proximity switches
and pressure sensors.
Measurement

Colour

Colour sensors can detect the presence or not


of a successful operation. Has the label been
printed, has the bottle got the right fluid in it, did
the shrink wrap go on successfully
Measurement

Machine Vision
Machine vision is successfully applied to many industrial inspection problems,
leading to faster and more accurate quality control. Machine Vision allows the
manufacturing industry to
Detect Defects
Calibrate and control the manufacturing process
Optimise the use of resources
Measurement

Quality Parameters

• pH
•Conductivity
•Composition
•Density
•Dust Level
•Composition Analysis
•Gas Analysers
•Brix
Action

Valves
Output devices allows us to gain control of our system either directly and indirectly.

The small solenoid valve to the right might be used


to switch a pneumatic air supply air to a machine
on or off.

The modulating valves to the left can


be used to achieve precise control of
a process fluid.

The on/off valve to the right can be used to


switch feeds on and off or, when used in
conjunction with other valves, to select routes
through pipework systems.
Action

Motors

Stepper motors give precise control of


movement.

Servo drive motors allow added control


functionality (ramp up, ramp down, torque)
and faster positioning.
Action

Motors

Motors allow us to move things around


whether it’s a pump moving liquids or a
conveyor line moving boxes.
Action

Equipment

Remote device interfaces allow us to


control and “talk” with an enormous range
of equipment and devices. This can take
the form of a simple on/off control or a
complex data/control interface.
Which to Pick

Environment & System

What are the the parameters the device will be exposed to and expected
to perform in during both routine and exceptional circumstances?

What are the performance criteria: speed, size, pass/fail criteria for the
line?

With which chemicals and under what conditions will the device be
expected to operate?

What hazards will be present and does this impact on the choice of
device?

What’s the commercial impact? Cost v benefit.


Which to Pick

Accuracy & Repeatability

Poor repeatability gives poor accuracy.

Good repeatability does not always give good accuracy.

Good accuracy means good repeatability.


Which to Pick
Control

Relay (on/off) Control

Relay
Control

PLC’s – Programmable Logic Controllers


As relay logic is on/off control there was an obvious opportunity to imitate with
digital processor systems.

The PLC evolved as an alternative to relay logic with several advantages:

The space required for a large complicated relay logic system could take several
meters of cabinet space, far more than required by a PLC.

The PLC logic could be modified easily by changing the software program.
compared to the problems with re-wiring a relay logic panel.

After the initial development and testing the software logic could be re-used for
later similar plants. A repeated relay logic would still have to be wired from
scratch and completely tested to ensure no wiring errors.
Control

Loop (analogue) Control


Liquid at 30 degC
Operator wants 35 degC

Open valve a bit more.

Steam supply.
Control

DCS – Distributed Control System


Replicating the function of loop controllers was a much harder task for the digital
processors.

Loop controllers worked in analogue values requiring many on/off bits to


represent one analogue value.

On/Off = 1bit 1

Analogue = 16 bits 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0

Process values were changing constantly so the processors had to be able


to read, transfer, process and send out the required output at a much higher
frequency.
Control

DCS – Distributed Control System


As a result of these challenges the processors and equipment required to be the
top end powerful, fast and expensive minicomputer systems.

As the availability and cost of processor


systems improved, several system
suppliers started offering a distributed
control solution where several
processors were linked together. Each
processor had it’s own geographical or
functional area to look after, but was also
able to communicate with the other
processors for coordinated activities
Control

Modern Control System


The differences between DCS’s and PLC’s have decreased as the power
and availability of computing power has increased dramatically over recent
years: PLC’s are arriving with sophisticated control blocks for analogue
control requirements and DCS’s no longer require large rooms to house the
separate marshalling, conditioning and interface cabinets that used to be the
norm.

DeltaV DCS system Controllogix PLC MOST Hybrid


Putting it all Together

Modern Control System