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Two types CELL DIVISION

1.Mitosis - Cell division by which body grows or replaces dead\injured tissue.


- Occurs in somatic cells.
- Each cell division gives rise to 2
identical daughter cells with chromosomes of the parent cell.(46chr.2n)
2.Meiosis – Cell
division for
reproduction.
- Occurs in
reproductive cells
only.
- Each cell division
gives rise to 4
nonidentical
reproductive cells or oocyte
gametes with
haploid
chromosomes
(23chr.n)
spermatocyte
MITOTIC CELL CYCLE

46chr. 4N

ITOTIC

(1 hr.)

46chr. 2N

Human studies show that the complete cycle lasts for 12 to


24 hrs of which 1hr involves mitosis
The Cell Cycle
 Interphase (90% of cycle)
• G1 phase~ growth
• S phase~ synthesis of
DNA
• G2 phase~ preparation
for cell division
 Mitotic phase
• Mitosis~ nuclear division
• Cytokinesis~ cytoplasm
division
STAGES OF MITOSIS
PROPHASE - METAPHASE - 2
INTERPHASE 1

ANAPHASE - 3 TELOPHASE - 4

INTERPHASE
INTERPHASE
• The cell is not actively (mitotically) dividing but the chromosomes are
metabolically active and replication of DNA takes place.

•Chromosomes are not seen but the inactive X chromosome in the female is
seen as a compact mass near the nuclear membrane as Barr body

•As soon as the chromosomes are visible the cell has entered the 1st stage of
mitotic division – the prophase

Cell membrane

Barr body

Nucleus

Nuclear membrane
PROPHASE
•The chromosomes appear as a pair of strands – the chromatids – held
together by the centromere – its position determines its classification.

centriole

centromere

chromatid

•Premetaphase – Centriole duplicates and starts moving to either pole.


Nuclear membrane disappears.
METAPHASE
•Spindle of microtubules is formed by the centrioles

•Chromosomes move to the equatorial plane of the spindle and get attached by
their centromeres

•Chromosomes have reached their maximum contraction and are easily


studied under the microscope

Spindle
ANAPHASE
The centromeres split (disjunction) and the daughter chromosomes are pulled
to either pole by the contracting actin filaments of the spindle.
TELOPHASE
•Division of the cytoplasm –cytokinesis – takes place in the equatorial plane
and 2 cells with cell membranes are form

The nuclear membrane is formed.

Chromosomes unwind & stain lightly & 2 identical interphase cells are formed.

INTERPHASE
MITOSIS (after interphase)

Prophase

46, 4N Metaphase

Anaphase
46, 2N + 46, 2N
Telophase

46, 2N
2 identical cells from 1 cell
MEIOSIS
•The reproductive cell – Spermatocyte \ Oocyte undergoes 2 divisions -
Meiosis I and Meiosis II

•Each division has the stages of prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase

•In meiosis I the prophase is prolonged and the chromosomes are reduced
from 46 4n to 23 2n (reduction division)

•In meiosis II the division occurs as in normal mitotic division


MEIOSIS I – PROPHASE STAGES
Leptotene “thin threads”- become visible due to
condensation of chromatin

Zygotene “paired threads”- homologous chr. pair called


bivalent chr. Process is called synapsis.

Pachytene “thick threads”- thickening of chr. &


separation of chromatids to form tetrads.

Diplotene “2 threads”- homologous pairs separate but


remain bound at the chiasmata (cross over) where
exchange of genetic material & chromatid segments
takes place

Diakinesis “moving through”- separation of chr.


Nuclear membrane disappears & spindle forms.
MEIOSIS I

METAPHASE
•Bivalent chromosomes move to equatorial plane

46 4n

ANAPHASE
•One member of each bivalent pair moves to
either pole – disjunction – no splitting of chrs.
leading to the fomation of 2 unidentical cells

23 2n

TELOPHASE
•Each cell has haploid (23) chr. & 2n DNA.
Hence called reduction division.

23 2n
MEIOSIS II
•Resembles mitotic division.
•No DNA replication in interphase

•Splitting of chrs. leads to formation of 2 cells of 23 n chrs.


•Thus 4 unidentical cells of 23 n chrs. formed from 2 unidentical cells of 1st
meiotic division

METAPHASE
23 2n

Splitting of chrs.

23 n ANAPHASE

4 unidentical
cells with 23 n TELOPHASE
chrs.
MEIOSIS I (after interphase)

Prophase (crossing over)


46, 4N
Metaphase

Anaphase (disjunction without splitting)


23, 2N + 23, 2N
Telophase MEIOSIS II (without interphase)
Haploid, Unidentical (Like mitosis)

Prophase

23, 2N Metaphase

Anaphase (splitting)
23, N + 23N
Telophase

23, N
4 unidentical cells from 1 cell
GAMETOGENESIS
Spermatogonium \ Oogonium
( 46 2n) MEIOSIS I

Primary gametocyte
(46 4n)
Synapsis
PROPHASE
Chiasma
Reduction division formation

Disjunction (no ANAPHASE


splitting of chrs.)
Secondary gametocyte
(23 2n-haploid –
No DNA MEIOSIS II
unidentical) replication

Disjunction (splitting of
chrs.) ANAPHASE
4 Gametes (23 n –
unidentical)
Abnormal disjunction of chromosomes leads to
abnormalities like trisomy or monosomy.
Common examples –
Trisomy 21 – Down’s syndrome
Trisomy 18 – Edward’s syndrome
Trisomy 13 – Patau’s syndrome
Monosomy – 45X – Turner’s syndrome - the only
monosomy compatible with life
MITOSIS MEIOSIS
Mitosis requires one Meiosis requires two
division divisions
Two diploid daughter cells Four haploid daughter cells
result from mitosis result from meiosis
Daughter cells are Daughter cells are not
genetically identical to genetically identical to
parental cells parental cells
Occurs in all somatic cells Occurs only in the
for growth and repair. reproductive organs for the
production of gametes.
In the mitotic cell cycle the interphase consists of all the following phases except
a.G1
b.Mitotic
c.S (DNA synthesis)
d.G2

Prophase of mitosis consists of all of the following execpt


a.Visibilty of chromsomes
b.Degenration of nuclear membrane
c.Duplication of centriole
d.Formation of mitotic spindle

All are true for metaphase of mitosis except


a.Chromosomes have reached their maximum contraction
b.Spindle of microtubules is formed
c.Chromsomes reach the equatorial plane
d.Disjunction (splitting) of chromsomes takes place
Which of the following is a major characteristic of meiosis I
a.Splitting of centromere
b.Reducing the amount of DNA to 1N
c.Achieving the haploid number of chromosomes
d.Producing primordial germ cells

During meiosis large segments of DNA are exchanged. What is the process
called?
a.Synapsis
b.Nondisjunction
c.Crossing over
c.Disjunction
SHORT QUESTIONS ON LECTURE – I MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

1)Draw a diagram of the mitotic cell cycle

2)What are the phases in the interphase and what do they denote?

3)What are the phases of mitosis and give their significance in short

4)In which cells does mitosis and meiosis occur?

5)At what stage is karyotyping done and why?

6)Draw diagrams showing the stages of mitosis and meiosis

7)What is the chromosomal no. & amount of DNA before & after mitosis & meiosis

8)What are the stages of prophase of meiosis I & what is the significance of
chiasmata formation

9)What is the difference between anaphase of mitosis & meiosis & what is its
significance
10)Give the difference between mitosis & meiosis

11)Draw a diagram showing the stages of gametogenesis