You are on page 1of 41

EXHIBITION

“UNDERSTANDING

INFERTILITY”
What is infertility?
Infertility is failure to conceive
within one or more years of
regular unprotected coitus
TYPES OF INFERTILITY
 Primary Infertility
 Secondary Infertility
INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY
 Worldwide 8-15% of
couples suffer some
form of infertility
problems
 Male factor(30%)
 Female factor(30%)
 Both factors (30%)
 Unexplained
factors(10%)
PRIMARY INFERTILITY
It denotes those
patients who
have never
conceived.
SECONDARY INFERTILITY
 It indicates previous
pregnancy ,but
failure to conceive
subsequently.
CAUSES OF INFERTILITY

?
CAUSES IN MALES
 Defective
spermatogenesis
 Obstruction of the
efferent duct system
 Failure to deposit
sperms high in the
vagina
 Errors in the seminal
fluid
DEFECTIVE
SPERMATOGENESIS
It is caused due to
 Congenital causes ,namely,

 Undescended testes

 Hypospadias

 Thermal factors

 Infection

 Genetic factors

 Endocrine factors

 Iatrogenic

 Immunological factors
CAUSES IN FEMALES
 OVARIAN FACTORS:-
Anovulation or oligo –
ovulation
Luteal phase defect
Lutetinised unruptured
follicle
 TUBAL FACTORS
 PERITONEAL FACTORS
 UTERINE FACTORS
 CERVICAL FACTORS
 VAGINAL FACTORS
 COMBINED FACTORS
STRESS
COITAL PROBLEMS
INVESTIGATIONS OF
INFERTILITY
WHEN TO INVESTIGATE ?
Infertile couple should be investigated after 1
year of regular unprotected exposure with
adequate frequency.

 After the age of 35 years in women & 40 years


in man ,interval is shortened to 6 months.
INVESTIGATIONS IN MALES
 History
 Examination
 Routine investigation
 Semen analysis
 Hormonal assay
 Testicular biopsy
 Transrectal USG
 Karyotype analysis
 Immunological tests
 Diagnostic laparoscopy
FEMALE INVESTIGATIONS
 History
 Examinations
 Hysterosalpingography
 Laparoscopy
 USG
 Hormonal assay
 Endometrial biopsy
 Vaginal cytology
 BBT CHART
COUPLE INSTRUCTIONS
1. ASSURANCE
2. MAINTENANCE OF NORMAL
BODY WEIGHT
BALANCED DIET
3.AVOID SMOKING
4.AVOID ALCOHOL
CONSUMPTION
6.REGULAR EXERCISE
7.COLD SCROTAL BATH
8. AVOID TIGHT & WARM
UNDERGARMENTS
TREATMENT
MEDICAL TREATMENT
 Clomiphene citrate
 Testosterone
 GnRH therapy
 Antibiotics
 Dexamethasone
 hCG
 Ovulation induction
SURGICAL TREATMENT
 Vasoepididymostomy
 Vasovasostomy
 Orchidopexy
 High ligation of
spermatic vein
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE
TECHNOLOGY
SURGICAL INTERVENTIONS IN
FEMALES
 Tuboplasty

 Myomectomy

 Metroplasty

 Tubal recanulization

 Operative laparoscopy
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE
TECHNOLOGY( females)
 Intra uterine  Zygote intrafallopian
insemination (IUI) transfer (ZIFT)
 In vitro fertilization &  Intracytoplasmic sperm
embryo transfer injection
(IVF-ET)
 Gamete intra fallopian

transfer (GIFT)
OVUM RETRIEVAL
OVUM & SPERM
FERTILIZATION
CELL DIVISION AFTER
FERTILIZATION