Internet and www

Learning Objective
• • • • • • • • • The Internet Technology Concepts Internet II: The Future Infrastructure The World Wide Web The Internet and The Web features Security Environments and Threats Technology Solutions Payment Systems Digital Payment System in B2C Arena Digital Payment System in B2B Arena


An interconnected network of thousands of networks and millions of computers linking business, educational institutions, government agencies and individuals together. The largest collection of networks in the world, interconnected to allow them to function as a single virtual network

Early history of Internet

In the 1950s the U.S. Department of Defense
• became concerned that a nuclear attack could • disable its computing (and thus planning and • coordinating) capabilities.

By 1969 the Advanced Research Projects Agency
• Network (ARPANet) had been constructed.

The first computers to be connected were ones at
• the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI • International, the University of California at • Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.


A hypertext server is a computer that stores files
• written in hypertext markup language (HTML) • and lets other computers connect to it and read • those files. It is now called a Web server.

A hyperlink is a special tag that contains a pointer
• to another location in the same or in a different • HTML document.

HTML is based on Standard Generalized Markup
• Language (SGML), which organizations have • used for many years to manage large document • filing systems.

Local Area Network (LAN)

A link-up of workstations and peripheral equipment in an office, building, or locality so users may communicate and share equipment and information. LAN lets you share the resources of other computers LAN can be further characterized by topology


Topology describe the manner in which various computer nodes are interconnected to each other In this context LAN have three prevalent topologies:
• Bus • Ring • Star

Bus Topology
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Consists of nodes connected to a single bus made up of a long cable. A thick coaxial cable may serve as the bus and all computer nodes are connected to this running coaxial cable The computer nodes directly receive and inject data from the bus in full duplex mode of operation. Data traverses in both direction Endpoints of the bus have terminators and absorbs all signals reaching them.

Ring Topology

 

Nodes are organized to form a ring structure The first node is connected to second using link Second is connected to third and so on The last node is connected to first using point to point link. Signals travel internally around the network from one node to other

Star Topology

 

Each computer node is connected to a central device Nodes are located at one end of the segment and other end is terminated in a central device, usually a hub or a switch Reliable topology If one node is down, others on network are not affected.


Packet: Parcel into which digital messages are
sliced for transmission over the internet. A sequence of data, with associated control information, that is switched and transmitted as a whole Packet Switching: A method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at destination.

In packaged switched networks, first messages are broken down into packets. Appended to each digital codes that indicate:
• Source address • Destination • Sequencing Information • Error Control Information

Packet Transmission

In a packet network, packets travel from computer to computer until they reach their destination

Packet Switching I want to chat with you
00101101000010010010000 01101101 10101000 11000011 0011001 10101100 11000011

Original Message
Text Message digitized into bits Digital Bits broken into packets Header information added to each packet indicating destination, and other control information such as how many bits are in the total message and how many packets

Digital messages are divide into fixed length packets of bits, Header information indicates both the origin and destination address of the packet, the size of the message, and the number of packets the receiving node should expect.


Special purpose computers that interconnect the computer networks that make up the internet Route packets to their ultimate destination as they travel the internet. Routing Algorithm: Computer program that ensures that packets take the best available path toward their destination.


A set of rules for formatting, ordering, compressing, and error checking messages. It may also specify the speed of transmission and means by which device on network will indicate they have stooped sending and / or receiving messages.

Internet Protocol

Protocol that provides the Internet address scheme Internet address is expressed as 32 bit numbers that appears as a series of four separate numbers marked off by periods such as Each of 4 numbers can range from 0 – 255. This dotted quad scheme contains up to 4 billion addresses.

IP Address
All the host connected to Internet have an officially address.  It is 4 bytes long and written in dotted decimal notation.  For example IP Address 10000001.1000000.00000100.000001 01 can be written as

Transmission Control Protocol

Protocol that establishes the connection among sending and receiving web computers, handles the assembly of packets at the point of transmission and their reassembly at the receiving end.

TCP / IP Layers

Network Interface Layer: Responsible for

placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium, which could be a local area network (Ethernet) or Token Ring or other network topology.

Internet Layer: This layer is responsible for
addressing, packaging, messages on the Internet. and routing

TCP / IP Layers


Responsible for providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and fro from the application. Application Layer: Provides a wide variety of applications with the ability to access services of the lower layers Some of the best applications are FTP,SMTP and HTTP


Domain Name: Most people can not remember 32 bit address. IP
address can be represented by a natural language convention called domain names

Domain Name System: for expressing numeric address in
natural language

Uniform Resource Locator: Address used by a web browser
to identify the location of content on the web

Domain Name System
DNS SERVERS: Are databases that keep
track of IP addresses and domain names.

ROOT SERVERS: are central directories
that list all domain names currently in use. DNS server consult root servers to look up unfamiliar domain names when routing traffic

Client Server Computing

A model of computing in which very powerful personal computer are connected together in a network with one or more servers. Internet is a giant example of client server computing

Client, Server


A powerful personal computer that is part of a network. That is capable of displaying rich graphics storing large files and processing sound and graphic files.


Networked computer dedicated to common functions that the client machines on the network need, such as storing files, software applications, utility programs such as web connections and printers

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

The set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Runs in the application layer of the TCP/IP model. An HTTP session begins when a client’s browser requests a web page from remote internet server When the server responds by sending the page requested, the HTTP session for that object ends

 

SMTP: Internet protocol used to send mail

to server (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) POP: Post Office Protocol, a protocol used by the client to receive the mail from an internet server. IMAP: a more current e-mail protocol that allows users to search, organize, and filter their mail prior to downloading it from the server (Internet Message Access Protocol)

Simple Network Management Protocol

SNMP is the protocol governing network management and the monitoring of network devices and their functions.


Internet service that allow you to transfer file from one computer to another computer using client/server technology You run a client program on your computer which connects to a server program on a remote computer When you copy a file from remote server we say that you are downloading and when you copy a file from your computer to remote one you are uploading the file In FTP terminology your computer is LOCAL HOST, the other computer is REMOTE HOST


 

Telnet is a internet service that allow you to log in to a remote internet computer To utilize this service, you need a Telnet client on your machine. Client uses internet to connect to the remote computer Once the connection is made, the client acts as intermediary between remote and your computer Every thing you type on your machine is passed on to the remote computer Everything the other computer displays is sent to your computer



Finding People on the Internet. You can find out who is logged on to a remote network by using Telnet to connect to a server and then typing finger at the prompt. Finger can tell you who is logged in and how long they have been attached and their user name



Testing address. You can ping a host computer to check the connection between your client and server. The Ping will also tell you the time it takes for the server to respond giving some idea of the internet speed at that time (Packet Internet Groper)

Ping Command


One of the several route tracing utilities that allow you to follow the path of a message you send from your client to a remote computer on the internet


It is the glue that ties the application to the communications networks and includes such services as security, authentication. Addresses and storage repositories. Users rarely become aware of middleware that operate in the background.


Network Access Point: One of the hubs where the backbone intersects with regional and local networks and where the backbone owners connect with one another. Campus Network: LAN operating within a single organization that leases access to the web directly from regional or national carriers

Internet Service Provider

Firm that provides the lowest level of service in the multi-tiered internet architecture by leasing internet access to home owners, small business, and some large institutions


Broadband: Refers to any communication technology that permits client to play streaming audio and video files at acceptable speeds – generally anything above 100 kbps. DSL:A telephone technology for delivering high-speed access through ordinary telephone lines found in home or business.

Cable Modem

Cable Modem: A cable television technology that piggybacks digital access to the internet on top of the analogue video cable providing television signals to a home.

Intranet and Extranet

Intranet: A TCP/IP network located
within a single organization for purpose of communication and information processing.

Extranet: Formed when firm permits

outsiders to access their internal TCP/IP networks.

Learning Objective
• • • • • • • • • The Internet Technology Concepts Internet II: The Future Infrastructure The World Wide Web The Internet and The Web features Security Environments and Threats Technology Solutions Payment Systems Digital Payment System in B2C Arena Digital Payment System in B2B Arena

Limitations of Internet I

Bandwidth: Slow service and a very limited
capacity to handle video and voice traffic.

Quality of Service: Packets take circuitous

root to reach destination. This results in latency. With streaming video and synchronous communication, latency is noticeable and user perceives jerkiness in movies and delay in voice communication.


uneven flow of information packets throughout the network

Limitations of Internet I

Network Architecture: A thousand requests for single

music track from a central server will result in a thousand efforts by the server to download the music to each requesting client. This slows down network performance.

Language Development: HTML the language of the

web pages is fine for text and simple graphics but poor at defining rich graphic and communicating “rich documents” such as databases, business documents, or graphics.

Internet2 Project

It is a consortium of more than 180 universities, government agencies and private business that are collaborating to find ways to make the Internet more efficient. To create a joint test bed where new technologies can be tested with out impacting the existing Internet.

Features on Internet2

Advance Network Infrastructure
• High performance backbone networks with bandwidth ranging from 2.5 Gbps to 9.6 Gbps that interconnect a gigapop. • Gigapop is regional gigabit point of presence, or point of access to the Internet2 network that supports data transfers at the rate of 1 gbps or higher.

Larger Technology Environment

Fibre-optic Cable: Consists up to hundreds of strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit data. It is frequently existing coaxial and twisted pair of cables. Photonics: The study of communicating with light waves Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing: An optical technology to increase bandwidth over existing fibre-optic backbone

Technology Environment

Big Band: Can accommodate upwards

of 1 Gbps applications. GSM: Mobile communications that uses narrowband Time Division Multiple Access. CDMA: Uses full spectrum of radio frequencies and digitally encrypts each call

Technology Environment

GPRS: Next generation technology carries

data in packets, just like the Internet, but over radio frequencies that makes wireless communications possible. WAP: A relatively new protocol that can support virtually any wireless network and is supported by every operating system. Wireless Mark up Language: Programming language for devices using WAP.

Technology Environment

iMode: Wireless standard that is propriety service of the Japanese company NIM DoCoMo 3G: New generation of cellular phone standards that can connect users to the web. Bluetooth: New technology standard for short range wireless communication under 100 metres

Technology Environment


(wireless Fidelity): Also refer to 802.11B wireless standard for Ethernet networks with greater speed and range than Bluetooth enabling:
• Handheld device can become multi-functional units, serving as a credit cards, identification badge and key all in one. • Documents can be printed by any printer within range or faxed via a local machine. • Highway toll can be paid via PDA

Internet Appliances
 

Internet II infrastructure will make it possible to connect nearly all the electronic devices to internets and intranets. User will be able to activate or deactivate virtually any device that can be connected to Internet, such as TV, AC, Security System etc. Where the receiving device is relies totally on the Internet server to handle all information processing; the device itself has no processing ability, is called Thin Client. Thin client also refers to PC with out hard Disk.

IP Multicasting

A set of technologies that enables efficient delivery of data to many locations on a network. Multicasting initially just sends one message and does not copy it to the individual recipients until it reaches the common closest point on the network.

Guaranteed Service Levels

With Internet II, it will be possible to purchase the right to move data through the network at a guaranteed speed in return for higher fees. Low Error Levels: Improve quality of data transmission reducing error rates. Declining Costs: Availability of broad band will significantly reduce the cost. More users means lower cost as product and technology catch on in the mass market.

New Network Capabilities
   

Developing the IPV6 addressing protocol Developing and implementing new quality of service technologies. Developing more effective routing practices. Coordinating the interconnection of different component of the Internet2 infrastructure – Backbone, LAN, Campus Creating an infrastructure to efficiently handle one-to-many communications over the Internet.

Learning Objective
• • • • • • • • • The Internet Technology Concepts Internet II: The Future Infrastructure The World Wide Web The Internet and The Web features Security Environments and Threats Technology Solutions Payment Systems Digital Payment System in B2C Arena Digital Payment System in B2B Arena


It is a way of formatting pages with embedded links that connects documents to one another, and that also links pages to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files. When you type a web address in you browser such as, your browser sends an HTTP request to the server requesting the home page of HTTP is the first set of letter at the start of every web address followed by the domain name.

Uniform Resource Locator

The directory path and document name are two more pieces of information with the web address that help the browser track down the requested page. Together the address is called a URL. When typed into a browser, a URL tells exactly where to look for information. For example:

Mark Up Languages

SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language. The purpose of SGML was to help very large organizations format and categorize large collection of documents. It can run independent of any software program, but it is extremely completed and difficult to learn. An early version of Generalized Markup language

Hypertext Mark-up Language

One of the next generation GML that is relatively easy to use in the web page design. HTML provides web page designers with a fixed set of markup tags that are used to format a web page. HTML functions to define the structure and style of a document, including the headings, graphic positioning tables and text formatting

Extensible Markup Language

XML is a new Markup language specification developed by W3C. It is a Markup language like HTML but with a different purpose. XML is designed to describe data and information. XML can be used to define database records and this will enable organizations to put most of their information processing functions into an Internet processing environment

Web Server Software

That enables a computer to deliver web pages written in HTML to client machines on a network that request this service by sending an HTTP request. Two leading brand of the software are Apache, which is the free web server shareware that accounts for 60% of the market, and windows NT Server software that accounts for 20% of the market.

Other Servers

Database Server: That access specific information with a database. Ad Servers: Designed to deliver targeted banners ads. Mail Server: That provides mail Messages. Video Server: That serves video clips.

Web Clients

Any computer device attach to the Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages, most commonly a Window or Macintosh PC with various flavour of UNIX machines. However the fastest growing web clients are PDAs and cellular phones fitted with wireless web access software.

Learning Objective
• • • • • • • • • The Internet Technology Concepts Internet II: The Future Infrastructure The World Wide Web The Internet and The Web features Security Environments and Threats Technology Solutions Payment Systems Digital Payment System in B2C Arena Digital Payment System in B2B Arena

Electronic Mail

The most used application of the Internet Uses a series of protocols to enable messages containing text, images, sound and video clips to be transferred from one internet user to another Attachment: A file inserted with in the e-mail message. Spam: Unsolicited e-mail.

Search Engines

Identifies web pages that appear to match keywords, also called queries, typed by the user and provides a list of the best matches. Top search Engines Yahoo, MSN, AOL, Lycos, Go, Netscape, NBCi, Exite, AskJeeves, Alta Vista, Google, LookSmart, GoTo, Iwon, Direct Hit, DogPile

Intelligent Agents

Search Bot Webcrawler

Or Software Robots (bots) are software programs that gather and / or filter information on specific topic and then provide a list of results for the user.

Shopping Bot

MySimon DealTime

Update Bot


News Bot

WebClipping SportSpider

Chatter Bot

eGain NativeMinds

Instant messaging

Displays word type on computer almost instantaneously. Recipients then can respond immediately to sender the same way, making the communication more like a live conversation than is possible through e-mail.


Enables user to communicate via computer in real time, that is simultaneously, unlike Instant Messaging chat can occur among several users. Cookies: are a tool used by web sites to store information about a user. When visitor enters a web site, site sends a small text file to the user’s computer so that information from the site can be loaded more quickly on future visits

Streaming Media

Enables music, video and other large files to be sent to users in chunks so that when received and played, the files comes through uninterrupted. Streamed files must be viewed live, They can not be stored on client hard drive. RealAudio and RealVideo are the most widely used streaming tools.

IP Telephony

A general term for the technology that use VOIP and the Internet packet switched network to transmit voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet. VOIP Protocol: Protocol that allows transmission voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet.

Digital Library

As bandwidth capabilities of the Internet increase, digital libraries and software applications will emerge as companies and individuals elect to rent software rather than buy it. Accessing a web server will enable a user to download the desired software by paying a subscription fee instead of purchase price

Distributed Storage

Application Service Providers can assist both in processing data and in storing it dispersing it to multiple servers rather than having it reside on one. Sophisticated software such as XML can extract pieces of data from various sources, analyze it and report the results in a predetermined fashion.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Enterprise resource planning is the set of activities supported by application software that helps a company manage many facets of its business.

Learning Objective
• • • • • • • • • The Internet Technology Concepts Internet II: The Future Infrastructure The World Wide Web The Internet and The Web features Security Environments and Threats Technology Solutions Payment Systems Digital Payment System in B2C Arena Digital Payment System in B2B Arena

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