CMSA - Context

All farmers – special vulnerability of small and marginal
farmers
Risk Environment


Rain fed Agriculture
< than 30% cultivable land is
irrigated
Increasing vulnerability and
reducing the propensity to
invest

Credit – informal sources



External input intensive
agriculture

Shifted power towards
suppliers

Tied sales excludes farmers
from participation in markets
Imperfect Markets
Malpractices in market place
Price discovery only after
farmers have sunk in
marketing costs
Delayed payments
Cost of Production for Small &
Marginal Farmers in AP
Source: *NSS Report No. 497: Income, Expenditure and Productive
Assets of Farmer Households, 2003
Pesticides and
Fertilizers account
for >1/3
rd
of Total
Cost of
Production
CMSA - origins
• Work of dedicated N.G.Os – establishing conclusively
that pest management more effective without
chemicals
• Work of eminent farmer scientists (Palekar, Bhaskar
Save, etc) on holistic natural agriculture practices
• 2004 – 2007: Incubation phase – collaboration
between resource N.G.Os, womens organisations and
S.E.R.P
• 2007 – onwards: scaling up – major role played by
women’s organisations and farmers groups
Paradigm shift
From the dominant and conventional
“external input-driven” agriculture to
“knowledge, skill-based and local natural
resource” model
Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture
Objectives:
• To reduce the cost of cultivation by Non
chemical pest management, zero or low
chemical fertilzers
• To improve net incomes from farming and
sustain agriculture based livelihoods
• To reduce drudgery of women farmers in
agriculture operations
Key elements:
• Unique collaboration – organizations of
women, farmers, N.G.Os, and Govt.
• Knowledge providers – practising farmers,
eminent farmer –N.G.Os, eminent agriculture
scientists (a few)
Technology and Management:
• Blend of cutting edge technology with
traditional wisdom
• Local natural resource based
• Technology transfer through CRP
Program strategies
• Reducing cost of cultivation (by adopting practices which
involve low or no expenditure), improve net incomes without
yield reduction
• Decentralized Extension System: Resource persons to provide
regular technical support in the village
– Best practicing farmer in the village identified as village activist
– Weekly group meetings (FFS) in the fields for reviewing, researching,
trouble shooting and capacity building
– Paid cluster activist for 5 villages
– Partnership with select NGOs
– Variety of resource material
– Best practising farmers as CRPs
• Program anchored and regularly reviewed by the Federation
of SHGs at village, mandal and district level
Decentralized Extension System –
Institutional Strengthening

• NPM sub-committees at Village, Mandal, Zilla formed.
• Meetings / Discussions every month.
• Performance of CA/VA (NGO) reviewed.
• Payment of salaries of VA/CA and facilitation fees of NGOs by Samakhyas.
• Field inspection by members of SHGs
• Budget provision for monitoring, field visits, reviews by Samakhyas
• Video conferences - Every Fortnight
• CUG phone connections used to monitor progress of FFS/subcommittee
meetings
• Alerts through “Way to SMS” to the cell phones
• E-mail connectivity upto Mandal Samkhyas, NGOs, DPMs - Separate group
mails
• Review at DCC level – Every first and third Saturday
• Wireless set conference: PD/Addl.Pd with samakhyas and VA/CA
• MANA TV – Every fourth Saturday


Production/
productivity
Soil
Fertility
Soil and
Moisture
cons
Interventions
along eco-agri value chains – Business
opportunities

Agri
Marketing

KRuSHE
Marts
Tie-up with
large
coops &
corporate

Quality
Value
addition

Standards
Traceability
On-farm
quality
upgrade
support
Decentralized
extension

system
FFS
CRPs
Best
Practition
ers as
extn
agents
Local inputs
infrastructure

Bio-input
enterpris
es
Local
resource
based
pest
mgmt
Local Sales
& Retailing
ZS and
MMS
outlets
Outlets
in
Rythuba
zar
Food
processing
Grading,
Aggregati
on and
collection
centers
Custom
hiring
centers
Alignin
g with
Natural
Process
SRI / Poly
crops / Tree
based
farming
Commun
ity Video
films
CMSA interventions
• Non – Pesticide
Management:
A. Restoring balance between
beneficial and harmful insects
B. Agriculture without
chemical pesticides to reduce
cost of cultivation
• Sustainable Soil fertility
management:
A. Treating soil as living
medium
B. Gradual reduction of
chemical fertilisers with
locally available resources,
without compromising on
yields
Rain fed sustainable
agriculture:
A. Harvesting rain water in-situ
B. Radical soil and moisture
conservation works like
trenches, farm pond and
conservation furrows with
improved cropping pattern
Bio diversity and tree based
farming:
A. Diversified crop models
with emphasis on monocot-
dicots, leguminous and non
leguminous.
B. Fruit crop/perennial
Redgram and Castor based
vegetables models

• House hold level nutritional
security model:
Intensive kitchen gardens with
multi storied cropping pattern

• System of Rice Intensification
(SRI):
To reduce ground water
exploitation and to increase
production


POP strategy
• Converting “wage seekers into
“net food producers”
• Providing regular income –
Annual income Rs.50,000/-
• ½ Acre irrigated land on lease -
¼
th
Acre SRI and ¼
th
Acre of
Poly crops
• Rs.5,000 per family for taking
land on lease
• 21,559 families covered
• CRPs were deployed to hand
hold POP families
• This year Rs.17.4 Crores
allotted Under SC/ST sub plan

NPM shops
• To supply “Green inputs”
• Provided financial support
Rs.5,000 to Rs.10,000/-
• Established 4,009 NPM
shops providing
employment
• Supplying 20 green inputs
at right time at affordable
prices
• These shops reduced
drudgery in preparation of
botanical extracts

Custom hiring centers
• The main objective of custom
hiring centers is to supply of farm
implements to small and marginal
farmers at nominal rates on hire
• This enables the small and
marginal farmers to take up farm
operations on time.
• Equipment with 1-12 HP are
preferred
• Small equipment like weeders,
markers, sprayers, drum seeder
etc are available in custom hiring
centers.
• Rs.64,000/- is provided as loan
• Established 366 custom hiring
centers
MKSP activities
• Increased net incomes
through NPM and soil
fertility Management
• Rain water harvesting
• Capacity building by the
community through video
films
• Organic Certification
• Food and nutritional
Security at house hold
level

• Accessing premium prices
through Public private
partnerships
• Farmer field schools (FFS)
• Bio Gas and Solar Energy
• Food Processing
• PoP strategy (0.5 acre)
• Aggregation and Marketing
by Samakhya
• Models Specific to Tribal
Areas
• Drudgery Reduction tools

District wise budget funds allotted under
MKSP
Srikakulam 15.62
Vijayanagaram 15.32
Visakapatnam 10.31
East Godavari 8.43
West Godavari 8.45
Krishna 7.61
Guntur 15.08
Prakasam 8.50
Nellore 9.26
Kurnool 9.07
Ananthapur 17.26
Chittoor 10.12
Kadapa 9.33
144.34
Inclusivity index
31.05
7.51
37.46
1.66
17.54
% of farmers
SC
ST
BC
Minority
Others
Scaling up
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
2
0
0
5
-
0
6
2
0
0
6
-
0
7
2
0
0
7
-
0
8
2
0
0
8
-
0
9
2
0
0
9
-
1
0
2
0
1
0
-
1
1
2
0
1
1
-
1
2
2
0
1
2
-
1
3
2
0
1
3
-
1
4
Area in Acres
No of farmers
Partnerships
S.No Partnership Importance
1 Digital Green Human mediated dissemination of
video films
2 Integrated watershed Management program
(IWMP)
A. Productivity enhancement

B. Entrepreneur
promotion
3 Gross root NGOs (seven NGOs) A. Organic certification
B. Producer organisations
C. Marketing
4 National Center for Organic Farming (NCOF) Participatory Guarantee System
(PGS)
5 Blue frog Mobile Technologies India Mobile Based MIS application
6 SRESTA – 24 lettered Mantra Marketing of Organic products
IT initiatives
• For information dissemination – Group mails, Bulk messaging (way2sms)
• For Monitoring , capacity building, decision supporting, by community – mobile based
application
• All practicing farmers (13.39 lakhs) data base with their practices and incomes
captured through mobile application
• For capacity building – Video films, Interactive CDs
• Budget release and utilisation through EFMS to bring transparency
• Data integration with SHGs M-Book keeping data
• Performance grading: http://65.19.149.141/cmsa/ui/cmsamodules/main.aspx#
• A. Functionary wise – VA, CA, DPMU
B. Geography wise – ITDA areas / Villages , Mandals, districts



Evaluation Report – ANGRAU
• Third party evaluation commissioned by Department of
Agril for RKVY

• Study conducted in 18 districts funded by RKVY

• Proportionate Random sampling method was used

• Study conducted in 24 Mandals, 62 clusters, 320 villages

• 3200 farmers, 10 farmers from each sample village
General Observations – ANGRAU
• The crops viz paddy, Chilly, vegetables etc are very healthy
• In case of POP activities beneficiaries earned upto
Rs.40,000/- from ½ acre
• POP beneficiaries were enthusiastic to cultivate SRI and NPM
methods
• In some of the sample villages farmers were earning Rs.1000
per month through NPM shop
• In Sunflower seed setting was good with NPM practices
• Majority of the beneficiaries shifted from
Monocropping to Mixed farming
• Increase in Nutritional status and livelihoods
observed

Policy Impacts
S.No GOMs.No Importance
1 GOMs.No392

Radical Soil and Moisture
Conservation Works through
MGNREGS
2 GOMs.No121 Convergence with ATMA
3 GOMs.No110

Convergence with IWMP
4 Mahila Kisan Saskthikaran Pariyojanan (MKSP) Scaling up of CMSA at
National Level
Journey of CMSA
2004-05
Pilot on NPM
2005-07:
Incubation
period:
Technical
support
provided by
NGOs
Focus on Non-
Pesticide
management
Farmers used
mostly
botanical
extracts
2008-10:
Exponential
Scaling up:
Moved
towards
comprehensiv
e soil fertility
management,
sustainable
agriculture
Owning up by
Samakhyas,
gradual
withdrawal of
NGOs


2011-13:
Pilots for
new
intervention
s:
Group
certification
through PGS
Piloting
human
mediated
community
video films
Pilots on
integrating
livestock
Pilots on
marketing
models







Other Achievements

• Made a presentation before HE President of
India
• Program is showcased in Satyamevajayathe
• Success stories of Two Poorest of the Poor
women were screened in Earth summit at Rio
• m Billionth award for Mobile application
• ILETS e-world award for Mobile application
• Gupshop rewarded 8 lakh free SMS –
Planning to using for program advisory / hand
holding to Samkhyas and NPM shop owners
• COP -11 CBD recommended (Presentation
was made by us) investments in community
owned and community managed extension
system
• NAC recognized decentralised extension
system as one of the best extension
mechanism for transfer of technology
• MORD, GOI identified SERP as NRO for CMSA
to scale up CMSA in four states
Contd……
• UNEP identified CMSA as one of the alternatives
to Endosulfan - Evaluation of non-chemical
alternatives to endosulfan
• US AID mentioned CMSA as one of the INDIA’S
POTENTIAL BEST PRACTICES FOR FOOD AND
NUTRITION SECURITY - FOOD, AGRICULTURE
AND RURAL MARKETS SYSTEMS (FARMS)
PROJECT
• Program showcased in Aljazeera - Pesticide Free
Farming- A revolutionary experiment in
sustainable agriculture is showing impressive
results in south India.


Road Ahead
• Horizontal expansion of the program and deepen local knowledge
systems.
• By 2015/16 :
– 58 Lakh acres under CMSA
• Piloting food security Models in 116 Villages
• Value chain investments: seed banks, agri-service centers, value-
addition and processing and forward linkages
• Exploring Carbon credits – Working with IISc, Bangalore
• Organic certification process
• Market and brand development for organic and pesticide free
agriculture commodities
• Producer Companies / Farmer’s organisations

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