# Chapter Objectives

 Understand the concept of normal and shear strain

 Apply the concept to determine the strains for
various types of problems

1. Normal Strain
2. Shear Strain
3. Cartesian Strain Components
In-class Activities

NORMAL STRAIN
s
s s
avg
A
A ÷ A
=
'
c
( ) s s A + ~ A c 1 '
s
s s
n A B
A
A ÷ A
=
÷
'
lim
along
c
SHEAR STRAIN
' lim
2
along
along
u
t
¸
t A C
n A B
nt
÷
÷
÷ =
CARTESIAN STRAIN
• The approximate lengths of the sides
of the parallelepiped are

• The approximate angles between sides, again
originally defined by the sides Δ x, Δ y and Δ z are

• Notice that the normal strains cause a change in
volume of rectangular element, whereas the shear
strain cause a change in shape
( ) ( ) ( ) z y x
z y x
A + A + A + c c c 1 1 1
xz yz xy
¸
t
¸
t
¸
t
÷ ÷ ÷
2

2

2
1) The center portion of the rubber balloon has a
diameter of d = 100 mm. If the air pressure
within it causes the balloon’s diameter to
become d = 125mm, determine the average
normal strain in the rubber.
a) 0.2
b) 0.25 π
c) 0.25
d) 1.25
2) What is the unit of strain?

a) mm
b) mm/m
c) Micron
d) no unit
EXAMPLE 1
( ) | |dz z dz
2 / 1 3
10 40 1 '
÷
+ =
EXAMPLE 1 SOLUTION
Part (a)
• Since the normal strain is reported at each point along
the rod, it has a deformed length of

• The sum along the axis yields the deformed length of
the rod is

• The displacement of the end of the rod is therefore
( ) | |dz z dz
2 / 1 3
10 40 1 '
÷
+ =
( ) | | m 20239 . 0 10 40 1 '
2 . 0
0
2 / 1 3
= + =
}
÷
dz z z
(Ans) mm 39 . 2 m 00239 . 0 2 . 0 20239 . 0 + = = ÷ = A
B
EXAMPLE 1 Solutions (cont)
Part (b)
• Assumes the rod has an original length of 200
mm and a change in length of 2.39 mm. Hence,
(Ans) mm/mm 0119 . 0
200
39 . 2 '
= =
A
A ÷ A
=
s
s s
avg
c
EXAMPLE 2
dashed shape shown in Fig. 2–6a. Determine (a)
the average normal strain along the side AB, and
(b) the average shear strain in the plate at A
relative to the and y axes.
EXAMPLE 2 Solutions (cont)
Part (a)
• Line AB, coincident with the y axis, becomes line after
deformation, thus the length of this line is

• The average normal strain for AB is therefore

causes a contraction of AB.
( ) mm 018 . 248 3 2 250 '
2
2
= + ÷ = AB
( ) ( )
(Ans) mm/mm 10 -7.93 =
250
250 - 248.018
AB
AB ' AB 3 -
avg
AB
= =
-
ε
EXAMPLE 2 Solutions (cont)
CONCEPT QUIZ
1) The rectangular membrane has an unstretched
length L1 and width L2. If the sides are
increased by small amounts ΔL1 and ΔL2,
determine the normal strain along the diagonal
AB.
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
D) C)
B) A)
L L
L L
L L
L L
L L
L L
L
L
L
L
+
A + A
+
A + A
+
A + A A
+
A
L1
Δ L2
ΔL1
L2
CONCEPT QUIZ (cont)
2) The rectangular plate is subjected to the
deformation shown by the dashed line.
Determine the average shear strain γ
xy
of the
plate.
( )
2 2
200 150
3
200
150
200
3
150
3
+
D) C)
B) A)
Thank You