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Trompenaars' model of national culture
differences is a framework for cross-cultural
communication applied to general business
and management, developed by Fons
Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner.

1. Universalism vs. particularism (What is
more important, rules or relationships?)
2. Individualism vs. collectivism
(communitarianism) (Do we function in a
group or as individuals?)
3.Neutral vs. emotional (Do we display our
4. Specific vs. diffuse (How separate we keep
our private and working lives)

5. Achievement vs. ascription (Do we have to
prove ourselves to receive status or is it given
to us?)
6. Sequential vs. synchronic (Do we do things
one at a time or several things at once?)
7.Internal vs. external control (Do we control our
environment or are we controlled by it?)

High-context culture and the contrasting low-
context culture are terms presented by
the anthropologist Edward T. Hall in his 1976
book Beyond Culture.
It refers to a culture's tendency to use high-
context messages over low-context messages
in communication.

In a higher-context culture, many things are
left unsaid, letting the culture explain.
Words and word choice become very
important in higher-context communication
A few words can communicate a complex
In a low-context culture, the communicator
needs to be much more explicit and the value
of a single word is less important.
Type of NVC
1. Kinesics
This relates to body movements and gestures
Relates to eye gaze, eye contact , blinking etc
Related to touch during interaction
Related to personal space, proximity

6. Chronemics
Rituals related to time, punctuality, multi-tasking etc.
7. Paralinguistics
Related to vocal communication separate to language
itself- tone, pitch, loudness etc.
8. Statics
This is for static posture and general fixed expressions
9. Chromics
This for use of color and clothing styles

Monochronic Polychronic
Cultures include Germany, Switzerland, UK, Canada, Scandinavia, USA, Japan, South
Cultures include India, Pakistan, China, Spain, Mexico, Egypt, Philllipines and parts of
Committed to one thing at a time
May Commit to multiple things, and schedule more than one appointment at the same
Focus and concentration are valued high Distractible, and interruptions are a way of life
Focus on time commitments and scheduling seriously and less on objectives Value achievements, objectives and less focus on time
Religious adherence to plans and schedules even at the cost of relationships May change plans and schedules based on relationships and objectives
Rules of privacy followed, interruptions are forwned upon Rules of relationships where interruptions are allowed
Promptness is valued more than task accomplishment Promptness is implied by the value of the relationship and subsequent tasks
Accustomed to short term relationships Invest in long term relationships and value longevity in social links