PERAN HORMON PADA

PERTUMBUHAN DAN
PERKEMBANGAN TUMBUHAN
Why do plants need hormones?
Hormones enable plants to:
• Respond to environmental factors and changes
• Direct developmental processes
Why do plants need hormones?
Pathogens
Parasites
Humidity
Temperature
Light
Toxins
Insects
Oxygen
Stress
Konsep dan definisi hormon
Hormon tumbuhan:
* senyawa yang disintesis secara alami
oleh tumbuhan
* transport
* respon
* efektif pada konsentrasi rendah
(memacu atau menghambat pertumbuhan)

Plant hormones are chemical
messengers
Hormone synthesis
Message
Physiological
response
Faktor lingkungan sangat berpengaruh
Hormon : senyawa yang mengintegrasi sinyal
lingkungan dan mendistribusikannya ke bagian tubuh
tumbuhan
Proses-proses yang dipengaruhi hormon:
* tumbuh
* diferensiasi
* perkembangan
(note: membuka / menutupnya stomata juga
dipengaruhi hormon)

Hormone do not act alone but in conjunction,
or in oposition, to each other

The final condition of growth or development
represents the net effect of a hormonal balance
• Hormon tumbuhan merupakan senyawa
yang relatif sederhana
– Perlu spesifik reseptor yang dapat mengikat
senyawa tersebut
– Keberadaan satu jenis hormon seringkali
mempengaruhi sintesis atau aksi hormon
yang lain
Signal-transduction pathways
in plants
Classes Hormones
• Five classes are identified
– Auxins
– Gibberellins
– Cytokinins
– Ethylene
– Abscisic Acid
New hormones:
Brassinosteroid
Jasmonic acid
Salicylic acid
Polyamine

Auxin
• Primary form is Indole acetic acid (IAA)
• Photo-, Gravi-, and Thigmotropisms come
about in large part due to auxin effects
• Regulate growth primarily by promoting
cell elongation with some differentiation.
Auxin production and transport
• Produced in shoot apical tips,
leaves, & seeds
• Moves from tip to base
• Moves primarily through
parenchyma cells surrounding
vascular tissue
Polar transport of Auxin
Plant tropisms
• Growth in a particular direction in
response to an external stimulus
Response to gravity is
called gravitropism
To light is
phototropism
To touch is
thigmotropism
Responses may be
positive or negative
Phototropi mechanism
Gravitropism
• Root & shoot
differential growth in
response to gravity
• Auxin in higher
amounts on “lower”
side of organ
• Roots: negative
response
• Root more sensitive to
auxin - inhibits
elongation
Thigmomorphogenesis
Rubbing the stems of young plants a couple of times daily
Results in plants that are shorter than controls

One week
Dominansi apikal
• Produksi & transport Auxin
dari pucuk menghambat
pertumbuhan tunas lateral
• Pemangkasan tunas pucuk
akan memacu pertumbuhan
tunas lateral
Control
Two weeks
Leaf senescence
Other effects of auxin
• Stimulates
development of fruit
• Can stimulate lateral
root formation
• May stimulate
adventitious root
formation in stems
10
-11
10
-9
10
-7
10
-5
10
-3
10
-1
Molar concentration of IAA
promotion
inhibition
akar
batang
Gibberellins
• Translocated in xylem &
pholem
• Formed in young leaves, apical
tips, embryo
• Effects
– Bolting
• Can overcome dwarfing in some
plants
– Stimulates flowering in some
plants
– Affects fruit development
– Stimulates germination of seeds
GA
1
Contoh efek Giberelin
• Pertumbuhan
memanjang pada
tanaman kubis
• Treated once/week for 2
months

Dwarf Pea
Control Gibberillin added
Fisiologi Tumbuhan
Efek Giberelin
• Cell elongation
• Seed germination
• Flower induction
• Breaking dormancy

Peran / Fungsi giberelin
- GA
+ GA
Fewer flowers
and larger
fruits
Delayed
harvesting
Increased fruit
size
GAs are commercially used for
increased fruit size in table
grapes and to regulate citrus
flowering and rind maturation
Fruit growth –
seedless grapes
Sitokinin
Efek Sitokinin:

pembelahan sel, morfogenesis, pertumbuhan tunas
lateral, pembentangan daun, menunda penuaan daun
sitokinin
Effect of cytokinin application on leaf
senescence
• Stimulates cell division
• Lateral bud development
• Delays senescence and
promotes nutrient uptake
Rost et al., 1998
Senescence pada daun tembakau
transgenik
Tanaman sebelah kiri disisipi gen yang
berperan dalam produksi sitokinin dan tetap
Aktif sepanjang siklus hidup tumbuhan
Aplikasi sitokinin
Control surfactan 0.5% sitokinin 0.5% sit +
surfactan
Asam absisat
• Mula-mula dinamakan : abscisin II (absisi pada kapas)
dormin (dormansi tunas)

• aplikasi ABA kebanyakan bersifat menghambat
pertumbuhan

• ABA sebagai promoter : sintesis protein sebagai
cadangan makanan dalam biji
Fisiologi Tumbuhan

Asam absisat
ABA :
•Bersifat menghambat pertumbuhan
•Menginduksi & mempertahankan dormansi biji dan tunas
•Sintesis dipacu dengan adanya stress
•ABA deficient mutant : vivipary
•ABA juga mengontrol membuka / menutupnya stomata


Asam absisat
Sintesis ABA : dari gliseraldehid-3-fosfat
melalui isopentenyl difosfat dan karotenoid

Letak sintesis : akar, daun-daun yang tua
(akibat cekaman air), biji

Transport : dari akar (melalui xilem)
dari daun (melalui floem)

Asam absisat
Efek ABA:
•Menutupnya stomata
•Menghambat pertumbuhan tunas
•Menghambat efek giberelin
( pada sintesis a-amylase)
•Menginduksi dan mempertahankan
dormansi biji
•Berperan dalam pertahanan terhadap
serangan insekta (melalui kemampuan
ABA menginduksi transkripsi gen
proteinase inhibitor)
Ethylene (C
2
H
4
)


• Gas - diffuses through tissues
• Stimulates abscission and fruit
ripening
• Used in commercial ripening for
bananas & green picked fruit
• Involved in leaf abscission &
flower senescence
• Primarily synthesized in response
to stress
Karakteristik etilen
• Sintesis etilen terpacu dengan adanya
sedikit etilen
• Luka pada tanaman menginduksi sintesis
etilen
• Satu apel / pisang busuk dapat memacu
pembusukan sekeranjang apel / pisang
Etilen
Efek Etilen:

•Triple response
•Pelepasan dormansi
•Pembentukan akar adventif
•Memacu pengguguran daun
•Memacu kelayuan bunga